The Battle and the Ruins of Cintla

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Regarding the urban design of the city, very little is known. Owing to the nature of the place, in which many structures were made of "seto" hedgerows and "guano" palms of genus Coccothrinax. Although the date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was due to the separation that occurred among the Maya of Mayapan and the Chontal Maya.

For its internal government, having the same Mayan costumes and laws, they adopted the same governmental system that existed from when they were united until the collapse of the Mayan empire.

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That is, with the three existing social classes: nobility and the priesthood, tributaries, and slaves. The first Spanish expedition to touch Tabascan land was led by Juan de Grijalva, who on June 8, , discovered for Western eyes the territory that is now the state of Tabasco. Grijalva arrived that day at the mouth of a great river, which the crew named "Grijalva" in honor of their captain, its discoverer. Juan de Grijalva decided to go down the river to discover the inland area, and found four canoes full of Indians, painted and making gesticulations and gestures of war.

We started eight days in June and going armed to the coast, about six miles away from land, we saw a very large stream of water coming out of a major river, the fresh water was spewing approximately six miles out to sea.

Young Cortés

And with that current we could not enter by said river, which we named the Grijalva River. We were being followed by more than two thousand Indians and they were making signs of war Once ashore, Juan de Grijalva, with the help of Mayan interpreters that he had taken earlier, began to strike up a friendly dialog.

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In addition to flattering the natives with gifts, Grijalva begged them to call their boss to meet and hold talks with him. And so, after a while, the chief Tabscoob appeared with his nobles to greet Grijalva. Tabscoob told the Spanish captain of a place called Culua that was "toward where the sun set Grijalva in turn, spoke with the Mayan chief with courtesy, admitting that he came in the name of a great lord named Charles V , who was very good, and he wanted to have them as vassals.

Tabscoob responded that they lived happily as they were, and that they needed no other lord, and that if he wanted to preserve his friendship with Tabscoob, Grijalva's expedition should leave.

The Battle and the Ruins of Cintla (Classic Reprint) by Daniel G. Brinton (2016, Paperback)

He decided to have his ships drop anchor and enter the river in skiffs, in search of the great city of Indians described by Juan de Grijalva. On the twelfth day of the month of March of the year one-thousand five-hundred nineteen, we arrived at the Grijalva river, that is called Tabasco They walked along the river and on the shore among bushes all full of Indian warriors The natives refused, telling the Spaniards that, if they disembarked, they would be killed. James and we made them retreat to a wall that was made of timber, until we breached it and came in to fight with them The tree was in the square of that great town and he said that if there were one person that contradicted him, he would defend it with his sword and all those that were present said it was okay to take the land And before a notary of the king that decree was made Francisco de Lugo ran into warrior squads, starting a new battle.

Upon hearing the shots and drums, Alvarado went in aid of Lugo, and together, after a long fight, they were able to make the natives flee. There they found thousands of Indians, beginning Battle of Centla.

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The Spaniards were attacked by Chontal Maya Indians. The Spaniards defended themselves with firearms like muskets and cannons, which produced terror in the Indians, but what terrified them more was seeing the Spanish cavalry, which they had never seen. The Indians believed that both rider and horse were one. In the end the Indians lost, owing primarily to the higher technology of the Spaniard's weapons. VII, No 2. The Abolition of Privateering and the Declaration of Paris.

By Francis B. Part II. Observations on Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl, etc. By Frank Leverett. Telephones, How the Best are made. Told from Photographs.

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Baltimore: Best Telephone Manufacturing Company. United States Senate. Weir, James. Owensboro, Ky. Wright, Lewis. New York: The Macmillan Company. The Swift's Night Flight. Witchell: "The sun has set and most of the small birds have retired for the night, though the sparrows are still noisy in the creepers on the house. Most of the swifts are flying low over the meadows, but some are in the sky, and of these a few are chasing others, and performing those magnificent swoops by which it appears that the males drive the females to their nests.

Certain it is that the pursuing birds always acting singly chase particular individuals, whose course they follow at a greater altitude, but always with the intention of finally descending in a falconlike swoop at the lower bird, who, anticipating the attack, swerves downward and finally plunges headlong. The swishing sound produced by the descending swifts can be heard at a considerable distance.

At about forty minutes after sunset whether in June or July the group of swifts begins to whirl round and round, like a mob of rooks; but again and again the cluster breaks up in a pursuit and a mad, noisy rush across the sky.

Battle Ruins - Regain And Conquer

Yet the birds are gradually attaining a higher position, and their screaming becomes the less noticeable. Their wings often have a tremulous motion, reminding one of the flight of an ascending skylark. Still, there is no deliberate upward flight, only a succession of swoops and rushes, terminating at increasing distances from the ground. The birds keep fairly together, and not one descends to the houses; but it may be the cluster is joined by another group, coming you know not whence.