Difficult Situations: How to Turn Arguments Into Victories (The Leadership Series Book 1)

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The bombing of Dresden and nuking of Japan were both necessary actions, the point was to send a clear message that the actions of Germany and Japan would not be tolerated ever again. Looking at Japan now, it appears to have worked. Furthermore the bombing of Dresden was done deliberately in the line of Soviet advance to send them the same message.

Whether technically war crimes or not, they were necessary and done for a reason, not on a whim or out of spite, and not comparable to genocide. Bombing specific railway lines was extremely difficult in WW2 and would not have stopped the holocaust in any meaningful way. If you truly believe that the Allies and Germans were comparably wicked I have to ask, have you ever actually studied any of this, or are you just reciting BS pro-nazi propaganda? Losses under the British empire, a lot. Wantet to give a full answar — yes I know very well what the nazies did..

Typical neo-Nazi bullshit. Your side lost-and all decent people including most present day Germans-think that was a good thing. Hitler could have won? Would he have united Europe and the US against Communism and listeded to his Generals, he would have won the war! People really over-estimate the effectiveness of the U-boats, sure they were extremely powerful at the start of the war and took a heavy toll on supply lines, but by the middle and end of the war they were little more than death traps because we learned how to deal with them, and they were made even more obsolete after we cracked enigma.

This biggest butchers perhaps of all times? China and the United States. The U. Be careful when you judge preborn children to be not human. You think they really would have a pretty good shot at winning, right? Now go shake your fist at your pictures of Emmanuel Goldstein… or Hitler or whoever. Salute your pictures of Roosevelt… or Stalin or whoever. You know the truth. Done then there will be a civil war and all countries freed theirselves with about countries starting a death match they created new kind of weapons there is peace for a long time but the fire nation attacked and everything changes.

I can only see Hitler winning the WW2 in one way. If he succeeded in dvelepoing the atom bomb he could have easily won against both the US and Soviets. The events after that just closed his coffin and buried it.

And the aftermath of the WW2 if Hitler won is also impossible to tell. But anyway my answer is -Yes Hitler could have won the war-. Hitler was 8 weeks away from launching a nuclear bomb on London, that would have been the end of the war! The map of modern Europe, in terms of the break of countries is very similar and who sits at the top of the tree in the EU. All the Germans need to do to win was 1. Not attack the Russians until they had conquered everyone else including the u. Finish what they started in Britain and crush them completely stopping the u.

Use the new Britain they conquered to make tons of boats and attack the u. He blatantly ignored advice from his inner circle of generals and although Rommel did plot against Hitler, he may have won in the Africa Korps had Hitler actually accepted his requests for resources. In the end, we not see actions themselves nor the aftermath in a discussion about fiction as if the tables were turned, Britain, America, and Russia would be tried for war crimes against German citizens.

McNamara, the secretary of defense for the United States, once said that if the U. Britain is the root of all evil. They are thieves. They stole from all over the world and now enjoy the wealth while the rest of the world lives in poverty. It seems that the grasp of tie evades you. At various points events were accepted. We could say the French tactics at agincourt where there was the Slaughter of children. We could say the spanish empire or the Dutch or the French were equally as guilty.

The slave trade was rife across all white countries. Only the Nazis did the final solution. That speech may not have happened had Hitler not stood up Churchill a few years prior. This is noted that it had offended Churchill and Churchill then refused to meet Hitler on three subsequent occasions. Pure speculation but the essence of this article is exactly that.

And them being Buried on the surface with about feet of dirt on them. Sit down kid, you know nothing. Native Americans were slaughtered in probably the tens of millions and lost what is equivalent to the entire wealth of the United Stated. Centuries later, some sit in their reservation and drink their misery away. African-Americans lost their identity and have been mentally messed up from centuries generations - despite building the American civilization and the early wealth the fuel the wealth it has today.

Even the evil some Japanese unleashed on China like using human as target practice makes the acid burning Jews got seems like a gift. Look at the Chinese photo when you get I am not saying the Holocaust was good nor denying it. I have nothing but respect for Jews. I am just emphasizing that other had it worse and got even less compensation or recognition than they get. You are hearing people mourn how bad they had it.

I can understand that and it moves you. But do not pretend you understand human suffering- there are other coins. Also the Irish were treated worse the the blacks by everyone and even the blacks and the brits left us for dead as soon as a famine came along. Actually, no, it did not crave war then. War is expensive and America was just off a huge depression.

America got involved indirectly like secretly aiding Britain because it knew eventually Germany and Japan would come after it. After they did, it got directly involved. The do compare the America of then to the America of now in certain facets like this. Just be thankful it was just 20, people.

To defend the homeland, Russian lost millions and probably would not mind losing in the high tens of millions. Europeans just went blood-thirsty and crazy during World War II. The Brits. I am Canadian. Bottom Line is in war there are no winners only losers some more so than others. Perhaps our present day world leaders particularly those in North Korea ,US ,China,Russia some Arabian States and South Africa should take some time out to educate themselves on what happens to the civilian population as well as the armed forces during conflict.

Maybe then they would refrain from starting wars in the first place. Who would want to be the next Adolf Hitler one of the most evil men our world has ever known and of course the chain of events that followed with atrocities being carried out by both sides one worse than the other in my opinion. Lets learn from history all of us before its too late. I think the Germans had the will and technology to have gone much further. They could have eventually fired V2 rockets at North America and use U-Boats to blockade the Atlantic had they had more time and resources for production.

That of course would have been dependent on defeating and occupying the USSR and its vast resources. They should have used captured Soviet troops against Stalin. You seem to forget that the Soviet Union was just as prepared as Germany for a total war read: not very much in Lend-Lease saved the Soviet Union as without it, the Soviets would run out of food, equipment and material. Take this away and the SU will wither away in You also forget to mention the poor strategic shift of AGC from Moscow in late to help close the Kiev pocket.

Well, the Jews convinced the world that Hitler was a tyrant, but these are all bullshit lies that we were brainwashed by our schools and Jewish Propaganda. The term Nazi simply means National Socialism, showing love to the community and its people. The Nazis were actually the good guys, Hitler wanted peace and to be left alone, but the allies wanted war and were ultimately convinced by the Jewish that the Nazis and Hitler himself were bad.

He got his country back up in less than 4 years, he cared about his peoples conditions, he banned animal experimentation, he was one of the nicest people in history, he was Christian and a man of god. We were raised to believe that the Swastika is a bad symbol and should never be used, this is bullshit. Germany adopted the Swastika, it was never a bad symbol, it meant peace and god. The Swastika takes us back over 10, years ago during Ancient Egypt.

Hitler in none of his speeches, none of his books, and in none of his manufactures did he mention once anything about wanting to even kill the Jews. Hitler did what he had to do because the Jews were strangling Germany, thanks to the Jews, Germany had lost nearly everything, people were poor, people resorted to even prostitution… I myself, have read Mein Kampf in the forbidden text, not the American or any other country made bullshit, but an actual copy. Hitler invaded Poland because of the crisis that the Jews were causing, there were German people living there that Polish people picked on and even tortured and killed.

The camps had decent sufficient food bearing in mind it was war time , they had theaters, swimming pools, football pitches, post offices where inmates could communicate to the outside world, kindergartens, art and music recreation, prostitutes, and even the officers were very nice there. For people arguing about this, Stalin and Hitler were both evil, but Hitler was more evil as he was just killing things that he did not like.

The number of kills does not matter, what matters is that Stalin was forcing people to help him, and the Nazis helped Hitler willingly. This means that Nazi Germany was the more evil party at the time. Look at the numbers…an estimated 10 million people were killed by Hitler.

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Stalin killed over 25 million. They were not fighting for freedom…they had actually invaded Poland with the Germans, making them as equally guilty for starting WWII as the Nazis. The Soviet Union in fact committed the first genocide of the war…the murder of thousands of Polish officers. Before that Stalin had killed millions of his own people solely to eliminate any opposition to communism. In any case, the war is a lesson regarding the dangers of centralized leftist regimes…Hitler was right of the communists, but he and his party were still left wing socialists.

It favored much of the same socials programs as modern socialism. The only real difference between communism and German socialism was that Soviet communism was international in nature, and German socialism was national in character. Most were fighting because they had too or face death at the hands of Soviet authorities. The Soviet military had political officers who shot any retreating Soviet. German Army soldiers found many Soviet tanks with the hatches padlocked shut so the soldiers could not surrender.

And an estimated quarter million Soviets switched sides and actually worked for the Germans during the war…thousand of which actually manned the Atlantic Wall. Thing were that bad as a Soviet soldier. However, one point to make, or repeat, is that if Britain had been defeated in , then America would not have entered the war. At the time the Soviet Union was effectively a German ally, as was Japan, obviously. At such a moment, Hitler would have easily continued to promise everyone whatever they wanted to hear while he planned his next step of expansion.

He then promised Russia half of Poland, and invaded Russia when it suited him. At the defeat of the Germans at Stalingrad, the Russians asked the captive German General Staff what, in their view had been the decisive turning point, expecting some tribute to their strategic brilliance. In the long term, it is possible that Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan would have been unable to live together and so might have embarked on another conflict. The ultimate outcome can only be guessed at, but probably would have meant humanity back to living in trees. Come to think of it, we may not be far off that anyway.

Correct a few strategic errors. Take control of Frances Navy to control the Med 2. Reinforce Rommel and let him take the North African oil fields 3. Crush Dunkirk and the BEF 4. Concentrate on radar, airfields and airplane construction plants instead of London 5. Invade Russia in May of 42 with an emphasis on reaching the Baku oil fields and Moscow 6. Consolidate the efforts to obtain a nuclear weapon instead of the 5 7. Concentrate on jet fighters instead of the prop planes. Because they would have defended the West from its current engulfment by the Third World.

Now, we face only extinction. You need to update the final map. When you click on it, it goes to a broken link. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Think This Map Was Brilliant? Enter Your E-mail Address:. Comments Many other facts have been left out.

That is why one of my seven points to a victory was to take control of the French fleet. I have my facts straight. Nothing you said contradics what I said. Not Finland, only fought for its survival between two evil empires. Says the guy with islam as his name…the most murderous belief system in modern times. I think the soviets were much worse. Germany only 6 million. Depends on who you ask. I say murder is murder regardless of what justification or reasoning someones uses.

There were many evil people that time but still some made good things:2 examples: Britain:Bad:Enslavement and racism Good:Helping free their allies Nazi:Bad:killing millions for no reason and enslavement and religionist Good:saving the Islamic nations from enslavement of allies and making the Islamic nations. Slavery had been banned for over years in the UK. Britain was and still shit, because they have garbage rulers.

Read a book on Irish history Fucking brits. Not to forget Dresen! Go home nuke! Escalation of the war produced widespread student protests, including a tragic confrontation at Kent State University, where four students were killed by inexperienced members of the Ohio National Guard. On June 24, the Senate decisively repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which had first authorized the use of U.

But the Nixon Doctrine also contained elements of force. Nixon tried to exploit the open differences between the Soviet Union and Communist China, reflected in the armed clashes in March along the Sino-Soviet border. Nixon warned the Kremlin secretly that the United States would not take lightly any Soviet attack on China. It hardly mattered that the United States could maintain aircraft carriers in South Vietnamese waters and use planes based in Taiwan and Thailand if Hanoi broke the accords.

The North Vietnamese began violating the peace treaty as soon as it was signed, moving men and equipment into South Vietnam to rebuild their almost decimated forces. The only tangible result was that in August an angry Congress cut off the funds for such bombing. In November , it passed a War Powers Resolution requiring the president to inform Congress within forty-eight hours of any overseas deployment of U. It is possible, although doubtful, that Nixon and Kissinger might have come up with a scheme to extend aid to the beleaguered South Vietnamese, but the Watergate scandal engulfed the Nixon White House, ending the reign of the Nixon Doctrine.

He acknowledged his personal defeat in August , resigning as president—the first president in U. In January North Vietnam launched a general invasion, and one million refugees fled from central South Vietnam toward Saigon. The new president, Gerald R. Ten days later, North Vietnamese forces took Saigon, and Marine helicopters lifted American officials and a few Vietnamese allies from the rooftop of the U.

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South Vietnam was no more. But the dominoes had only begun to fall. Between April and the beginning of , the Marxist-Leninists ruling Cambodia killed an estimated 1. Widespread atrocities also took place in Laos, which remains under communist rule to this day. The Arab-Israeli war the Yom Kippur War , in which the Soviet Union openly supported Syria and Egypt with a massive sea and air lift of arms and supplies, also set back detente. When the Israelis turned the tide and came close to destroying Egyptian forces along the Suez Canal, Brezhnev threatened to intervene.

Nixon put the U. The Carter Foreign Policy has been summarized by some analysts as good intentions gone wrong. So he set about eliminating the causes of conflict. He negotiated a treaty turning over the Panama Canal to Panamanian control by the end of the century. He cut off U. As part of its human rights campaign, the Carter administration advised the Iranian military not to suppress accelerating pro-Islamic demonstrations and riots.

The shah of Iran, the chief U. Carter made the mistake of admitting publicly that he felt the same helplessness that a powerful person feels when his child is kidnapped. The renowned scholar of foreign affairs Jeane Kirkpatrick later the U. The foreign policy of the Carter administration failed not for lack of good intentions but for lack of realism about the nature of traditional versus revolutionary autocracies and the relation of each to the American national interest.

They were an historic achievement but had little impact on the Cold War. Ronald Reagan would permanently change the global picture, which looked bleak when he took office in From martial law in Poland imposed by the communist regime and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan to the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua and communist rule in Mozambique and Angola, Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev claimed victories for Marxism-Leninism.

Within the free world, the Atlantic alliance was strained. To counter the deployment in the late s of Soviet SS intermediate-range nuclear missiles aimed at major European cities, NATO proposed a dual-track approach—negotiations to remove the missiles and the deployment of U.

Pershing II and cruise missiles aimed at Soviet cities. Reagan put the deployment of the Euromissiles at the center of his new foreign policy. Unlike the foreign policy realists who viewed all regimes through the same lens, Reagan placed regime differences at the heart of his understanding of the Cold War. With his modest Illinois roots and biblical Christian faith learned from his mother, he emerged as a screen star and a committed anticommunist, fighting communist efforts to take over the Hollywood trade unions in the postwar period.

Poor eyesight kept him stateside with the army during World War II, but his varied experiences contributed to his appreciation of the need for military strength. Two terms as a Republican governor of California confirmed his conservative, pro-freedom political views. Reagan considered communism to be a disease and regarded the Soviet government as illegitimate.

Like Truman, he believed Soviet foreign policy to be offensive by its very nature, and he saw the world as engaged in an ideological struggle between communism and liberal democracy. But unlike Truman, he sought in the circumstances of the s not merely to contain the USSR but to defeat it. Reagan had endorsed the strategy and insights of NSC 68 shortly after that key document of the Truman administration was declassified and published in , devoting several of his radio commentaries to it. Also in the s, he called for reductions, not limitations, in U. He identified as central weaknesses of the Soviet bloc the denial of religious freedom and the inability to provide consumer goods.

In a radio commentary, Reagan remarked that the pope, in his final public appearance, had invited the people to bring forward several large crosses for his blessing. Suddenly there was movement among the multitude of young people before him. Try to make a Polish joke out of that. For Reagan, as for Truman, the gravest threat to the United States and the free world came from the Soviet Union, whose continuing imperialist designs on every continent demanded a new Cold War strategy.

It approved U. To his credit, President Carter had begun helping the anti-Soviet mujahideen in Afghanistan during his final months in office. But a key Reagan decision was to supply Stinger ground-to-air missiles, which the mujahideen promptly used to shoot down the Soviet helicopters that had kept them on the defensive for years.

In Latin America, the Sandinistas were not only establishing a Leninist state in Nicaragua but supporting communist guerrillas in El Salvador and elsewhere. The Reagan administration directed the CIA to form an antiSandinista movement—the Contras—and asked Congress to approve funds for them. Reagan never contemplated sending U. He believed that with sufficient military support and firm diplomatic negotiation, Nicaraguans could rid themselves of the Marxist regime.

He was proved correct by the results of the democratic elections of February , when the anti-Sandinista Violeta Chamorro decisively defeated the Sandinista commandante Daniel Ortega for president. With people, funds, and weapons, the Reagan Doctrine pushed containment to its logical conclusion by helping those who wanted to win their freedom. After months of strikes, roundtable talks began in Poland between leaders of the still-outlawed Solidarity union and the communist government.

What would follow was a domino-like collapse of socialism throughout Eastern Europe and, eventually, Russia itself. The pivotal year of was later dubbed the Year of Miracles. Thousands did. In October hundreds of thousands of people began demonstrating every Monday evening in East Germany, leading to the forced resignation of Communist Party boss Erich Honecker, who had boasted in January that the Berlin Wall would stand for another hundred years.

On November 9, , a tidal wave of East Germans poured across the West Berlin border when travel restrictions were lifted, and the Berlin Wall came tumbling down. The waves of liberty, however, did not reach the shores of China. In the spring of , pro-democracy Chinese students, inspired in part by the events in Eastern Europe, were demonstrating by the many thousands in Tiananmen Square in the heart of Beijing. They underestimated the willingness of Deng Xiaoping and other communist leaders to use maximum force to eliminate any threat to their political control.

The Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward were among the mistakes, but among the things Mao had done right were making China once again a great power, maintaining the political monopoly of the Communist Party, and opening relations with the United States as a counterweight to the Soviet Union. The most important of these was the unchallenged political authority of the Party. At the start of the year, the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe seemed secure, but as we have seen, radical change was sweeping across the region.

In October, the spokesman for the Soviet foreign ministry was asked what remained of the Brezhnev Doctrine. Hungary and Poland are doing it their way. We now have the Sinatra Doctrine. It also ignited a nationalist fervor within the numerous non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union that had long been suppressed. Bush facilitated Soviet acceptance of the controversial plan Politburo hard-liners constantly referred to the twenty million Russians who had died at German hands in World War II with a grain and trade agreement and a commitment to speed up arms control negotiations.


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In turn, the West German government made substantial economic concessions of many billions of dollars to the Soviets. In amazingly short order, and due in large part to the skillful diplomacy of the United States, the Treaty on German Unity was signed by representatives of East and West Germany on August 31, , and approved by both legislatures the following month. Final approval was given by the four Allied powers on October 2.

The fall of the Soviet Union was a decades-in-the-making outcome of Cold War politics, but it happened quite suddenly in the late 80s and early 90s, primarily at the level of U. Even then the end was not clear. The second summit was in May in Washington, D. Although a virtual pariah at home, the Soviet leader was greeted by large, friendly American crowds. Bush tried to help, granting most-favored-nation trading status to the Soviet Union.

Gorbachev appealed to American businessmen to start new enterprises in the USSR, but what could Soviet citizens afford to buy? In Moscow the bread lines stretched around the block. The shrinking Soviet Union received another major blow when the biggest republic, Russia, elected its own president, Boris Yeltsin. For the remaining Stalinists in the Politburo, this was the final unacceptable act. They placed Gorbachev under house arrest while he was vacationing in the Crimea, proclaiming a state of emergency and themselves the new leaders of the Soviet Union.

They called in tanks and troops from outlying areas and ordered them to surround the Russian Parliament, where Yeltsin had his office. Some eight decades earlier, Lenin had stood on a tank to announce the coming of Soviet communism. The pictures convinced President Bush on vacation in Maine and other Western leaders to condemn the coup and praise Yeltsin and other resistance leaders. When Gorbachev returned to Moscow, he found that Boris Yeltsin was in charge.

Most of the organs of power of the Soviet Union had effectively ceased to exist or had been transferred to the Russian government. He was ignored. The people clearly wanted an end to the party and him. Down with Socialism and the fascist Red Empire.

What If Nazi Germany Won World War II? Fictional & Historical Scenarios

A supremely confident Yeltsin banned the Communist Party and transferred all Soviet agencies to the control of the Russian republic. The Soviet republics of Ukraine and Georgia declared their independence. As the historian William H. President Bush at last accepted the inevitable—the unraveling of the Soviet Union. As a consequence of Soviet collapse, we live in a new world.

We must take advantage of this new Russian Revolution. President Bush quickly sought to make Yeltsin an ally, beginning with the coalition he formed to conduct the Gulf War. A despondent Gorbachev, not quite sure why it had all happened so quickly, officially resigned as president of the Soviet Union on Christmas Day —seventy-four years after the Bolshevik Revolution. After just six years, the unelected president of a nonexistent country stepped down, still in denial.

That night, the hammer and sickle came down from atop the Kremlin, replaced by the blue, white, and red flag of Russia. When Gorbachev reached for the pen to sign the document officially terminating the USSR, he discovered it had no ink. He had to borrow a pen from the CNN television crew covering the event. It was a fitting end for someone who was never a leader like Harry Truman or Ronald Reagan, who had clear goals and the strategies to reach them.

Gorbachev experimented, wavered, and at last wearily accepted the dissolution of one of the bloodiest regimes in history. He deserves credit if not the Nobel Peace Prize for recognizing that brute force would not save socialism in the Soviet Union or its satellites or prevent the fall of the Soviet Union. You can also buy the book by clicking on the buttons to the left. Scott Michael Rank, Ph.

Cold War Timeline. Meeting between Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin to decide what would happen at the end of the war. The Potsdam Conference formally divided Germany and Austria into four zones. This was a programme of economic aid offered by the United States to any European country. The Korean war ended. This set of documents ended the French war with the Vietminh and divided Vietnam into North and South states. This began as a Hungarian protest against Communist rule in Budapest.

Furthermore, the Army of the Potomac had been kept away from Virginia farmlands for the summer and all predicted that Meade would be too timid to threaten them for the rest of the year. Lee himself had a positive view of the campaign, writing to his wife that the army had returned "rather sooner than I had originally contemplated, but having accomplished what I proposed on leaving the Rappahannock, viz.

John Seddon, brother of the Confederate secretary of war, "Sir, we did whip them at Gettysburg, and it will be seen for the next six months that that army will be as quiet as a sucking dove. On August 8, Lee offered his resignation to President Davis, who quickly rejected it. Gettysburg became a postbellum focus of the "Lost Cause" , a movement by writers such as Edward A. Pollard and Jubal Early to explain the reasons for the Confederate defeat in the war.

A fundamental premise of their argument was that the South was doomed because of the overwhelming advantage in manpower and industrial might possessed by the North. They also contend that Robert E. Lee, who up until this time had been almost invincible, was betrayed by the failures of some of his key subordinates at Gettysburg: Ewell, for failing to seize Cemetery Hill on July 1; Stuart, for depriving the army of cavalry intelligence for a key part of the campaign; and especially Longstreet, for failing to attack on July 2 as early and as forcefully as Lee had originally intended.

In this view, Gettysburg was seen as a great lost opportunity, in which a decisive victory by Lee could have meant the end of the war in the Confederacy's favor. After the war, General Pickett was asked why Confederates lost at Gettysburg. He was reported to have said, "I always thought the Yankees had something to do with it. The ravages of war were still evident in Gettysburg more than four months later when, on November 19, the Soldiers' National Cemetery was dedicated.

During this ceremony, President Abraham Lincoln honored the fallen and redefined the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. There were 72 Medals of Honor awarded for the Gettysburg Campaign. With the first badge being awarded in December ; the currently final awarding was in when it was, of course posthumously, given to Lieutenant Alonzo Cushing.

The nature of the result of the Battle of Gettysburg has been the subject of controversy for years [ when? Although not seen as overwhelmingly significant at the time, particularly since the war continued for almost two years, in retrospect it has often been cited as the "turning point" , usually in combination with the fall of Vicksburg the following day.

Grant in and —and by the speculative viewpoint of the Lost Cause writers that a Confederate victory at Gettysburg might have resulted in the end of the war. Bruce Catton , Glory Road []. It is currently a widely held view that Gettysburg was a decisive victory for the Union, but the term is considered imprecise. It is inarguable that Lee's offensive on July 3 was turned back decisively and his campaign in Pennsylvania was terminated prematurely although the Confederates at the time argued that this was a temporary setback and that the goals of the campaign were largely met.

However, when the more common definition of "decisive victory" is intended—an indisputable military victory of a battle that determines or significantly influences the ultimate result of a conflict—historians are divided. For example, David J. Eicher called Gettysburg a "strategic loss for the Confederacy" and James M. McPherson wrote that "Lee and his men would go on to earn further laurels.

But they never again possessed the power and reputation they carried into Pennsylvania those palmy summer days of Woodworth wrote that "Gettysburg proved only the near impossibility of decisive action in the Eastern theater. The army needed a thorough reorganization with new commanders and fresh troops, but these changes were not made until Grant appeared on the scene in March Glatthaar wrote that "Lost opportunities and near successes plagued the Army of Northern Virginia during its Northern invasion," yet after Gettysburg, "without the distractions of duty as an invading force, without the breakdown of discipline, the Army of Northern Virginia [remained] an extremely formidable force.

Nevertheless, at best the Army of the Potomac had simply preserved the strategic stalemate in the Eastern Theater Peter Carmichael refers to the military context for the armies, the "horrendous losses at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, which effectively destroyed Lee's offensive capacity," implying that these cumulative losses were not the result of a single battle. Thomas Goss, writing in the U. Army's Military Review journal on the definition of "decisive" and the application of that description to Gettysburg, concludes: "For all that was decided and accomplished, the Battle of Gettysburg fails to earn the label 'decisive battle'.

Gettysburg was a landmark battle, the largest of the war and it would not be surpassed. The Union had restored to it the belief in certain victory, and the loss dispirited the Confederacy. If "not exactly a decisive battle", Gettysburg was the end of Confederate use of Northern Virginia as a military buffer zone, the setting for Grant's Overland Campaign.

Prior to Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee had established a reputation as an almost invincible general, achieving stunning victories against superior numbers—although usually at the cost of high casualties to his army—during the Seven Days , the Northern Virginia Campaign including the Second Battle of Bull Run , Fredericksburg , and Chancellorsville. Only the Maryland Campaign , with its tactically inconclusive Battle of Antietam , had been less than successful.

Therefore, historians have attempted to explain how Lee's winning streak was interrupted so dramatically at Gettysburg. Although the issue is tainted by attempts to portray history and Lee's reputation in a manner supporting different partisan goals, the major factors in Lee's loss arguably can be attributed to: 1 his overconfidence in the invincibility of his men; 2 the performance of his subordinates, and his management thereof; 3 his failing health, and 4 the performance of his opponent, George G.

Meade, and the Army of the Potomac. Throughout the campaign, Lee was influenced by the belief that his men were invincible; most of Lee's experiences with the Army of Northern Virginia had convinced him of this, including the great victory at Chancellorsville in early May and the rout of the Union troops at Gettysburg on July 1. Since morale plays an important role in military victory when other factors are equal, Lee did not want to dampen his army's desire to fight and resisted suggestions, principally by Longstreet, to withdraw from the recently captured Gettysburg to select a ground more favorable to his army.

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War correspondent Peter W. Alexander wrote that Lee "acted, probably, under the impression that his troops were able to carry any position however formidable. If such was the case, he committed an error, such however as the ablest commanders will sometimes fall into. The most controversial assessments of the battle involve the performance of Lee's subordinates. The dominant theme of the Lost Cause writers and many other historians is that Lee's senior generals failed him in crucial ways, directly causing the loss of the battle; the alternative viewpoint is that Lee did not manage his subordinates adequately, and did not thereby compensate for their shortcomings.

Ewell and A. Hill —had only recently been promoted and were not fully accustomed to Lee's style of command, in which he provided only general objectives and guidance to their former commander, Stonewall Jackson ; Jackson translated these into detailed, specific orders to his division commanders. In addition to Hill's illness, Lee's performance was affected by heart troubles, which would eventually lead to his death in ; he had been diagnosed with pericarditis by his staff physicians in March , though modern doctors believe he had in fact suffered a heart attack.

As a final factor, Lee faced a new and formidable opponent in George G. Meade , and the Army of the Potomac fought well on its home territory. Although new to his army command, Meade deployed his forces relatively effectively; relied on strong subordinates such as Winfield S.

Hancock to make decisions where and when they were needed; took great advantage of defensive positions; nimbly shifted defensive resources on interior lines to parry strong threats; and, unlike some of his predecessors, stood his ground throughout the battle in the face of fierce Confederate attacks. Lee was quoted before the battle as saying Meade "would commit no blunders on my front and if I make one Stephen Sears wrote, "The fact of the matter is that George G.

Meade, unexpectedly and against all odds, thoroughly outgeneraled Robert E.

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Lee at Gettysburg. Coddington wrote that the soldiers of the Army of the Potomac received a "sense of triumph which grew into an imperishable faith in [themselves]. The men knew what they could do under an extremely competent general; one of lesser ability and courage could well have lost the battle. Meade had his own detractors as well. Similar to the situation with Lee, Meade suffered partisan attacks about his performance at Gettysburg, but he had the misfortune of experiencing them in person.

Supporters of his predecessor, Maj. Joseph Hooker , lambasted Meade before the U. Congress 's Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War , where Radical Republicans suspected that Meade was a Copperhead and tried in vain to relieve him from command. Daniel E. Sickles and Daniel Butterfield accused Meade of planning to retreat from Gettysburg during the battle. Most politicians, including Lincoln, criticized Meade for what they considered to be his half-hearted pursuit of Lee after the battle.

A number of Meade's most competent subordinates— Winfield S. Hancock , John Gibbon , Gouverneur K. Warren , and Henry J. Hunt , all heroes of the battle—defended Meade in print, but Meade was embittered by the overall experience. National Park Service as two of the nation's most revered historical landmarks.

Although Gettysburg is one of the best known of all Civil War battlefields, it too faces threats to its preservation and interpretation. Many historically significant locations on the battlefield lie outside the boundaries of Gettysburg National Military Park and are vulnerable to residential or commercial development. On July 20, , a Comfort Inn and Suites opened on Cemetery Hill , adjacent to Evergreen Cemetery , just one of many modern edifices infringing on the historic field.

The Baltimore Pike corridor attracts development that concerns preservationists. Some preservation successes have emerged in recent years. Two proposals to open a casino at Gettysburg were defeated in and most recently in , when public pressure forced the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board to reject the proposed gambling hub at the intersection of Routes 15 and 30, near East Cavalry Field. Department of the Interior in Less than half of the over 11, acres on the old Gettysburg Battlefield have been preserved for posterity thus far.

The Civil War Trust a division of the American Battlefield Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 1, acres 4. Lee used as his headquarters during the battle. The Trust razed a motel, restaurant and other buildings within the parcel to restore Lee's Headquarters and the site to their wartime appearance, adding interpretive signs. It opened the site to the public in October, During the Civil War Centennial , the U. Post Office issued five postage stamps commemorating the th anniversaries of famous battles, as they occurred over a four-year period, beginning with the Battle of Fort Sumter Centennial issue of The Battle of Shiloh commemorative stamp was issued in , the Battle of Gettysburg in , the Battle of the Wilderness in , and the Appomattox Centennial commemorative stamp in As was typical for the period, mintage for the coin was very low, just 26, The reverse side of the coin depicts the monument on Cemetery Ridge to the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry.

Film records survive of two Gettysburg reunions, held on the battlefield. At the 50th anniversary , veterans re-enacted Pickett's Charge in a spirit of reconciliation, a meeting that carried great emotional force for both sides. At the 75th anniversary , veterans attended, and there was a ceremonial mass hand-shake across a stone wall. This was recorded on sound film, and some Confederates can be heard giving the Rebel Yell. Lee , and James Longstreet during the battle. The first day focused on Buford's cavalry defense, the second day on Chamberlain's defense at Little Round Top , and the third day on Pickett's Charge.

The south winning the Battle of Gettysburg is a popular premise for a point of divergence in American Civil War alternate histories. Here are some examples which either depict or make significant reference to an alternate Battle of Gettysburg sometimes simply inserting fantasy or sci-fi elements in an account of the battle :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Battle of Gettysburg disambiguation. Gettysburg , Adams County , Pennsylvania. Gettysburg Campaign. Main articles: Gettysburg Campaign and Gettysburg Battlefield.

Reynolds , USA. Daniel Sickles , USA. George Sykes , USA. John Sedgwick , USA. Alfred Pleasonton , USA. Further information: Union order of battle. Lee , Commanding CSA. James Longstreet , CSA. Ewell , CSA. Hill , CSA. Stuart , CSA. Further information: Confederate order of battle. Further information: Battle of Gettysburg, First Day.

Further information: Retreat from Gettysburg. Main article: Gettysburg Address. It might be less of a victory than Mr. Lincoln had hoped for, but it was nevertheless a victory—and, because of that, it was no longer possible for the Confederacy to win the war. The North might still lose it, to be sure, if the soldiers or the people should lose heart, but outright defeat was no longer in the cards. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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American Civil War portal. See the discussion regarding historians' judgment on whether Gettysburg should be considered a decisive victory. See the section on casualties for a discussion of alternative Confederate casualty estimates, which have been cited as high as 28, Historicals, , p. Gallagher and McPherson cite the combination of Gettysburg and Vicksburg as the turning point. Eicher uses the arguably related expression, " High-water mark of the Confederacy ". February 15, Retrieved July 3, Princeton University Press.

Retrieved March 5, Lee 's troops seized scores of free black people in Maryland and Pennsylvania and sent them south into slavery. This was in keeping with Confederate national policy, which virtually re-enslaved free people of color into work gangs on earthworks throughout the south. July 5, Putnam — via Google Books.


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However, many mainstream historians accept Heth's account: Sears, p. Archived from the original on April 16, The troopers carried single-shot, breechloading carbines manufactured by Sharps , Burnside, and others. It is a modern myth that they were armed with multi-shot repeating carbines. Nevertheless, they were able to fire two or three times faster than a muzzle-loaded carbine or rifle. Both Sears and Trudeau record "if possible. Lippincott, , pp. Philadelphia, PA: J. Lippincott company, , p.

Lippincott, , p. Camp Chase Gazette. Retrieved February 21, Chamberlain did not lead the charge. Holman Melcher was the first officer down the slope. Rodes, CSA, commanding division. Headquarters element casualties account for the minor differences in army totals stated previously. Gallagher's essay "Jubal A. Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved January 19, White refers to Lincoln's use of the term "new birth of freedom" and writes, "The new birth that slowly emerged in Lincoln's politics meant that on November 19 at Gettysburg he was no longer, as in his inaugural address, defending an old Union but proclaiming a new Union.

The old Union contained and attempted to restrain slavery. The new Union would fulfill the promise of liberty, the crucial step into the future that the Founders had failed to take. Alonzo H. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved September 21, Military Review : 11— Retrieved November 11, Lee's inability to manage his generals that went to the heart of the failed campaign.

Fuller, p. Stuart Gettysburg. Accessed May 24, Heritage Capital Corporation. Battle of Gettysburg at Wikipedia's sister projects. Lee E. Porter Alexander Richard H. Anderson Jubal A. Early Richard S. Ewell Henry Heth A.



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