Perspectives des communications de lOCDE 2009 (SCIENCE ET TECH) (French Edition)

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This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable.

The outcome of the competition between nuclear and gas-fired generation hinges, in addition to carbon pricing, on the capital costs for new nuclear power plant construction, gas prices and the profit margins applied. Strong competition in electricity markets reinforces the attractiveness of nuclear energy, as does carbon pricing, in particular when the latter ranges between USD 40 and USD 70 per tonne of CO2. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalised electricity markets with carbon pricing.

What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years.

Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements.


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The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels.

The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. The reliable supply of molybdenum Mo and its decay product, technetiumm Tcm , is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes — which cannot be effectively stored — can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo producing, research reactors and processing facilities.

These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure.


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  • The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders. Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents.

    In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed from Generation I to Generation III, and why it is important that safety remain the highest priority.

    This is illustrated by considering core damage frequencies and large radioactive release frequencies for each generation of nuclear power plants. It also compares severe accident data those resulting in five or more fatalities between different energy sources, both for immediate fatalities and for delayed latent fatalities, recognising that the latter data are often more difficult to estimate.

    Finally, it uses results of opinion surveys to analyse public confidence in nuclear operations and how this is correlated with trust in legislation and regulatory systems. It has been written for a general audience. With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest.

    In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry — the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors — is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand.

    It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January , as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time.

    Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years.

    Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance the role of nuclear power in a sustainable energy future. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas with and without carbon capture , nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power CHP.

    It provides levelised costs of electricity LCOE per MWh for almost plants, based on data covering 21 countries including four major non-OECD countries , and several industrial companies and organisations. For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined. The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally.

    Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power. Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear power.

    Interestingly, while the public is generally aware of the contribution of nuclear power to ensuring security of energy supply, its potential contribution to combating climate change is less well recognised. Solving the waste disposal issue would also significantly increase the level of public support. Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge.

    This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity.

    This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field. The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

    The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption.

    Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns. This Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead. Nuclear power plants require a wide variety of specialised equipment, materials and services for their construction, operation and fuelling.

    There has been much consolidation and retrenchment in the nuclear industry since the s, with the emergence of some large global nuclear companies. Electricity market liberalisation in many OECD countries has meanwhile placed nuclear plant operators under increased competitive pressure. These structural changes in both the producer and consumer sides of the nuclear industry have had implications for the level of competition in the nuclear engineering and fuel cycle markets.

    With renewed expansion of nuclear power now anticipated, this study examines competition in the major nuclear industry sectors at present, and how this may change with a significant upturn in demand. This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle is an authoritative reference for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field. With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention.

    In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22nd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January , as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste HLW disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal.

    Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal.

    In the context of sustainable development policies, decision making in the energy sector should be based on carefully designed trade-offs which take into account, insofar as feasible, all of the alternative options' advantages and drawbacks from the economic, environmental and social viewpoints. This report examines various aspects of nuclear and other energy chains for generating electricity, and provides illustrative examples of quantitative and qualitative indicators for those chains with regard to economic competitiveness, environmental burdens such as air emissions and solid waste streams and social aspects including employment and health impacts.

    This report will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the energy and electricity sectors. It offers authoritative data and references to published literature on energy chain analysis which can be used in support of decision making. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field.

    Interest in nuclear energy continues to grow in many countries as a means to ensure security of energy supply and to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. In this context, recyclable materials constitute an asset for broadening the resource base for nuclear fuel supply, especially in medium- and long-term perspectives. This report provides an overview of recyclable fissile and fertile materials inventories which can be reused as nuclear fuel. The potential energetic value of recyclable materials is assessed, taking into account the variability of retrievable energy contents of various materials according to technology and strategy choices made by the owners of the materials.

    The analyses contained in this report will be of particular interest to energy policy makers and to nuclear fuel cycle experts. Innovation has been a driving force in the successful deployment of nuclear energy and remains essential today for its sustainable future. As nuclear energy is an attractive option for ensuring diversity and security of energy supply, as well as lower global climate change risks, the way to continue this innovation is a key issue for industry and interested governments.

    For greater innovation in the nuclear area to be realised, more in-depth discussions on ways and means for promoting nuclear innovation are crucial, and enhanced knowledge of nuclear innovation systems is required. This report provides an overview of the state of the art in nuclear innovation systems, including their driving forces, main actors, institutional and legal frameworks, and infrastructure for knowledge and programme management.

    It also offers policy recommendations based on country reports and case studies supplied by participating member countries. This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation LTO. It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management.

    The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. Over the 40 years of its existence, the Red Book has collected an impressive quantity of official data supplied by governments. The Red Book Retrospective was undertaken to collect, collate, analyse and publish all of the key information collected in the 20 editions of the Red Book published between and Additionally, every effort has been made to fill in gaps in the record to provide the most complete and exhaustive information possible.

    As a result, the Red Book Retrospective gives a full historical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resources, production, reactor-related requirements, inventories and price. It provides in-depth information relating to the histories of the major uranium-producing countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany including the former German Democratic Republic , the Russian Federation including the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States. For the first time, for example, a comprehensive look at annual and cumulative production and demand of uranium since the inception of the atomic age is possible.

    Besides reporting and documenting the historical data, expert analyses provide fresh insights into important aspects of the industry including: the cost of discovery, resources to production ratios and the time to reach production after discovery, among others. Taken together, the Red Book Retrospective provides the most complete record of the uranium industry publicly available, dating from the birth of civilian nuclear energy through to the dawn of the 21st century.

    Jeder, der sich mit der Zukunft dieser bedeutenden Technologie auseinander zu setzen sucht, stellt sich folgende Fragen: — Wie sicher ist Kernenergie? Interest in nuclear energy is growing significantly in many OECD member countries with the construction of new plants, new plans for nuclear futures along with innovations in enrichment and reprocessing.

    This and other insights related to nuclear energy can be found in Nuclear Energy Data, the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics to on nuclear energy in OECD countries. The compilation provides readers with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle. For many politicians and members of the public, the very long life of some of the radio-nuclides in radioactive waste is an issue of particular importance in terms of its ultimate disposal.

    The developing techniques of partitioning isolating specific radioactive elements and transmutation re-irradiating them in order to convert them to shorter-lived or stable elements hold the promise of eliminating or greatly reducing the long-lived radioactivity, bringing with it other technical benefits. In France, the Waste Act required inter alia a research and development programme on partitioning and transmutation, with a milestone for review in This report presents the findings from that review, which was conducted by ten of the foremost international experts in the field.

    This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered.

    The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies.

    Since the price of uranium has steadily climbed over five-fold, at a rate and reaching heights not seen since the s. As a result, the uranium industry has seen a surge of activity, ending a period of over 20 years of relative stagnation. More than 80 papers were presented during the meeting and have been reproduced for the reader herein.

    It presents the reader with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview on the status and trends in nuclear energy in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle. This publication provides authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. This sixth study in a series on projected costs of generating electricity presents and analyses cost estimates for some power and co-generation heat and power plants using coal, gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources.

    Experts from 19 member countries, 2 international organisations and 3 non-OECD countries contributed to the study. Levelised lifetime costs were calculated with input data from participating experts and commonly agreed generic assumptions, using a uniform methodology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies depends on many factors and that there is no absolute winner. Key issues related to generation costs are addressed in the report including methodologies to incorporate risk in cost assessments, impact of carbon emission trading and integration of wind power into electricity grids.

    The projected costs presented are generic and do not reflect the full range of factors e. This report will be, however, a reference for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists. Ce rapport fournit une base solide pour comprendre la production et les utilisations des isotopes radioactifs dans le monde d'aujourd'hui. Radioactive isotopes continue to play an increasingly important role in medical diagnosis and therapy, key industrial applications and scientific research.

    They can be vital to the health and well-being of citizens, and contribute to the world economy. It is therefore important to understand their production and use. This report provides a solid basis for understanding the production and use of radioisotopes in the world today. It will be of interest not only to government policy makers, but also to scientists, medical practitioners, students and industrial users. At the same time, the profit margins of electricity generators have been severely squeezed.

    The combined effect has led to a reduction in technical innovation and the danger of the loss of technical competencies and skills in the area. However, because different countries are at different stages of the nuclear technology life cycle, these losses are not common to all countries, either in their nature or their extent. A competence that may have declined or been lost in one country may be strong in another. Therein lies one solution to the problems the sector faces: international collaboration.

    This report presents the results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training. Key human resource issues are discussed and many good practices regarding international collaboration are identified. The report includes an executive summary along with conclusions and recommendations aimed at policy makers and other stakeholders. It also contains an in-depth analysis of the factual information collected. This booklet, a summary of the full report, presents the main results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training.

    Key human resource issues are discussed and good practices regarding international collaboration are identified. This edition, the 20th, presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1 January based on official information received from 43 countries. Uranium Resources, Production and Demand paints a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan.

    Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through The long lead times required to bring resources into production underscore the importance of making timely decisions to pursue production capability well in advance of any supply shortfall. This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle.

    It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. The main objective of national energy policies in OECD countries is to ensure the availability of secure and economic supplies with minimal environmental impact.

    The means of achieving security and competitiveness in the supply of electricity differ between countries. Some governments resort to competitive markets while others maintain ownership and apply strict economic regulation. Environmental goals are pursued by direct regulation and sometimes, for example in the case of carbon dioxide emissions from power plants, by adopting market-based approaches. This publication addresses the roles and responsibilities of governments in the field of nuclear energy, within the context of broad national policy goals, and reviews the tools available to achieve those goals.

    It will be of particular interest to decision makers in government and the industry, as well as to energy policy analysts and journalists. Broad economic analysis becomes increasingly important in the context of market deregulation and integration of environmental and social aspects in policy making. External costs will remain a challenge for policy makers as long as they are not assessed and recognised in a reliable and fair way across all sectors of the economy.

    This report provides insights into the internalised and external costs of nuclear-generated electricity and alternative sources. This book will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the field of energy and electricity systems. It contains authoritative information and data that could assist in their decision-making processes as well as support more in-depth analyses and academic research.

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector.

    This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field. Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow.

    The maximisation of monetary value largely excludes the poor, and unbridled economic growth exacerbates climate change. This is why governments must act together, which is what the UN climate change summit in Paris is about. New approaches are needed.

    (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD))

    One would be for the richest countries to fund a global research effort into green. Open source software and the Internet have used this approach to unleash innovations. Another would be to ensure that basic needs are met before selling essential resources to the highest bidder. We cannot simply assume that markets are always best. An economics for the Anthropocene must be grounded in science but guided by moral values.

    Only then can we determine what economic institutions will meet our goals. Cornell, Ingo Fetzer, Elena M. Bennett, Reinette Biggs, Stephen R. Carpenter, Wim de Vries, Cynthia A. Mace, Linn M. This feedback has allowed us to identify life satisfaction, education and health as top well-being priorities. What is most important to you? Measuring Well-Being. Business brief Fuel fraud perpetuates further harmful auto emissions and increased fuel consumption. For example, Japan is suffering from huge amounts of waste created by washing out quinizarin used to dye fuels.

    The same problem exists in Ireland, which has led to an enquiry about the use of cleaner marking technologies. With this in mind a robust marker is critical to the solution. The marker itself should be proven to be environmentally friendly when added to the fuels. This requires emission and engine tests of marked fuels to meet environmental standards and engine compatibility. In accordance with Articles 4 and 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries that are parties to the convention submit national greenhouse gas GHG inventories to the Climate Change secretariat.

    The measures are aggregated in CO2 equivalent. Safe international trade is essential for the economic growth governments are currently seeking, but is threatened by the ever-evolving asymmetrical threat of fraud and illicit activity. These programs help governments to raise revenue, combat smuggling and improve the environment. SICPA is now integrating in its platform fuel marking and monitoring technology to support the environment The fuel marking and monitoring system ensures the authentication of the original legal fuel supply from authorised sites to the end user.

    By meeting these two main targets, the effect on the environment is fourfold: 1. This assures clean engine emissions with a direct impact on the environment, by preventing the release of poisonous elements into the atmosphere and water sources. It also prevents damage to engines and the operation of the catalytical inverters. Some use of non-robust dyes as a marking solution may create large amounts of waste when criminals wash out the dyes.

    The work of international organisations such as the OECD in promoting co-operation and best practice between governments is crucial to tackling the issue. So is direct action by national governments to reinforce their own capabilities and build robust systems which can be linked across borders to build an interoperable international network. SICPA is at the forefront of those in the private sector investing in developing up-to-date tools for governments so that they can meet these challenges now and in the future. Our approach builds on our long experience in providing security inks and security features to protect bank notes and in working in partnership with governments.

    SICPA has developed a modern toolbox which can be implemented in a modular way and adapted to take account of national needs. At the core of our approach is secure track and trace which provides transparency and control for governments across the length of complex supply chains which criminals are so adept at exploiting. The Governance Brief. Fighting climate change: What city mayors are doing, page 48 Paris leads the way in electro-mobility, page 51 Clichy-Batignolles: Where urban planning meets the climate, page By forging a direct link between residents and users, cities can unite large communities tasked with thinking and doing.

    Thanks to their responsive modes of governance, they only need a few months to test ideas that would require years of negotiation in national and international bodies. Local authorities must play their full part in this effort. Paris is fully committed to combating climate change and determined to move forward as quickly as possible. And I know that this objective is shared by many local leaders both in France and abroad.

    This means placing the circular economy at the heart of the way we operate.

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    We want to step out of the vicious circle of an economy, which is an increasing drain on resources, and enter another circle, one which respects human dignity, health and environmental balance. The circle integrates, includes and involves everyone in a shared journey. Local authorities need to work towards the emergence of this new economy, so that we learn how to produce without destroying, consume without wasting, and recycle without dumping.

    This is precisely the direction that the City of Paris has chosen to take. We want to step out of the vicious circle of an economy which is an increasing drain on resources, and enter another circle Anne Hidalgo Mayor of Paris. An ecological transition has been necessary for many years. It has now become vital. Faced with the prospect of the total destruction of people and the environment, we must send out an equally uncompromising wake-up call on the ties that bind humans and nature.

    Only a radical overhaul of our way of living can put a stop to environmental degradation. And sustainable solutions need to come from cities, which are the leading public investors, trailblazers in testing ideas, and the driving force behind social and technological innovation. Every day, local authorities implement concrete solutions at grass-roots level, which must be used to add impetus to negotiations. The Climate Summit for Local Leaders will be an opportunity to acknowledge those innovations that local authorities and their networks have put in place in their daily efforts to preserve our planet.

    It is by giving all these voices the platform they deserve in order to be properly heard that we can reach an agreement that is crucial for safeguarding and freeing the future. The Climate Summit for Local Leaders will be an opportunity to deliver a powerful collective message with a single voice.

    Another world is within our reach, and within the reach of all humankind, based on our ideals of unity and sharing. It is up to us to bring that world to life. Cities know how to create precious synergies between citizens, businesses and institutions. They have valuable human resources. These fossil fuels also drive the likes of transport, industrial output, lighting, heating and construction, and naturally their use is heavily concentrated in urban areas.

    The Commune of Libreville has integrated environmental issues into its local development programme. At present, the focus is on hygiene, planting and helping the state implement the restructuring plan for Libreville. The environment has to be at the heart of every decision taken by local authorities. The challenge for each and every one of us is to make the public aware of the risks that humanity faces unless we change our behaviour and stop the warming of the biosphere. To date, efforts by Libreville to combat climate change are in line with central government initiatives in accordance with.

    The environment has to be at the heart of every decision that, as local authorities, it is our job to ensure that climate change vulnerability is given priority in local action plans. It must be subject to individual surveillance and assessment. However, it is just as important to mobilise city dwellers on the importance of adopting environmentally friendly behaviour, and encourage them to do so.

    The future of mankind is at stake. As this OECD Observer Roundtable of Mayors indicates, authorities in a range of global cities are leading the charge, both in their own urban areas and through closer international co-operation. The City of Madrid is aware of the consequences of climate change and the weak political will of most governments to deal with this global challenge.

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    Cities are responsible for a major share in the emissions of greenhouse gases and local authorities must lead the transition to a low-carbon economy. Madrid is far from this objective. Our metropolis consumes a huge amount of energy, mostly from fossil-based sources, while we produce almost no energy at all. The priority of public institutions in past decades has been to build motorways. We must reduce the use of cars, improve public transport and promote the use of bicycles.

    We must increase our energy independence by taking advantage of our sunny climate. The Spanish government must allow and promote the production of renewable energies. Finally, we have to encourage the participation, co-operation and understanding of the population. The education of our children about the values of sustainability is our most important ally for the huge cultural change we seek. However, what makes Montreal stand out is our desire to provide concrete support to private and public initiatives, so that these sectors contribute to the ecological transition of the Montreal economy.

    To this end, the Transition Montreal 21 programme aims to transform some of our environmental liabilities into productive assets while generating business opportunities. This ecological transition can only succeed with the help and support of our citizens. That is why, during the implementation of our initiatives, comprehensive public consultation will be carried out to ensure that this is a genuine social project. The City of Montreal has a longstanding commitment to promoting sustainable development and combating climate change.

    It is a member of the Compact. Climate action is protecting the poor and is a duty of global leaders, not a choice. In Rio, we have a particular topography, with hills that were inhabited and became our favelas. Due to tropical rains, the residents of these favelas are subject to mudslides, which have even caused deaths in the past. Rio has another characteristic: it faces the Atlantic Ocean and has kilometres of coastline, bathing its beaches. We now know of the dangers of rising sea levels, and this is a source of concern to my home city.

    One of them is mitigating risks, by setting goals to decarbonise our development and stop the problem from worsening. For this, it is necessary to decouple urban growth from carbon emissions. We can no longer postpone actions against consequences of climate change, that may occur as soon as in So we are acting right now in Rio, currently changing the mobility paradigm, from cars to mass transport, by delivering four BRT lines, the dedicated corridors for articulated buses and a Light Rail Vehicle in the revitalised Port Area. Rio also has. We have already implemented our Operation Centre, which concentrates different players in one place to accelerate action, including triggering alarms in the favelas whenever there is a risk of heavy rains.

    Seoul is committed to fully comply with the compact by November I would like to strongly encourage other cities to join the cities that have signed up to the Compact of Mayors to prevent global warming from worsening. Moreover, I hope all cities set a vision that departs from the old developmentcentred path to a low-carbon one that values environmental protection and saving energy.

    Also, I would like to urge other mayors to develop goal- and actionoriented plans to turn their pledges into reality. The City of Seoul has sent a clear message to the world that energy conservation, cuts in greenhouse gas emissions and. Stockholm is a city by the sea, built on islands. This means that rising sea levels as a consequence of a changing climate are a very tangible threat to our city.

    I have set ambitious goals for our city. Stockholm will not only be carbon neutral by , but fossil fuel free, too! Transport is a huge challenge for Stockholm, as for most other cities. We want to make sure that pedestrians, cyclists and public transport commuters are prioritised.

    Stockholm is an acknowledged leader in the global green economy, and has experience and good practices to share. We are willing and able to act as front runners for future solutions and as test bed for the many companies within the green economy sector that we host in Stockholm. We also see this as a business opportunity. We are also eager to learn from other cities and to copy their best examples for the Stockholm context.

    I am certain that cities hold many of the solutions to the climate crisis in our hands. Now is the time to be bold and do what is right. The time to wait and see has long gone. I want to be able to tell my children that my generation of leaders faced the biggest challenge ever, and we stood tall. The alternative to that story would be inconceivable. Faced with heavy pollution and congested roads, Paris is turning to electric vehicles to restore air quality.

    Its incentive policies for all forms of transport should inspire cities all over the world to follow suit. Local government has been pursuing change for many years, and nowhere more than in transport mobility. In the light of this pressing public health issue, alternative forms of transport urgently need to be found. Paris is something of an electro-mobility pioneer.

    Electric vehicles have been entitled to free parking since , and the provision was immediately followed by the creation of public charge points. Few people are aware of this last point,. It worked. Users were thrilled with a convenient service and the advantages of electric cars: silent, instant torque, and zero pollution from exhaust while driving. It now has over 93 subscribers and recorded four million rentals in Business and trades people in Paris and the immediate suburbs are being encouraged to lead by example, with grants to encourage them to replace their conventionally powered vehicle with an electric vehicle.

    The wholesale food market in Rungis south of the city, which is the largest in the world for agricultural produce, has also decided to make the switch. Electric vehicles have been entitled to free parking in Paris since saving the cost of car ownership. Even charging is exemplary: the cars are exclusively recharged using energy from renewable sources. Paris has worked tirelessly to promote the use of electric vehicles ever since. Images of the Eiffel Tower obscured by a thick cloud of pollution have added a certain impetus to the adoption of an ambitious plan to improve air quality.

    The City of Paris is aware of this, and has launched a grouped order for low-carbon solutions with around ten other European cities—something that should encourage automakers to release new models. The current policy offers many incentives, but motorists will soon run out of other options. In September , the City of Paris introduced a restricted zone to which only the greenest cars will eventually have access. Indeed, while users in France are legally entitled to have a charge point installed in any car park in an apartment building, things are more complicated in practice.

    Many Parisians live in apartments with no garage, and the procedures involved might seem somewhat off-putting. Further additions will be made as necessary. There is also a service for business users. The City of Paris has launched a grouped order for low-carbon mobility solutions with around ten other European cities On paper, then, this looks like a success— but with a few provisos.

    Electric mobility is not just about cars, however. Congestion on the roads, demands on public space—there are. Since the City of Paris has been offering grants to Parisians buying electric bicycles in a very popular move that has led to the approval of 10 applications including the editor of the OECD Observer! After lagging behind other modes for many years, public transport is catching up in leaps and bounds. At the same time, a succession of different models will be trialled on the streets of the capital, because a lot of hard work remains to be done before the current high-capacity stock can be replaced at equivalent cost.

    As Paris faces these choices that will be decisive for the future of our cities, it is emerging as the laboratory for the whole of France. By cleverly balancing incentive and constraint, the City of Paris is changing the attitudes of businesses and consumers to mobility, encouraging them to choose economical solutions that are better for the environment. In Paris, a major redevelopment in the illustrious Clichy-Batignolles district has set environmental goals of unprecedented ambition, paving the way for contemporary urban planning that offers better solutions to energy and climate concerns.

    The authorities. Several companies have leveraged the opportunities generated by this dynamic project Summer Games, and so from the very outset of the design phase the planners had been aiming for environmental. This goal was therefore retained for the Clichy-Batignolles eco-district proposal and incorporated into the Climate Plan adopted by the City of Paris in , which set the project a target of zero CO2 emissions. First of all, the proclaimed objectives of the project have prompted experimentation with new technologies: the City of Paris, for example, is introducing an innovative vacuum waste collection system, which cuts CO2 emissions and protects air quality.

    Some property managers have successfully trialled other techniques, including heat recovery using grey water from showers to name but one. The homebuilders taking part in the operation have been able to prepare for the stringent regulations in the pipeline: the energy standards applied at Clichy-Batignolles in are the same standards the authorities are planning to introduce nationwide in Several companies have even gone so far as to branch out from their traditional core business activities in order to pool investments or leverage the opportunities generated by this dynamic project.

    For example, Eau de Paris, the public company responsible for producing and distributing water in the French capital, is installing a 12 million geothermal system that will provide heating and hot water. A single metre well in the Albian aquifer will both secure the drinking water supply and provide ClichyBatignolles with renewable heating. PBA has commissioned. Raising local awareness of energy challenges can be fun as well as participatory experts to both monitor every project and ensure that environmental commitments are met. These design choices were thoroughly analysed and debated in the workshops attended by the Clichy-Batignolles planners, the contracting authorities and project managers, and the experts.

    These workshops examined collections of several building lots in order to include interactions among the different buildings. By the end of , 2 people will already be living on the site. Now that most of the undelivered programmes are either under way or on the point of being launched, attention is shifting from the design of the eco-district to its management.

    OECD Observer No November by OECD - Issuu

    The hectare park in the centre of the district has wetlands and exemplary water management. Abundant vegetation in the public spaces and buildings help to cool the city and offset the urban heat island, as well as making the city greener and promoting biodiversity. This vital feedback is extremely valuable to the future planning projects in the city and the Grand Paris Greater Paris programme, and could also be useful in taking up the challenge of the energy transition and climate change in the existing city. See also www. The project proved complex but exemplary, not just in its implementation and execution, but also in terms of managing relationships.

    The operation required advanced insulation studies, says architect Dominique Desmet from Equateur Architecture. I think I can safely say that I compiled the most exhaustive detail booklet on external insulation ever produced by an architect! There were public meetings to explain the nature and process of the work involved, and the resulting disturbances.

    After the. And you have to support the liaison staff on the front line. This kind of work is very messy. This change has not gone unnoticed by the tenants. And it looks really good. You would never believe that this is a social housing project. Franck Charvet highlights the team spirit and commitment of everybody involved. And this was a really successful project in every way—technically, aesthetically and personally.

    As an OECD Insights blog points out, that is over 12 billion tonnes of waste per year, or the equivalent in weight of more than 21, Airbus As. The City of Paris is a proponent of the circular economy, though as these three examples show, closing the loop is a resource challenge in its own right. Sabine Arrondelle, co-ordinator of the recycling centre and originator of the project, is delighted with the progress. We want to collect and reuse as much as we can.

    The remaining items are used in various creative and repair workshops covering areas and objects such as small electrical appliances, woodwork, furniture customisation, sewing and small decorations. The result is a new lease of life for a wide range of products and materials. A lot of items are donated to the association Aurore, which has premises on the same site where it operates as a refuge for people in crisis or distress.

    That said, its future remains uncertain. He noticed that our built-up urban environment, while cruelly lacking in green spaces, has a plentiful supply of reusable waste. So he set about testing different ways of reintroducing greenery into the city by using waste products as a raw material,.

    Visitors receive a warm welcome, regardless of whether they have come to donate or to visit the store. This event was a major success and attracted over visitors who helped create composters, planters and the like, and provided proof of both the validity and the feasibility of the concept. The challenge now facing UpCycly is to scale up its activities in order to increase its impact and expand into other regions. Marc Jourdaine, UpCycly www. In , he started looking into ways to transform leftovers and kitchen scraps into soil using worm-based methods called vermicomposting. Between February and November , Moulinot trucks collected tonnes of biowaste which were transported to a biogas processing plant in the nearby Essonne department for transformation into natural gas and heat.

    The test phase was a resounding success, exceeding the projected targets almost threefold. The aim now is to pursue this initiative on a sustainable basis and extend it nationwide in order to help all establishments producing at least 10 tonnes a year of biowaste a year versus 20 tonnes at present meet their obligation as of to separate biowaste at source for organic recovery. Many restaurant owners already choose to recycle their biowaste, even when they are not obliged to do so by law. In his opinion, environmental tax is a key issue in the development of this practice, as volunteers have to pay out of their own pockets while nothing is levied on those who do nothing.

    Near to the Paris ring road, shielded from the din of the motorway by an apartment block, nestled between two high-rises, lies an oasis of peace. These initiatives also address educational and cultural issues. Their hand-to-mouth existence means that it would never cross their mind to create a garden and spend time and money on it without a guarantee of a substantial harvest at the end.

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    The gardens are for gardening and for visiting, but they always retain a wild side, thereby bringing a touch of poetry to these very soulless places. Our decision to use these gardens as a means of educating about nature was also. Often they are children who then convince their parents to get involved. The collective creation of these gardens, based upon principles of sustainable gardening, is underpinned by the simple message that we are all an intimate part of nature.

    By recovering rainwater, sorting and composting waste, respecting biodiversity, and preserving wasteland, the garden becomes a sanctuary for living things as well as a place of learning, with the teaching resources needed to help people gain a better understanding of the environment so that they can better protect it. Our objective is to put city dwellers in touch with the everyday nature surrounding them in these dense urban environments.

    It is also a chance to tell stories, transmit knowledge, and create bonds of friendship and trust among members of the same and different generations. These children, who rarely get to leave their neighbourhood, can become a part of something, and develop their identities in contact with nature and with the support of caring adults who respect their individual differences and their needs. Our most recent example is the Little World Garden, which is special because it is on a site which belongs to the City of Paris, Reuilly train station in the 12th arrondissement.

    At this location, we welcome children from the neighbouring nursery school and any local residents looking for advice on their own vegetation projects. The garden also contains medicinal and kitchen plants grouped together by their continent of origin. The planted surface area of these 14 small gardens amounts in all to half a hectare, and they produce enough vegetables to allow a weekly cookery class to be organised—because while a lot of the children involved know what a Halloween.

    In the 20th arrondissement of Paris, we have brought nature into the street! The Saint-Blaise district is one of the most populated places in Europe, where a built environment dominated by concrete allows very little room for vegetation. This pilot scheme is part of the Biodiversity Plan adopted by the Council of Paris in Sharing healthy, lovely, tasty cooking is undoubtedly one of the keys to happy urban co-habitation, in harmony with nature! Together, the wind turbines can produce up to 10 kilowatt.

    In more practical terms, the centre will prepare reports, with an emphasis on improving metrics and statistics for comparing countries. It will also provide a forum for policy discussion. As part of the Inclusive Growth Initiative, a series of seminars with high-level speakers—policy makers, academics and civil society—will be organised. The event was moderated with two panel discussions to address the extent to which inequalities challenge our societies and a concluding session to underscore the need for inclusive growth.

    The main objective of the centre is to focus on various dimensions of inequality, from income, wealth and economic growth to employment, education, health, housing,. In recent years, the OECD has pioneered monitoring of income distribution and the effects of inequality on well-being and growth. It will also consider inequalities by gender, age and socio-economic background. Calendar highlights Please note that many of the OECD meetings mentioned are not open to the public or the media and are listed as a guide only.

    All meetings are in Paris unless otherwise stated. For a comprehensive list, see the OECD website at www.

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    Would you know who to call if your geothermal system crashes? With a bit of planning for the transition, Green Skills and Innovation for Inclusive Growth proposes that we can take advantage of this opportunity to diversify and improve employment. Following two. OECD forums on the topic, Green Skills provides evidence and policy analysis to guide the green shift, with emphasis on the ways that better policy co-ordination among environment, economy and labour can minimise the skills gap and maximise employment growth.

    This builds on the report Greener Skills and Jobs, which outlined a three-part policy approach: i upgrading skills in minimally impacted sectors; ii gearing up educational institutions to teach the new skills needed for mitigation; eco-innovation and renewable energy, for instance; and iii retraining in emissions-intensive sectors, which will be particularly affected by a shift to low carbon. Moreover, with some basic skills training or retraining programmes, production, construction, and other lower skilled workers can make the shift from fossil fuel sectors as well.

    This study shows that. Groundwater is not so well Fresh water is essential for life, yet makes up only a tiny fraction of all water on earth. In many areas, especially arid and dry regions, underground aquifers are the only source. Even in less arid regions, groundwater provides an essential resource. In fact, some 2. The economic effects are huge.

    Poor management and over-exploitation by farmers, households and industry have resulted in over-extended groundwater aquifers which are pushed beyond the point that they can be replenished. Groundwater depletion subsequently leads to other serious environmental effects, such as disruption of wetlands, salinisation of surrounding land and actual land collapse into emptied aquifers.

    Drying Wells, Rising Stakes: Towards Sustainable Agricultural Groundwater Use reports on the threats to groundwater, and implications for future fresh water access. Groundwater is an accessible, reliable and, so far at least, largely pollution-free source of water.

    The UN. However, droughts, pollution, increased demand from exploding population growth, and potentially fracking put the sustainability of groundwater into question. Drying Wells, Rising Stakes proposes a three-part plan for policies to implement better management of groundwater usage, in particular for agricultural crop production, based on regulatory frameworks, economic instruments and collective management programmes.

    OECD Employment Outlook The OECD Employment Outlook reviews recent labour market trends and shortterm prospects in OECD countries, looking at: recent labour market developments, especially around minimum wages; skills and wage inequality; activation policies and inclusive labour markets; and job quality. OECD Digital Economy Outlook This book provides an integrated analysis of trends, indicators and policy developments in the expanding digital economy.

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance Entrepreneurship at a Glance presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship, along with key facts and explanations of the policy context. The edition features a special chapter on the international activities of SMEs. Does it matter? It includes a wide variety of statistics, capturing both material well-being. This third edition includes a special focus on child well-being. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean.

    Science, technology and innovation— which foster competitiveness, productivity and job creation—are important mechanisms for encouraging sustainable growth. International Migration Outlook This publication analyses recent development in migration movements and policies in OECD countries and some non-member countries as well as the evolution of recent labour market outcomes of immigrants in OECD countries.

    Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking Policy and Economics Building on the experience of OECD countries, this report sets out how the latest economic evidence and tools can enable better policy making for adaptation. The Economic Consequences of Climate Change This report provides a new detailed quantitative assessment of the consequences of climate change on economic growth through to and beyond. Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy This report takes stock of policy restrictions to international investment in solar PV and wind energy, and assesses their impacts across the value chains.

    All publications are available to read and share at www.

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    Water and Cities: Ensuring Sustainable Futures This report focuses on the urban water management challenges facing cities across OECD countries, and explores both national and local policy responses with respect to water-risk exposure, the state of urban infrastructures and dynamics, and institutional and governance architectures. Environment at a Glance OECD Indicators Environment at a glance measures the decoupling of environmental pressure from economic growth and sheds light on the progress made by OECD countries in addressing climate change, air and water pollution, the management of waste and natural resources and the protection of biodiversity.

    All publications listed on these pages are available at www. Fossil folly If the world is to make a dent on climate change, breaking the armlock of fossil fuels is inevitable. Besides undermining efforts to tackle climate change, these subsidies make it hard for competing energy sources, aggravate pollution problems and represent a strain on public funds. This means fewer resources for other strategic investments.

    The report assesses the progress made on this front over the past three years in OECD countries: fossil fuels subsidies are indeed on a downward trend since , largely owing to the collapse of international oil prices last year, but to policy changes also. SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation Small firms are playing an ever-increasing role in innovation, driven by changes in technologies and markets. Some spin-offs and high growth firms are having remarkable success. However, the broad bulk of small firms are not capitalising on their advantages.

    This book explores how government policy can boost innovation by improving the environment for entrepreneurship and small firm development and increasing the innovative capacities of enterprises.

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