Title : Memorie per le belle arti. Publisher : Roma : Stamperia Pagliarini. Contributing Library : Getty Research Institute. Digitizing Sponsor : Getty Research Institute. LArtefice medefimo in queflAnno J. Bloglo del Sig. Origen, divisiones, y terminos de todas sus provincias. Publisher : Madrid [s.
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Alfidius Herennianus. Severus li. Commodus Aug. Verus II. Aug, V. Hclvius Pernn. Title : Voyages de C. Avec des planches.. Authors : Thunberg, Carl Peter Londres, , grand in-i. Faucher dObsonville. AParis, an X. Title : Oeuvres d'histoire naturelle et de philosophie de Charles Bonnet..
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Authors : Bonnet, Charles, Subjects : Natural history Philosophy. Publisher : Neuchatel : Chez S. Title : Zion's landmark [serial]. Subjects : Primitive Baptists. Publisher : Wilson, N. Contributing Library : Duke University Libraries. I hada pain in my rightside and could noteat anything with-out hurting mystomach. I couldnot drink cold waterat all nor eat anykind of raw fruit,nor fresh meat norI chicken.
From J pounds I went to and would get so weak at times thatI fell over. I began to take Lydia E. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Oeuvres, vol. Guyton de Morveau, Hughes Maret, and J. The best biography remains A. Joseph imagined, as had Galien, that these layers should allow a vessel to maintain equilibrium with the surrounding air at a specific altitude. Aerial navigation was still difficult, however, because the extreme levity of air did not present the kind of resistance water offered to a ship.
Theorizing that they could enclose in a light- weight vessel a fluid specifically lighter than the atmospheric air to elevate the vessel in the air, the brothers experimented with inflammable gas but found it cost-prohibitive. The two largest manufacturers of pure, concen- trated sulfuric acid, Javel and Holker, were both located at some distance north of Paris, which would have made it an expensive task to transport a large quantity to Vidalon.
Joseph also theorized that the electrical fluid expanded on the surface could lighten a body, as seen in the water rising to form a cloud. Jan Golinski, British Weather. Joseph Montgolfier discusses the difficulty of sealing the envelope in his mem- oir read at the Lyon Academy. He noticed that an ounce of the oil of vitriol mixed with two ounces of chalk in a closed vessel could produce a suffi- cient quantity of air to raise a quintal of water to fifty feet.
In other words, Joseph recognized that various aerial fluids VOL. Kim, Affinity, — Lavoisier had not yet announced his theory on the composition of water to the academy this took place on 12 November. Montgolfier was the first to convert water into in- flammable air at least in France, for I have an idea that Mr. James Watt found it a con- sequence of his system. Utility and efficiency were not the only criteria that mattered in the Old Regime culture of invention.
What focused his attention, though, on the flying machine? Fur- thermore, why would a family whose livelihood depended on a paper mill SECTION invest its precious capital in making an artifact long regarded as a chimera? He is introduced to his social superiors as the inventor of a self-propelled carriage. While decorum and idle curiosity allow him to mingle with the genteel company, Victorin is painfully aware of the social barrier that would prohibit his marriage to Christine. Gillispie, Montgolfier Brothers, — See Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier.
Carl Friedrich Meerwein — was architect to the prince of Baden. Raymond Fontaine, La Manche, 3—4. Their ability to invent the aerostatic machine, to claim its exclusive authorship, and to cul- tivate a public persona as patriotic inventors depended on forging a delicate According to his cousin Duret, Joseph received a sentence of conservation, but the family hired the lawyer Vittet to run a public campaign to secure his freedom; see FM I.
Notwithstanding the Enlightenment rhetoric of utility that governed the public sphere, theatrical polity rewarded a spectacular invention more than a useful one. The flying machine offered a unique means of addressing both the royal court and the larger public, but it had to acquire a veneer of legitimacy through its scientific basis and potential utility. Joseph made a small parallelepiped model at Avignon and enlarged it at Vidalon.
They chose words carefully to secure their authorship and expertise and to demonstrate their commitment to the public good. For details and related calculations, see FM II. Pamela O. Long, Openness, Secrecy, Authorship. By placing their invention in legitimate institutional milieus, the Mont- golfiers also activated public networks of communication. News of the An- nonay ascension began to circulate in Parisian gossip and newspapers from late June.
The name Chedenette is mentioned in Mercure de France, 9 August Blagden to Banks, 4 July , in N. Chambers, ed. They also mobilized their Masonic network to quell un- pleasant publicity. The art was never perfected, however. Judging from the fact that Fontenelle was impatiently waiting for the ascension, this letter must be dated between mid-July and 12 September. Journal de Paris, 27 July For the notion of broker, see Sharon Kettering, Brokers and Clients. Making a working machine required much more than a theory, however, including expensive fabric silk , exotic coating material rubber , effective glues, and intensive labor, which came together only because of the Annonay ascension.
The Journal de Paris advertised the ascent as a replication of the Annonay ascension, or- ganized by Faujas and executed by the Robert brothers.
This cycle of events, suppressed in public press, offers distinct phases of progression from a breach to the crisis, then to the redressive action in the public homage. Gillispie has meticulously documented the difficulty and the danger associated with producing a large quantity of inflammable air from concentrated sulfuric acid. Not quite the sovereign body that constituted the absolutist polity at Versailles, the patchy machine nevertheless commanded the attention of the fashionable society who desired access to the marvelous novelty and its inventor. In the morn- ing, carriages covered the road from Paris to Versailles.
By A. The machine, painted in royal blue and decorated with royal emblems, rose majestically soon after P. Antoine Lilti, Le Monde des salons.
I wish to thank Anthony LaVopa for this reference. Shapin and Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump. Faujas, Description, They scramble such neat distinctions in their shared resources, however. It was the fusion of royal and public resources that engendered a mass public for the balloon theater and mate- rialized a new, composite body of the nation. Censored press circulated homogenized, celebratory accounts of ballooning by suppress- VOL.
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Despite the effort to use the balloon theater as an occasion to project a harmonious nation, its affective capacity to engage the populace made it a dangerous artifact that required watchful police control. Initially independent of the Crown, the institution was dragged inexorably into royal finance schemes as the American war efforts and financial demands increased; it was forced to stop payments on 26 September. The shareholders had to freeze the notes still in circulation, amounting to 33 million, while waiting for a compre- hensive report on the damage.
This was carefully hidden from public view. It is mentioned only when Joseph makes excuses later for the poor performance of the Lyon balloon. Its path from Vidalon to Versailles, or from a liminal realm to the majestic stage, involved ambitious papermakers, a provincial estate, the royal administration and its communication mech- anism, the royal Academy of Sciences, Parisian newspapers and newsmak- ers, and vainglorious science entrepreneurs.
Precisely because of its manifest theatricality, however, public demand for the proof of its utility surfaced immediately and became ever more shrill. Utility was not the most important or self-evident prerequisite for a successful invention in Old Regime France. Nevertheless, the rhetoric of utility valorized the aerial theater as a cultural performance that catered to the public good, bolstered its moral value, won the hearts of the discerning public, and bestowed immortal glory on the inventors.
Montucla to Hutton, 26 December , in TC 9. She insisted that the invention was not an act of lone inspiration and that it took many years of collaborative work between two brothers who possessed different faculties. Alder, Ken. Engineering the Revolution: Arms and Enlightenment in France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, New York: Free Press, See FM I.
London: Verso, Bachaumont, Louis Petit de. London: John Adamson, — Baecque, Antoine de.
Tissandier, Gaston 1843-1899
Baker, Keith Michael. Barber, Elinor G. The Bourgeoisie in 18th-Century France. Barker, Nancy N. Basalla, George. The Evolution of Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press, Beaumont-Maillet, Laure. Paris: Hazan, Beik, William. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Belhoste, Bruno.
Paris: A. Colin, Benhamou, Reed. Berg, Maxine. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, Luxury and Pleasure in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford: Ox- ford University Press, Technological Revolutions in Europe: Historical Perspectives. Bernadine de Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Henri. Journey to Mauritius. New York: Interlink Books, Amsterdam: Merlin, Biagioli, Mario. Bombelles, Marc de. Journal du Marquis de Bombelles, vol.
Edited by Jean Grassion and Frans Durif, 4 vols. Geneva: Droz, Bouchary, Jean. Paris: M. Briggs, Robin. Cabanes, Charles.
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Scientific Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 6 vols. Chapelle, A. Tournon de la. Paris: Knapen, Paris: Nizet, Clow, Archibald, and Nan L. The Chemical Revolution. New York: Freeport, Darnton, Robert. New York: W. Norton, Deparcieux, Antoine. Desmarest, Nicolas.
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Sorlot, Dziembowski, Edmond. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, Lerner, eds. Myth and Modernity. Erickson, Lars O. Fairchilds, Cissie. London: Routledge, Paris: Cuchet, Ferrone, Vincenzo. Fontaine, Raymond.
Dunkerque: Westhoek, Fox, Robert. Joseph Montgolfier. Gille, Paul. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, — Gillispie, Charles C. The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation, — Golinski, Jan. British Weather and the Climate of Enlightenment. Cheltenham, UK: Edward El- gar, Gruber, Alain Charles. Lavoisier: The Crucial Year. Guyton de Morveau, L. Dijon: L. Frantin, — Harris, John Raymond. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, The Prehistory of Flight. Berkeley: University of California Press, Michel, Holmes, Richard.
London: Harper Press, Horn, Jeff. Rosenband, and Merritt Roe Smith, eds. Reconceptu- alizing the Industrial Revolution. Isherwood, Robert M. New York: Oxford University Press, Jacob, Margaret C. Scientific Culture and the Making of the Industrial West. Cheltenham, UK: Ed- ward Elgar, Johnson, Christopher H. The Life and Death of Industrial Languedoc, — Kelly, George Armstrong.
Kettering, Sharon. Brokers and Clients in Seventeen-Century France. Kim, Mi Gyung. Munich: Deutsches Museum, Klein, Ursula, and Wolfgang Lefevre. The Art of Papermaking.