Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life book. Happy reading Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientists Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life Pocket Guide.

The first of these is also a simple sentence, having, three principal parts-- Rasselas, could catch , and fugitive ; the subject, the verb, and its object, in their order. Not is added to could catch , reversing the meaning; the is an adjunct to fugitive ; with joins its phrase to could not catch ; but his and utmost are adjuncts of efforts.

The word but connects the two chief members as parts of one sentence. Him is governed by weary , and is the antecedent to whom. Not and in speed are adjuncts to the verb could surpass. Its principal parts are two, he and pressed ; the latter taking the particle on as an adjunct, and being intransitive.


  1. Amazing Series for Kids: Discover Snakes Picture Book?
  2. Ezra Pound;
  3. Stella;
  4. Account Options.
  5. Lives of the Artists.
  6. Join Kobo & start eReading today.
  7. Large Circles and Bold Lines: A Quaker Scientist's Meditation on the Subject of Meaning in His Life;

Till is a conjunctive adverb of time, connecting the concluding clause to pressed on. The adjuncts of foot are the and of the mountain ; the verb in this sentence has no adjunct but course , which is better reckoned a principal word; lastly, his is an adjunct to course , and governed by it.

Attainment is followed by neglect, and possession, by disgust. Few moments are more pleasing than those in which the mind is concerting measures for a new undertaking. From the first hint that wakens the fancy, to the hour of actual execution, all is improvement and progress, triumph and felicity. In the first clause, emptiness is the grammatical subject, and " the emptiness of human enjoyment " is the logical.

Is some would call the grammatical predicate, and "Such is," or is such , the logical; but the latter consists, as the majority teach, of "the copula" is , and "the attribute," or "predicate," such. In the second clause, which explains the import of " Such ," the subject is we ; which is unmodified, and in which therefore the logical form and the grammatical coincide and are the same. Are may here be called the grammatical predicate; and " are always impatient of the present ," the logical.

The second period, too, is a compound sentence, having two clauses, which are connected by and. Attainment is the subject of the former; and, " is followed by neglect " is the predicate. In the latter, possession alone is the subject; and, "[ is followed ] by disgust ," is the predicate; the verb is followed being understood at the comma. The third period, likewise, is a compound, having three parts, with the two connectives than and which. Here we have moments for the first grammatical subject, and Few moments for the logical; then, are for the grammatical predicate, and are more pleasing for the logical: or, if we choose to say so, for "the copula and the attribute.

In which is an adjunct of is concerting , and serves well to connect the members, because which represents those , i. Mind , or the mind , is the next subject of affirmation; and is concerting , or, " is concerting measures for a new undertaking ," is the predicate or matter affirmed.

Lastly, the fourth period, like the rest, is compound. The phrases commencing with From and to , describe a period of time, and are adjuncts of the verb is. The former contains a subordinate relative clause, of which that representing hint is the subject, and wakens , or wakens the fancy , the predicate. Of the principal clause, the word all , taken as a noun, is the subject, whether grammatical or logical; and "the copula," or "grammatical predicate," is , becomes, with its adjuncts and the nominatives following, the logical predicate. Hence sentences may be, in some sort, analyzed, and perhaps profitably, by the tracing of such relation or connexion, from link to link, through a series of words, beginning and ending with such as are somewhat remote from each other, yet within the period.

The period is designed to show, that Swift preferred words of Saxon origin; and Johnson, of Latin. Swift is the subject of would say ; and would say introduces the clause after it, as what would be said. The relates to thing ; thing is the subject of has ; has , which is qualified by not , governs life ; life is qualified by the adjective enough , and by the phrase, in it ; enough is the prior term of to ; to governs keep ; keep governs it , which stands for the thing ; and it , in lieu of the thing , is qualified by sweet.

The chief members are connected either by standing in contrast as members, or by but , understood before Johnson. Johnson is the subject of would say , understood: and this would say , again introduces a clause, as what would be said. The relates to creature ; creature is the subject of possesses ; possesses , which is qualified by not , governs vitality ; vitality is qualified by sufficient ; sufficient is the prior term of to ; to governs preserve ; preserve governs it , and is the prior term of from ; and from governs putrefaction.

As to "the chain of connexion," Away relates to can take ; can take agrees with its nominative nothing , and governs which ; which represents security ; security is governed by finding ; finding is governed by of ; of refers back to conviction ; conviction is governed by with ; with refers back to can look ; can look agrees with we , and is, in sense, the antecedent of to ; to governs whom ; whom represents Being ; and Being is the subject of is.

This method is fully illustrated in the Twelfth Praxis below. The last four or five observations of the preceding series have shown, that the distinction of sentences as simple or compound , which constitutes the chief point of the First Method of Analysis above, is not always plain, even to the learned. The definitions and examples which I have given, will make it generally so; and, where it is otherwise, the question or puzzle, it is presumed, cannot often be of much practical importance.

If the difference be not obvious, it can hardly be a momentous error, to mistake a phrase for an elliptical clause, or to call such a clause a phrase. There is, in many of our popular grammars, some recognition of the principles of this analysis--some mention of "the principal parts of a sentence," in accordance with what are so called above,--and also, in a few, some succinct account of the parts called " adjuncts ;" but there seems to have been no prevalent practice of applying these principles, in any stated or well-digested manner.

Lowth, Murray, Alger, W. In Allen's English Grammar, which is one of the best, and likewise in Wells's, which is equally prized, this reduction of all connected words, or parts of speech, into "the principal parts" and "the adjuncts," is fully recognized; the adjuncts, too, are discriminated by Allen, as "either primary or secondary," nor are their more particular species or relations overlooked; but I find no method prescribed for the analysis intended, except what Wells adopted in his early editions but has since changed to an other or abandoned, and no other allusion to it by, Allen, than this Note, which, with some appearance of intrusion, is appended to his "Method of Parsing the Infinitive Mood:"--"The pupil may now begin to analyse [ analyze ] the sentences, by distinguishing the principal words and their adjuncts.

Allen's E. Lowth says, "In English the nominative case, denoting the agent, usually goes before the verb, or attribution; and the objective case, denoting the object, follows the verb active. Murray copies, but not literally, thus: "The nominative denotes the subject, and usually goes before the verb [,] or attribute; and the word or phrase , denoting the object, follows the verb: as, 'A wise man governs his passions.

Of course, they have not failed to set forth the comparative merits of this scheme in a sufficiently favourable light. The two ingenious gentlemen who seem to have been chiefly instrumental in making it popular, say in their preface, "The rules of syntax contained in this work result directly from the analysis of propositions, and of compound sentences; and for this reason the student should make himself perfectly familiar with the sections relating to subject and predicate , and should be able readily to analyze sentences, whether simple or compound, and to explain their structure and connection.

If the latter be conducted, as it often is, independently of previous analysis, the principal advantage to be derived from the study of language, as an intellectual exercise, will inevitably be lost. Butler, who bestows upon this subject about a dozen duodecimo pages, says in his preface, "The rules for the analysis of sentences, which is a very useful and interesting exercise, have been taken from Andrews' and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, some changes and additions being made.

Subsequently, he changed his scheme , from that of Parts Principal and Adjuncts , to one of Subjects and Predicates , "either grammatical or logical," also "either simple or compound;"--to one resembling Andrews and Stoddard's, yet differing from it, often, as to what constitutes a "grammatical predicate;"--to one resenbling [sic--KTH] the Third Method above, yet differing from it, as does Andrews and Stoddard's, in taking the logical subject and predicate before the grammatical.

It is gratifying to observe that the attention of teachers is now so generally directed to this important mode of investigating the structure of our language, in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing. If it has been found practicable, to slide "the attention of teachers," and their approbation too, adroitly over from one "important mode of investigating the structure of our language," to an other;--if "it is gratifying to observe," that the direction thus given to public opinion sustains itself so well, and "is so generally" acquiesced in;--if it is proved, that the stereotyped praise of one system of analysis may, without alteration, be so transferred to an other, as to answer the double purpose of commending and superseding;--it is not improbable that the author's next new plates will bear the stamp of yet other "most important principles" of analysis.

This process is here recommended to be used " in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing,"--exercises, which, in Wells's Grammar, are generally, and very improperly, commingled; and if, to these, may be profitably conjoined either his present or his former scheme of analysis, it were well, had he somewhere put them together and shown how. This implies, what is probably true of the etymological exercise, that parsing is more rudimental than the other forms of analysis.

It also intimates, what is not so clear, that pupils rightly instructed must advance from the former to the latter, as to something more worthy of their intellectual powers. The passage is used with reference to either form of analysis adopted by the author. So the following comparison, in which Parsing is plainly disparaged, stands permanently at the head of "the chapter on Analysis," to commend first one mode, and then an other: "It is particularly desirable that pupils should pass as early as practicable from the formalities of common PARSING, to the more important exercise of ANALYZING critically the structure of language.

The mechanical routine of technical parsing is peculiarly liable to become monotonous and dull, while the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence , is adapted to call the mind of the learner into constant and vigorous action, and can hardly fail of exciting the deepest interest,"-- Wells's Gram. From the strong contrast cited above, one might suspect that, in selecting, devising, or using, a technical process for the exercising of learners in the principles of etymology and syntax, this author had been less fortunate than the generality of his fellows.

Not only is it implied, that parsing is no critical analysis, but even what is set in opposition to the "mechanical routine," may very well serve for a definition of Syntactical Parsing--" the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence!

Nor, after all, is even this author's mode of parsing, defective though it is in several respects, less "important" to the users of his book, or less valued by teachers, than the analysis which he sets above it. Greene, a public teacher in Boston, who, in answer to a supposed "demand for a more philosophical plan of teaching the English language," has entered in earnest upon the "Analysis of Sentences," having devoted to one method of it more than the space of two hundred duodecimo pages, speaks of analysis and of parsing, thus: "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called analysis.

Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence. Analysis should precede parsing. These groups perform the office of the substantive , the adjective , or the adverb , and, in some one of these relations, enter in as the component parts of a sentence. The pupil who learns to determine the elements of a sentence, must, therefore, learn the force of these combinations before he separates them into the single words which compose them. This advantage is wholly lost in the ordinary methods of parsing.

Nor indeed could it be; because parsing is a species of analysis. The first assertion would be just as true as it is now, were the former word substituted for the latter: thus, "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called parsing. Again, the suggestion, that, " Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence," has nothing distinctive in it; and, without some idea of the author's peculiar system of "elements," previously impressed upon the mind, is scarcely, if at all, intelligible.

Lastly, that a pupil must understand a sentence,--or, what is the same thing, " learn the force of the words combined ,"--before he can be sure of parsing each word rightly, is a very plain and certain truth; but what "advantage" over parsing this truth gives to the lesser analysis, which deals with "groups," it is not easy to discover. If the author had any clear idea of " this advantage ," he has conveyed no such conception to his readers.

Its chief principles may be briefly stated thus: Sentences, which are simple, or complex, or compound, are made up of words, phrases , and clauses --three grand classes of elements, called the first , the second , and the third class. From these, each sentence must have two elements; the Subject , or Substantive element, and the Predicate , or Predicative element, which are principal; and a sentence may have five, the subordinates being the Adjective element, the Objective element, and the Adverbial element.

The five elements have sundry modifications and subdivisions. Each of the five may, like a sentence, be simple, or complex, or compound; and each may be of any of the three grand classes. The development of this scheme forms a volume, not small. The system is plausible, ingenious, methodical, mostly true, and somewhat elaborate; but it is neither very useful nor very accurate.

Related Books

It seems too much like a great tree, beautiful, symmetrical, and full of leaves, but raised or desired only for fruit, yet bearing little, and some of that little not of good quality, but knurly or bitter. The chief end of a grammar, designed for our tongue, is, to show what is, and what is not, good English. To this end, the system in question does not appear to be well adapted. Bullions, the projector of the "Series of Grammars, English, Latin, and Greek, all on the same plan ," inserted in his Latin Grammar, of , a short sketch of the new analysis by "subjects and predicates," "grammatical and logical," the scheme used by Andrews and Stoddard; but his English Grammar, which appeared in , was too early for this "new and improved method of investigating" language.

In his later English Grammar, of , however, paying little regard to sameness of "plan " or conformity of definitions, he carefully devoted to this matter the space of fifteen pages, placing the topic, not injudiciously, in the first part of his syntax, and referring to it thus in his Preface: "The subject of ANALYSIS, wholly omitted in the former work, is here introduced in its proper place; and to an extent in accordance with its importance. The selections prepared for the stated praxes of this work, will be found as suitable as any.

Analysis of sentences is a central and essential matter in the teaching or the study of grammar; but the truest and the most important of the sentential analyses is parsing ; which, because it is a method distinguished by a technical name of its own, is not commonly denominated analysis. The relation which other methods should bear to parsing , is, as we have seen, variously stated by different authors. Etymological parsing and Syntactical are, or ought to be, distinct exercises. The former, being the most simple, the most elementary, and also requisite to be used before the pupil is prepared for the latter, should, without doubt, take precedence of all the rest, and be made familiar in the first place.

Those who say, " Analysis should precede parsing ," will scarcely find the application of other analysis practicable, till this is somewhat known. But Syntactical Parsing being, when complete in form, the most thorough process of grammatical resolution, it seems proper to have introduced the other methods before it, as above. It can hardly be said that any of these are necessary to this exercise, or to one an other; yet in a full course of grammatical instruction, each may at times be usefully employed. Bullions suggests, that, " Analysis should precede Syntactical parsing , because, till we know the parts and elements of a sentence, we can not understand their relations, nor intelligently combine them into one consistent whole.

This reason is entirely fictitious and truthless; for the words of a sentence are intuitively known to be its "parts and elements;" and, to " understand their relations," is as necessary to one form of analysis as to another; but, "intelligently to combine them," is no part of the parser's duty: this belongs to the writer ; and where he has not done it, he must be criticised and censured, as one that knows not well what he says. Allen's Grammar, as in Wells's, Syntactical parsing and Etymological are not divided. Wells intersperses his "Exercises in Parsing," at seven points of his Syntax, and places "the chapter on Analysis," at the end of it.

Allen treats first of the several parts of grammar, didactically; then presents a series of exercises adapted to the various heads of the whole. At the beginning of these, are fourteen "Methods of Parsing," which show, successively, the properties and construction of his nine parts of speech; and, at the ninth method , which resolves infinitives , it is proposed that the pupil begin to apply a method of analysis similar to the Second one above. The grand clew to all syntactical parsing is THE SENSE; and as any composition is faulty which does not rightly deliver the authors meaning, so every solution of a word or sentence is necessarily erroneous, in which that meaning is not carefully noticed and literally preserved.

In all complete syntactical parsing, it is required of the pupil--to distinguish the different parts of speech and their classes; to mention their modifications in order; to point out their relation, agreement, or government; and to apply the Rules of Syntax. A is the indefinite article: and relates to man , or young man ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit. Young is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared regularly, young, younger, youngest : and relates to man ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns.

Man is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of will find ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case. Studious is a common adjective, compared by means of the adverbs; studious, more studious, most studious ; or, studious, less studious, least studious : and relates to man ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns.

To is a preposition: and shows the relation between studious and know ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them. Know is an irregular active-transitive verb, from know, knew, knowing, known ; found in the infinitive mood, present tense--no person, or number: and is governed by to ; according to Rule 18th, which says, "The infinitive mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which commonly connects it to a finite verb.

His is a personal pronoun, representing man , in the third person, singular number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by duty ; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed. Duty is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by know ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case.

And is a copulative conjunction: and connects the phrase which follows it, to that which precedes; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences. Honestly is an adverb of manner: and relates to bent ; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Bent is a perfect participle, from the redundant active-transitive verb, bend, bent or bended, bending, bent or bended : and relates to man ; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions. On is a preposition: and shows the relation between bent and doing ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them. Doing is an imperfect participle, from the irregular active-transitive verb, do, did, doing, done : and is governed by on; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions.

It is a personal pronoun, representing duty , in the third person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the objective case, being governed by doing ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case.

Will find is an irregular active-transitive verb, from find, found, finding, found ; found in the indicative mood, first-future tense, third person, and singular number: and agrees with its nominative man ; according to Rule 14th, which says, "Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number. Himself is a compound personal pronoun, representing man, in the third person, singular number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender;" and is in the objective case, being governed by will find ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case.

Led is a perfect participle, from the irregular active-transitive verb, lead, led, leading, led : and relates to himself ; according to Rule 20th, which says, "Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions. Away is an adverb of place: and relates to led ; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs.

From is a preposition: and shows the relation between led and sin or folly ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them. The is the definite article: and relates to sin and folly ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit.

Sin is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by from ; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case. Or is a disjunctive conjunction: and connects sin and folly ; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences.

Folly is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is connected by or to sin , and governed by the same preposition from ; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case. In is a preposition: and shows the relation between indulge and which ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them. Which is a relative pronoun, representing sin or folly , in the third person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 13th, which says, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by or or nor , it must agree with them singly, and not as if taken together:" and is in the objective case, being governed by in ; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case.

The is the definite article: and relates to multitude ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit. Multitude is a common noun, collective, of the third person, conveying the idea of plurality, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of indulge ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.

Thoughtlessly is an adverb of manner: and relates to indulge ; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs. Indulge is a regular active-transitive verb, from indulge, indulged, indulging, indulged ; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its nominative multitude; according to Rule 15th, which says, "When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the verb must agree with it in the plural number.

Themselves is a compound personal pronoun, representing multitude , in the third person, plural number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 11th, which says, "When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the pronoun must agree with it in the plural number:" and is in the objective case, being governed by indulge ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case.

But is a disjunctive conjunction: and connects what precedes and what follows; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences. Ah is an interjection, indicating sorrow: and is used independently; according to Rule 24th, which says, "Interjections have no dependent construction; they are put absolute, either alone, or with other words.

Poor is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared regularly, poor, poorer, poorest : and relates to nature ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Fallen is a participial adjective, compared perhaps by adverbs: and relates to nature ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Human is a common adjective, not compared: and relates to nature ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Nature is a common noun, of the second person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is put absolute by direct address; according to Rule 8th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word.

What is a pronominal adjective, not compared: and relates to conflicts ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Conflicts is a common noun, of the third person, plural number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of are ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.

Are is an irregular neuter verb, from be, was, being, been ; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its nominative conflicts ; according to Rule 14th, which says, "Every finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number.

Thy is a personal pronoun, representing nature , in the second person, singular number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by portion ; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed. Portion is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is put after are , in agreement with conflicts ; according to Rule 6th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun put after a verb or participle not transitive, agrees in case with a preceding noun or pronoun referring to the same thing.

When is a conjunctive adverb of time: and relates to the two verbs, are and exert ; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs. Inclination is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is one of the subjects of exert ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.

And is a copulative conjunction: and connects inclination and habit ; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences. Habit is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and nominative case: and is one of the subjects of exert ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.


  • Large Circles and Bold Lines.
  • It Sentence Examples.
  • Introduction to the Quakers and Science Issue!
  • A is the indefinite article: and relates to rebel ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit. Rebel is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is put in apposition with inclination ; according to Rule 3d, which says, "A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case.

    And is a copulative conjunction: and connects rebel and traitor ; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences. A is the indefinite article: and relates to traitor ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit. Traitor is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is put in apposition with habit ; according to Rule 3d, which says, "A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case.

    Exert is a regular active-transitive verb, from exert, exerted, exerting, exerted ; found in the indicative mood, present tense, third person, and plural number: and agrees with its two nominatives inclination and habit ; according to Rule 16th, which says, "When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by and , it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together.

    Their is a personal pronoun, representing inclination and habit , in the third person, plural number, and neuter gender; according to Rule 12th, which says, "When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and , it must agree with them jointly in the plural, because they are taken together:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by sway ; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed.

    Sway is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case; and is governed by exert ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case. Against is a preposition: and shows the relation between exert and principle ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them.

    Our is a personal pronoun, representing the speakers , in the first person, plural number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by principle ; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed. Only is a pronominal adjective, not compared: and relates to principle ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns.

    Saving is a participial adjective, compared by adverbs when it means frugal , but not compared in the sense here intended: and relates to principle ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Principle is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by against ; according to Rule 7th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of a preposition, is governed by it in the objective case. The first is the art of speaking eloquently; the second, that of thinking well; and the third, that of speaking with propriety.

    And let the sentence come, if God so will. The other side of the sea is my Father's ground, as well as this side. The lightning has its power, and the whirlwind has its power, and the earthquake has its power. But there is something among men more capable of shaking despotic power than lightning, whirlwind, or earthquake; that is--the threatened indignation of the whole civilized world. The rapid style, the vehement reasoning, the disdain, anger, boldness, freedom, which perpetually animate them, would render their success infallible over any modern assembly.

    I question whether the same can be said of Cicero's orations; whose eloquence, however beautiful, and however well suited to the Roman taste, yet borders oftener on declamation, and is more remote from the manner in which we now expect to hear real business and causes of importance treated. The descriptions of the Deity, in them, are wonderfully noble; both from the grandeur of the object, and the manner of representing it.

    Nothing but the general practice of good writers and good speakers can do it. If a man be just and beneficent, if he be temperate, modest, and prudent, he will infallibly gain the esteem and love of all who know him. At Walter Raleigh's trial, Coke, when argument and evidence failed him, insulted the defendant by applying to him the term thou. Nature teaches every man to be eloquent, when he is much in earnest. Place him in some critical situation, let him have some great interest at stake, and you will see him lay hold of the most effectual means of persuasion.

    Fame, like fire, is with difficulty kindled, is easily increased, but dies away if not continually fed. To preserve fame alive, every enterprise ought to be a pledge of others, so as to keep mankind in constant expectation. Laws and courts are necessary, to settle controverted points between man and man; but a man should pay an acknowledged debt, not because there is a law to oblige him, but because it is just and honest, and because he has promised to pay it.

    It is therefore natural to expect, that a crime thus generally detested, should be generally avoided. A swearer will lie, and a liar is not to be believed even upon his oath; nor is he believed, when he happens to speak the truth. You know I have been constant and uniform in opposition to her measures. The die is now cast. I have passed the Rubicon.

    Quaker Resources: Science

    Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish with my country, is my unalterable determination. Better--"on which truths grow. The genius of the trade of literature is necessarily unfriendly to such productions. He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem. In this chapter, and those which follow it, the Rules of Syntax are again exhibited, in the order of the parts of speech, with Examples, Exceptions, Observations, Notes, and False Syntax.

    The Notes are all of them, in form and character, subordinate rules of syntax, designed for the detection of errors. The correction of the False Syntax placed under the rules and notes, will form an oral exercise , similar to that of parsing, and perhaps more useful. Articles relate to the nouns which they limit:[] as, "At a little distance from the ruins of the abbey, stands an aged elm. The definite article used intensively , may relate to an adjective or adverb of the comparative or the superlative degree; as, "A land which was the mightiest.

    See Obs. The indefinite article is sometimes used to give a collective meaning to what seems a plural adjective of number ; as, "Thou hast a few names even in Sardis. See Etymology, Articles, Obs. Hence, two or more articles in a sentence are signs of two or more nouns; and hence too, by a very convenient ellipsis, an article before an adjective is often made to relate to a noun understood; as, " The grave [ people ] rebuke the gay [ people ], and the gay [ people ] mock the grave" [ people ].

    Kames, El. Hence the following sentence is bad English: "The understanding and language have a strict connexion. The sense of the former noun only was meant to be limited. The expression therefore should have been, " Language and the understanding have a strict connexion," or, "The understanding has a strict connexion with language. That is--"to the aim of the speaker or the writer. Yet the omission of articles, when it occurs, is not properly by ellipsis , as some grammarians declare it to be; for there never can be a proper ellipsis of an article, when there is not also an ellipsis of its noun.

    Ellipsis supposes the omitted words to be necessary to the construction, when they are not so to the sense; and this, it would seem, cannot be the case with a mere article. If such a sign be in any wise necessary, it ought to be used; and if not needed in any respect, it cannot be said to be understood. The definite article being generally required before adjectives that are used by ellipsis as nouns, we in this case repeat it before every term in a series; as, "They are singled out from among their fellows, as the kind, the amiable, the sweet-tempered, the upright.

    When an adjective likewise precedes the noun, the article is usually placed before the adjective, that its power of limitation may extend over that also; as, " A concise writer compresses his thoughts into the fewest possible words. Thus, it is good English to say, " both the men ," or, " the two men ;" but we can by no means say, " the both men " or, " two the men. Of the pronominal adjectives, some exclude the article; some precede it; and some follow it, like other adjectives. The word same is seldom, if ever used without the definite article or some stronger definitive before it; as, "On the same day,"--"in that same hour,"--" These same gentlemen.

    Say, " both parts. The pronominal adjectives which precede the article, are all, both, many, such , and what ; as, " All the world,"--" Both the judges,"--" Many a [] mile,"--" Such a chasm,"--" What a freak. How beautiful a prospect is here! The pronominal adjectives which follow the article, are few, former, first, latter, last, little, one, other , and same ; as, "An author might lean either to the one [style] or to the other , and yet be beautiful.

    Many , like few , sometimes follows the article; as, " The many favours which we have received. In this order of the words, a seems awkward and needless; as,. Sometimes two adverbs intervene between the article and the adjective; as, "We had a rather more explicit account of the Novii. Museum , i, But when an other adverb follows too, so, as , or how , the three words should be placed either before the article or after the noun; as, "Who stands there in so purely poetical a light.

    Better, perhaps: " In a light so purely poetical. But we may suppose the noun people to be understood after this. Again, the following example, if it is not wrong, has an ellipsis of the word use after the first a :. Priestley observes, "Some writers affect to transpose these words, and place the numeral adjective first; [as,] ' The first Henry. This construction is common with this writer, but there seems to be a want of dignity in it. Webster cites the word Great , in " Alexander the Great " as a name , or part of a name; that is, he gives it as an instance of " cognomination.

    And if this is right, the article may be said to relate to the epithet only, as it appears to do. For, if the word is taken substantively, there is certainly no ellipsis; neither is there any transposition in putting it last, but rather, as Priestley suggests, in putting it first. In these instances, the article seems to be used adverbially , and to relate only to the adjective or adverb following it. See observation fourth, on the Etymology of Adverbs. Yet none of our grammarians have actually reckoned the an adverb. After the adjective , the noun might perhaps be supplied; but when the word the is added to an adverb , we must either call it an adverb, or make an exception to Rule 1st above: and if an exception is to be made, the brief form which I have given, cannot well be improved.

    For even if a noun be understood, it may not appear that the article relates to it, rather than to the degree of the quality. Thus: " The deeper the well, the clearer the water. Ash supposes to mean, "The deeper well the well is , the clearer water the water is. But does the text specify a particular "deeper well" or "clearer water? To what then does the refer, but to the proportionate degree of deeper and clearer? That is, their knees. In support of this construction, it would be easy to adduce a great multitude of examples from the most reputable writers; but still, as it seems not very consistent, to take any word plurally after restricting it to the singular, we ought rather to avoid this if we can, and prefer words that literally agree in number: as, "Of adverbs there are very many ending in ly "--" More than one of them are sometimes felt at the same instant.

    An was formerly used before all words beginning with h , and before several other words which are now pronounced in such a manner as to require a : thus, we read in the Bible, " An help,"--" an house,"--" an hundred,"--" an one,"--" an ewer,"--" an usurer;" whereas we now say, " A help,"--" a house,"--" a hundred,"--" a one,"--" a ewer,"--" a usurer. Webster and Jameson sound the h , and consequently prefer a ; as, "But a humbling image is not always necessary to produce that effect.

    These principles are briefly stated in the notes below, but it is proper that the learner should know the reasons of the distinctions which are there made. By a repetition of the article before several adjectives in the same construction, a repetition of the noun is implied; but without a repetition of the article, the adjectives, in all fairness of interpretation, are confined to one and the same noun: as, "No figures will render a cold or an empty composition interesting.

    Here the author speaks of a cold composition and an empty composition as different things.

    Shop by category

    Here the verb are has two nominatives, one of which is expressed, and the other understood. Here the verb " are used " has two nominatives, both of which are understood; namely, "the third form ," and "the last form. Murray's Hist. Here one signification is characterized as being both original and present. That is, one manner , loose and verbose. That is, one answer, short, clear, and plain ; for the conjunctions in the text connect nothing but the adjectives.

    And again, not to repeat the article when the noun is singular, is also wrong; because it forces the adjectives to coalesce in describing one and the same thing. Thus, to say, " The north and south pole " is certainly wrong, unless we mean by it, one pole , or slender stick of wood , pointing north and south; and again, to say, " The north and the south poles ," is also wrong, unless we mean by it, several poles at the north and others at the south.

    So the phrase, " The Old and New Testament " is wrong, because we have not one Testament that is both Old and New ; and again, " The Old and the New Testaments ," is wrong, because we have not several Old Testaments and several New ones : at least we have them not in the Bible. This means, " metaphorical language and plain language ;" and, for the sake of perfect clearness, it would perhaps be better to express it so. That is, " intrinsic beauty and relative beauty " must often be blended; and this phraseology would be better.

    This may be expressed as well or better, in half a dozen other ways; for the article may be added, or the noun may be made plural, with or without the article, and before or after the adjectives. This means--"between causes of civil and causes of criminal jurisdiction;" and, for the sake of perspicuity, it ought to have been so written,--or, still better, thus : "They make no distinction between civil causes and criminal.

    NOTE I. The following sentence is therefore faulty: "I invited her to spend a day in viewing a seat and gardens. Say, "a seat and its gardens. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate: "She never considered the quality, but merit of her visitors. Say, " the merit. NOTE V. Thus, it is improper to say, "Both the first and second editions " or, "Both the first and the second editions " for the accurate phrase, "Both the first and the second edition ;" and still worse to say, "Neither the Old nor New Testaments " or, "Neither the Old nor the New Testaments " for the just expression, "Neither the Old nor the New Testament.

    The following phrase is therefore inaccurate: "Through their attention to the helm, the sails, or rigging. Say, " the rigging. NOTE X. Thus some will say, " A jay is a sort of a bird ;" whereas they ought to say, " The jay is a sort of bird. Yet we may say, " The jay is a bird ," or, " A jay is a bird ;" because, as every species is one under the genus, so every individual is one under both.

    Allen's Gram. See Etymology, Chap. V, Obs. For example: "When the verb is a passive, the agent and object change places. Better: "When the verb is passive , the agent and the object change places. Say rather: " The pronoun is put for a noun, and is used to prevent too frequent a repetition of the noun. But, according to Note 1st, under Rule 1st, "When the indefinite article is required, a should always be used before the sound of a consonant, and an , before that of a vowel.

    Johnson's Plan of a Dict. Two, the singular and plural. Johnson's Gram. Smith's , Murray's , 68; R. Smith's , 27; Alger's , Peirce's Gram. Harris acutely observes. Adams's Rhet. Allen's False Syntax, Gram. But that I deny: for, on the contrary, conversion presupposeth having light and grace. Say , p. Discipline , p.

    Ash's Gram. The rules for the construction of Nouns, or Cases, are seven; hence this chapter, according to the order adopted above, reviews the series of rules from the second rule to the eighth, inclusively. Though Nouns are here the topic, all these seven rules apply alike to Nouns and to Pronouns ; that is, to all the words of our language which are susceptible of Cases. A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case: as, "The Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things; and they derided him.

    There are however four different ways of disposing of the nominative case. First , it is generally the subject of a verb , according to Rule 2d. Secondly , it may be put in apposition with an other nominative, according to Rule 3d. Thirdly , it may be put after a verb or a participle not transitive , according to Rule 6th.

    Fourthly , it may be put absolute , or may help to form a phrase that is independent of the rest of the sentence, according to Rule 8th. But, in the following nine cases, the subject of the verb is usually placed after it, or after the first auxiliary: 1. When a question is asked without an interrogative pronoun in the nominative case; as, " Shall mortals be implacable? When the verb is in the imperative mood; as, " Go thou "--" Come ye " But, with this mood, the pronoun is very often omitted and understood; as, "Philip saith unto him, Come and see "-- John , i, When an earnest wish, or other strong feeling, is expressed; as, " May she be happy!

    When a supposition is made without the conjunction if ; as, " Had they known it;" for, " If they had known it. When neither or nor , signifying and not , precedes the verb; as, "This was his fear; nor was his apprehension groundless. When, for the sake of emphasis, some word or words are placed before the verb, which more naturally come after it; as, "Here am I. When the verb has no regimen, and is itself emphatical; as, " Echo the mountains round. When the verbs, say, answer, reply , and the like, introduce the parts of a dialogue; as, "'Son of affliction,' said Omar , 'who art thou?

    When the adverb there precedes the verb; as, "There lived a man. This use of there , the general introductory adverb of place, is idiomatic, and somewhat different from the use of the same word in reference to a particular locality; as, "Because there was not much water there. It would seem that some, who ought to know better, are liable to mistake for the subject of such a verb, the noun which we put absolute in the nominative by direct address.

    Of this gross error, the following is an example: " Study boys. In this sentence," says its author, " study is a verb of the second person, plural number, and agrees with its nominative case, boys --according to the rule: A verb must agree with its nominative case in number and person. Boys is a noun of the second person, plural number, masculine gender, in the nominative case to the verb study.

    The Grammar of English Grammars/Part III - Wikisource, the free online library

    Without this mark, boys must be an objective, governed by study ; and with it, a nominative, put absolute by direct address. But, in either case, study agrees with ye or you understood, and has not the noun for its subject, or nominative. But W. Fowle will have all pronouns to be adjectives. Consequently all his verbs, of every sort, agree with nouns "expressed or understood. Thus, according to this author, "They fear," means, "They things spoken of fear. And, " John, open the door," or, " Boys, stop your noise," admits no comma. And, "Be grateful, ye children," and, "Be ye grateful children," are, in his view, every way equivalent: the comma in the former being, in his opinion, needless.

    See ib. Examples: "He then goes on to declare that there are , and distinguish of , four manners of saying Per se. Better: "He then proceeds to show, that per se is susceptible of four different senses. Better: "It must then be meant of his sins who makes the convert , not of his who becomes converted. A more regular construction would be: "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive , the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.

    Lowth cites the last three examples, without suggesting any forms of correction; and says of them, "There seems to be an impropriety in these sentences, in which the same noun stands in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective case.

    He should have said--" of both the nominative and the objective case. Webster, citing the line, "In him who is, and him who finds, a friend," adds, "Lowth condemns this use of the noun in the nominative and objective at the same time; but without reason , as the cases are not distinguished in English. This construction is translated into English, and other modern tongues, sometimes literally, or nearly so, but much oftener, by a nominative and a finite verb.

    Large Circles and Bold Lines is about a quest for meaning in the life of a Quaker scientist. It is my reconciliation between science and decidedly non-traditional Christian theology and it shows how my identity as a Quaker is the offspring of that union. Don't expect esoteric jargon and arcane mathematical equations. Then comes an exploration of the connection between physical and spiritual reality. Reflections on the nature of God follows with better options than an omnipotent being up there above the clouds.

    Other essays probe the mysteries and miracle of human consciousness and the evolution of a religious identity. The circle is the metaphor used to proclaim the moral rightness of inclusive interaction among diverse peoples. Bold lines are what we need to draw when discriminating between the trivial and the essential in our value systems.

    Finally, a personally challenging topic that has to do with the eternal question: Why do bad things happen to good people? Read more Read less. Save Extra with 4 offers. To get the free app, enter mobile phone number. See all free Kindle reading apps. Don't have a Kindle?

    No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review.

admin