LEuropa dei partiti (Strumenti per la didattica e la ricerca) (Italian Edition)

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Carbonari, Centro studi americani, Roma, 22 February Lieven e M. Campanini, M. Di Donato, S. La Partition e la questione identitaria pakistana, Palazzo delle Paure, Lecco, 29 novembre Dal Medio Oriente al Pakistan. Nuove idee per riscrivere il futuro, con A. Siddiqua, R. Parsi, N. Pedde, B. Iannucci, A. Calchi Novati, R. Middleton, B. Nicolini, M. ISPI, Milano, 14 giugno Cingoli, S. Al Qatyouti, D. Affinito, G. Teologhe, musulmane, femministe, con J. Guardi, R. Bedendo, M. Perroni, Casa della cultura, Milano, 20 gennaio Quale democrazia?

Pakistan, India oggi, con R. Di Peri e M. Afghanistan: guerra necessaria o guerra giusta? Candito, Valenza, 22 gennaio Benazir Bhutto, donne, islam e potere, con F. Caferri, Fiera internazionale del libro, Torino, 14 maggio Talbot and G. La crisi afgana nel contesto regionale, Master in International and strategic studies, Roma, 22 gennaio La storia del mondo musulmano dalla II guerra mondiale : categorie e periodizzazioni, Master in Giornalismo, Milano, 15 aprile I movimenti islamici contemporanei tra tradizione e rinnovamento, con M.

Campanini, P. Branca, K. Afghanistan: alla ricerca di nuove strategie, Cespi, Milano, 18 aprile Afghanistan: the cultural and social context, Cimic group south headquerters, Motta di Livenza, 8 febbraio Diritti umani e islam, con F. Voci femminili e femministe nel mondo arabo-musulmano, Unione delle Donne di Ravenna, Ravenna, 5 aprile Redaelli, A.

Il Pakistan oltre il terrorismo. Lieven, I. Dossa e V. Carati, L. Ippolito, V. Parsi, M. La guerra in Siria e il groviglio mediorientale, con G. Prini, G. Manzelli, C. Iran verso il confronto aperto? Abdolmohammadi, S.

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Batsanov, P. Cotta Ramusino, R. Oltre il conflitto. Vanzan e C. Elia, Casa della cultura, Milano, 17 gennaio La primavera araba: rivolte o rivoluzioni? Alberizzi, A. Varvelli, MaM. Gianpiero Vincenzo, K. Donne e Afghanistan. Una scommessa per il futuro? Ahadyar, A. Nooristani, G. Safi, A. Afghanistan ed exit strategy. Provide advice about the capabilities and merits of individuals and organizations — nonprofit, for-profit, and governmental — in both North America and Italy for scientists, scholars, and entrepreneurs from these respective countries.

Advocate the improvement of scientific, scholarly, and entrepreneurial activity and organizations within Italy. Promote and coordinate the activities of other organizations and associations that link scholars, scientists, professionals, and entrepreneurs in Italy and North America. Just browse the Internet, opt for a reliable platform, find the necessary treatment and add it to the cart. Contact the customer support canadianrxon. Convenient and up-to-date payment methods allow it to be an easy task, as well.

The prize is given to an astronomer who has not attained 36 years of age in the year designated for the award, and who is based at a North American institution. To learn more about Tommaso Treu's career and achievement read here…. Application deadline limited to seed funds: September 14, No deadline for internship grants.

Bracco is a retired Beverage Industry Executive and Mrs. Bracco is President of COM. Cocktail Reception: 6 p. Contact: Carolyn Laurenzano Phone: Email: carolyn niaf. Per segnalazioni e eventuali richieste di informazioni si prega di scrivere all'indirizzo ercgrants cnr. Go West, Young Man! Luca Dal Negro. This Faculty Early Career Development project aims to advance nanophotonics by developing a new class of light emitting devices exploiting aperiodic media.

Intellectual Merit : This Faculty Early Career Development project aims to advance nanophotonics by developing a new class of light emitting devices that leverage Anderson light localization in deterministic aperiodic media for enhancing radiative transitions in silicon nanostructures. Differently from conventional photonic crystals approaches, the proposed research allows broadband engineering of density of states fluctuations, radiation patterns and localized fields in photonic-plasmonic nanostructures, enabling unprecedented control and enhancement of radiative processes on the nanoscale.

The active material will consist of Er ions embedded in Si nitride superlattice structures. This material provides efficient excitation of Er resulting in 1. This project explores for first time Anderson light localization in the context of on-chip light emission, and will result in the demonstration of photonic-plasmonic light-emitters susceptible of optical and electrical excitation.

Broader impact : The successful demonstration of Si-based emitters and lasers will extend the reach of optical technologies into diverse fields, enabling low-cost applications of integrated optics in communication, processing, interconnects and optical biosensing. Source: National Science Foundation Read more Related reading : L. Whatever happened to that picture? This program has been established to encourage the highest quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-initiated frontier research across all fields of research on the basis of scientific excellence as sole evaluation criterion.

More information can be found at www. Have you always dreamed of coming to Europe to develop your research career? Europe is an exciting and dynamic place to carry out research. Watch this webinar to identify how you can enhance your innovation potential through interdisciplinary and intersectoral research and training in Europe!

At the core of Professor Meli's approach is the idea that "we can learn more fruitful lessons from the past by paying close attention to Galileo's own intellectual problems and difficulties, rather than by looking at history through modern eyes from the vantage point of our modern theories. For further details, click here. The relevance of Galileo's invention for the defense of a maritime city had not been lost on the Venetians Galileo knew it Regione Sardegna : Politica: Master and back, nuovo bando a giorni June and Ricerca, ritardi ingiustificati. La "sveglia" arriva in Regione September Ti scrivo per chiederti un ulteriore sforzo per questa importantissima causa.

Che vogliano utilizzare ogni risorsa della medicina o che intendano accettare la fine naturale della vita, i cittadini vogliono essere liberi di scegliere. The launch of 33 new and innovative projects among universities and training institutions on both sides of the Atlantic involves this year institutions and more than student exchanges. This cycle of lectures will start in March and is targeted for a non-medical audience. These Italian physicians heavily contributed in the scientific advance in their field but also their lives are also characterized by interesting personal histories that finally made them decide to practice medicine in NYC.

While describing their scientific results they will share with us their life experience between Italy and US. The series will be moderated by Dr. Deadline: November 30, The fellowship is open to graduate students or PhD graduates in Physics, and in Engineering. Anthony J. Tamburri, Dean of the John D. Oceanography in Dept. For the program and the list of conference topics click here. Marco Tedesco, who is also a member of ISSNAF, has been using satellite data and ground based microwave technologies to "spy" on ice-melting trends in Greenland and the Antarctic.

Tedesco has just returned from Greenland, where with a team of U. IMI and EFPIA European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations pre-announce the launch of call for proposals in the areas of 1 cancer, inflammatory and infectious disease, and 2 knowledge management. List of topics is here. The expected deadline is January Further details here.

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BioCamp is open to postgraduate students in the natural sciences and business administration. At this year seminar, 60 selected students from about 24 countries will have the opportunity to learn from leading biotech experts, interact with professionals and work together with other students from various cultures. The students also will be able to explore career opportunities and network with global leaders in the biotechnology sector. A novelty for Italy, where, through the point five percent tax relief -- introduced under the of the National Budget of L. The program attempts to catalyze translational research in Italy, abating barriers between clinical and basic research in the areas of cancer diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, therapy and prevention.

Consistently with its "benchmark to bedside" approach to translational research, the program will give priority to proposals in which "explicit plans are made to enroll physician scientists specifically dedicated to the project" and "are expected to be involved simultaneously in the lab and in the clinical setting. It is also stated that full proposals will be evaluated by an International panel, with the aid of ad-hoc International referees.

Thus those in pursuit of a gender-balanced perspective "when the world reported is gender-imbalanced," are left, like before, mulling over what's required to change the status quo. In the end Men still make the news, Women have mimosas. Tutto questo con una sfacciataggine ed arroganza, tipici del sistema politico italiano. I primariati ospedalieri vengono attribuiti sulla base di un concorso. Ho personalmente assistito a casi di medici calati in uno stato di depressione patologica dopo un concorso perso immeritatamente.

Prevedo due problemi di fondo. Io credo che la Commissione giudicante debba essere composta da 3 primari ospedalieri sorteggiati ed esterni alla regione dove il concorso viene effettuato. Il candidato primo nella lista dovrebbe essere il candidato prescelto. Tuttavia, un noto regista giapponese una volta disse: A lovely thing always starts with a dream. Le cose belle nascono sempre da un sogno. As the ballad goes… "Drink and Devil had done for the rest, Yo-ho-ho and a bottle of room!

Seemingly, about one-third of more than scientists working at ISPRA may not have their contracts renewed. The Fellowships are granted for one year initially and are normally extended for a second year. Deadline for applications is December 4, The Embassy of Italy in Washington D. The event is cosponsored by ESA. Ricerca: aiuti a chi assume, Italia Oggi , 22 Luglio An international panel will discuss new knowledge about biodiversity, and ecology, in the context of international partnerships and policies' development.

For program and information visit the Norway website. Visitors at EIEF will receive financial support, access to research facilities, and travel allowance. Applications should be received by December 15, To learn more about the program click here. NW Washington D. On the occasion of the signature of the agreement between ASI and NASA on Earth observation the workshop is an opportunity of exchange with any other international partner interested.

For more information www. P: to register click here. Read the program. For the invitation click here. The appointment is for 7 years, starting September There are no restrictions concerning the nationality of the applicants. Interested candidates should submit a Curriculum Vitae, a completed research paper as well as three reference letters to the EconJobMarket website alternativly to applications eief.

Studying in the US. Teaching in the US. Read the full program. Universita', ecco i nostri si , by Luigi Berlinguer, Europa. Italian citizens and citizens of a member state of the European Union are eligible if graduated from an Italian university and willing to pursue further study abroad in the following fields: - political economy and economic policy;. Ricerca, il Governo apre ai piu' giovani , Corsera. Il programma Sergio Lombroso finanzia borse di studio destinate a giovani ricercatori italiani che mirano ad approfondire la ricerca sul cancro nel Weizmann Institute of Science in Israele a sinistra , un centro all'avanguardia per la ricerca oncologica a livello internazionale.

In Italia, l'istituto Weizmann collabora con l'Istituto Mario Negri di Milano nell'ambito del "Comitato Negri-Weizmann" fellowship per sostenere la ricerca sul cancro e favorire la collaborazione scientifica tra Italia e Israele. Di fatto si auspica una strategia di "azioni integrate in grado di generare un proficuo trasferimento di conoscenze scientifiche e tecnologiche tra il Sud e il Centro-Nord del paese.

To all Doctors, Medical professionals, Professors and students of medicine the Tuscany Model Public Healthcare Conference is an extraordinary occasion to learn about the Tuscan model of Public Healthcare and exciting advancements occurring throughout Italy from highly respected Tuscan Physicians and Professors. This will also be a fantastic networking opportunity for all sorts of Doctors or Medical Professionals on a local, national, and international level! You may RSVP by email tuscanyhealth themarino.

The Event is free of charge. CoSBi, a multi-disciplinary centre of excellence in research and innovation in the field of sciences, medicine, biology, genetics and information technology, was established in as a joint enterprise by Microsoft, the University of Trento, and the Provincia Autonoma di Trento. Sponsored by Thales Alenia Space. Vito Campese. Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli.

Luciano Lavagno. Follow the link for a summary of the project and Mostafizur Mozumdar's biographical information. Background Climate change is quickly becoming one of the great challenges of our time. The availability of sound, accurate and reliable climate scenarios are increasingly required by planners and decision makers for infrastructure planning, operations, and energy security.

The focus is shifting to the period closer to us, the research papers writing help next thirty years, which includes the horizon of major strategic decisions that are taken today.

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Developing quantitative systems for simulating climate scenarios for the next few decades is becoming the next challenge for climate science. Program The research projects should have particular focus on decadal scale climate simulations and analysis; possible topics include: coupled data assimilation and the initialization of coupled models, decadal predictions, climate models development, statistical methods for detection and attribution.

The fellowship recipient is expected to work in the context of ongoing Italy — NCAR projects, under the supervision of one American and one Italian advisor. And, a huge fraction of this is wasted. To stabilize global green house emissions, and to meet national, international, state and local Climate Action Plans, the energy consumption and carbon footprint of buildings must be dramatically reduced. Further, since we cannot wait for the building stock to turn over to new buildings, deep improvements must be effected through modifying currently operational buildings consistent with their usage.

The most energy intensive buildings support substantial operational processes, in addition to human occupants. Efforts to improve efficiency that sacrifice the productivity of the people or operations within the building will invariably be discarded. Consequently, if dramatic gains in building efficiency are to be made, while improving productivity, it is critical to empower occupants to make low-power operating points through their natural interactions with the building environment.

Building energy efficiency and environmental quality is a critical area where the US lags both technologically and from a policy standpoint across almost all industry sectors. Hence, the quality of our buildings impacts the productivity of many sectors of the economy. The fellowship recipient is expected to work in the context of ongoing Italy — Berkeley projects, under the supervision of one American and one Italian advisor.

The Scientific Advisory Board will select a winner by September 30, Starting Date of Fellowship: December Le risorse sono destinate a due tipologie di progetti:. A - mln per progetti che mirano a sostituire sostanze chimiche "estremamente preoccupanti" nei processi di produzione, attraverso l'introduzione di innovazioni di prodotto e di processo. Ecco mln per l'hi-tech , Italia Oggi , Feb 3. Panelists will examine the current status and the emerging issues at the frontier of scientific knowledge.

The symposium will provide a forum to celebrate the tradition of vibrant collaboration developed over the years among Caltech, JPL and the Italian scientific community, and is free and open to the public. Thirty seven US states reported declines in state tax support for higher education —- including general fund appropriations for universities, colleges, community colleges, and state higher education agencies -— ranging from 0.

Draft University Reform Bill. The A. Giannini Fellowship Program funds innovative medical research in the basic sciences and applied fields conducted by promising postdoctoral investigators in the early stage of their career. Eligibility : United States citizens or permanent alien residents with a Ph. Candidates with years of postdoctoral training are strongly encouraged to apply. Stipends and other details related to the program for the fellowship awards can be found on the Giannini Foundation website. Application and reference letters must be received by November 10, The calls, nationwide issued, are structured by regional aggregations, and cover a varieity of disciplines.

The application deadline is February 8, For the online registration and further information about the NIAF event, click here. The international conference "Women and Space," organized on October 8, , at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, brings together an impressive panel of women working in space science, from space missions, to astrophysics, to literature.

Read more at www. Il bando e' stato pubblicato su G. The Marie Curie Reintegration Program supports the return in Europe of European scientists who have carried out research in a non-EU country for a period of at least three years. Proposals from all areas of scientific and technological research of interest to the European Community can be submitted. Eligible candidates must be from EU Member States or Associated Countries with four years full-time postgraduate research experience or a doctoral degree.

This is a unique record of excellence for a country whose inability to attract foreign researchers is a cause of frequent remarks. Together with Princeton University the Gran Sasso National Lab has for the last 7 years run a competitive summer program, designed to introduce high school students from the Abruzzo region -- as well, in minor number, from South Dakota -- to the research projects which take place at LNGS, and foster their interest in science.

The program will take place at Princeton University between July 17 and August 7, More details here. For Sponsors : opportunity to invest their money in the best research possible and to get in touch with a valuable network based on knowledge at higher standards. Application Deadline is November 20, Interested candidates are required to fill out the online application form available here.

The rationale of the international conference on The Future of Science provides in itself an assessment for this year topic placing the DNA Revolution in the context of "the post-genomic era. The conference is the fifth of an international series organized yearly by the Umberto Veronesi Foundation, the Silvio Tronchetti Provera Foundation and the Giorgio Cini Foundation on the Future of Science, with the intent to promote awareness of the impact of scientific progress, placing science at the centre of social debate.

Cavalli-Sforza , emeritus professor of Genetics at Stanford University. To know more about the conference program click here. Anyone wishing to attend the conference is required to enroll at www. The National Council of Entrepreneurial Tech Transfer NCET2 represents an informal group of universities from around the US who seek to bring entrepreneurs and private equity investors into the innovation economy. Deadline for application is April 25th, Please, spread out the information to your site as soon as possible. Feel free to contact us for any further information.

Immigrants now see better prospects back home. Apply by January 12, To know more visit www. Trento a case study leading a national trend? It also points to practical steps that might be taken to improve the system of higher education in Italy. In addition, project-specific funding comes from a number of federal agencies, private foundations, and Harvard sources.

Established in , the fellowship supports doctoral students and post-doctoral researchers, as well as mid-career professionals, to study at the Center for International Development CID , Harvard Kennedy School. Preference is given to citizens from Italy or developing countries. Deadline for application is December 1, For the HKS masters' degree admission process, click here. Il premio viene destinato ogni anno allo scienziato che si distingue a livello internazionale per la ricerca oncologica. The EUI program is designed for social science researchers at the beginning of their careers.

Candidates from all nationalities are eligible for the Jean Monnet Fellowships program. To know more about the program, click here. The European Genetics Foundation in collaboration with Telethon Italia is launching the peer review training program. The program, now in its second year, is designed to provide training and information on best peer reviewing practices, in all areas of science.

Discussion will focus on peer review models adopted by European and American granting agencies, and presented by national experts and professionals. The course, with a limited enrolment of 50 students, will take place in Bologna, on October , For the agenda and background information, read here.

Think tanks, public policy research centers, and other non-profit and non-governmental organizations based in the United States are invited to submit proposals to the European Commission Washington DC Delegation for projects which promote policy research and debate about EU-US relations. For information and related documents click here. It will bring together a diverse group of academics, researchers, entrepreneurs, and others from the public and private sectors.

For the conference program, including the full schedule of events read here. The European Commission launched on June 30th new calls for research proposals in a variety of areas and open to partnerships with countries from outside the European Research Area, including the United States. Research areas include climate change, pollution, alternative testing strategies for pharmaceuticals, and the management of the marine environment. Space research and security research have also been added as part of the EC-U. Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. Successful applicants will mainly work on the electrical and functional characterization of the prototypes produced in house, aiming at understanding the physical mechanisms governing device operation.

They will also participate actively in the definition of both device design and fabrication process, in order to develop new ideas and optimize the existing technology. For requirements and more information click here. PhD Senior scientist at Harvard. I know you are all busy and time is never enough. Please join me and Chiara in welcoming Aldo in the team! The storyline is seemingly more complicated than that. Non trovano spazio nella manovra anche i fondi per i giovani ricercatori , Corriere della Sera.

Genome-wide analyses of human lung adenocarcinoma have identified regions of consistent copy-number gain or loss, but in many cases the oncogenes and tumor suppressors presumed to reside in these loci remain to be determined. Here we identify the downstream of tyrosine kinase Dok family members Dok1, Dok2 and Dok3 as lung tumor suppressors.

Activation of mTOR promotes the formation of benign tumors in various organs and the mechanisms underlying the neurological symptoms of the disease remain largely unknown. We found that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in mice caused aberrant retinogeniculate projections that suggest defects in EphA receptor—dependent axon guidance. Facts at a glance from IMT's policy. Mission IMT is an international graduate school that promotes cutting-edge research in areas with clear practical relevance, contributing to the formation of international professional elites for business and institutions.

Areas of Activity Research and teaching programs at IMT strike a balance between theoretical rigor and practical relevance. Therefore, you need to contact your medical specialist before you start the therapy to avoid all the risks. Bucchi: ''Annuario scienza e societa '''. Se la ricerca fugge , by Oscar Giannino, Il Gazzettino. Il caso Glaxo e la ricerca usa e getta , by P.

Campese responds crediting the former Ambassador for the crucial importance of his role in promoting the Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America Foundation. And then all over again! Eliot - Four Quartets 4: Little Gidding. Giordano is also professor at the University of Siena, Italy.

Sponsor-A-Scientist can be found on eBay. Italian and American experts from the research and business world in the areas of bioenergy, the automotive sector, solar, and carbon capture and storage, will discuss public-private partnerships, which have successfully promoted the transfer of innovative technological products to international markets. The workshop will thus explore future prospects in the field of low-carbon technology, policies and financial strategies for the diffusion of clean technologies on a significant market scale.

The initiative is part of the bilateral cooperation between the United States and Italy for the promotion of research and new technologies that combat climate change, and of the Partnership for Growth— the U. Embassy initiative that promotes economic growth in Italy based on innovation. The program, launched in , seeks to identify and support leading-edge research in strategic areas of engineering and computer science. Professors from universities worldwide submit proposals three times per year that are evaluated by a team of Google engineers and scientists.

The winning proposals "also receive the extra benefit of being assigned a Google liaison who maintains a special relation with the professor during the life of the award, contributes to the research, and ensures that the outcomes are valuable to Google and academia. Pier Luigi Celli got the attention he was looking for with his letter, as well as a few rebuffs, and some promises -- to his son and others' sons.

La borsa intende finanziare la frequenza di un corso di studio o lo svolgimento di un programma di ricerca di durata prevista non inferiore a 9 mesi. Per maggiori informazioni si consulti il bando online. Le domande di partecipazione dovranno essere compilate online sul website dell'ABI entro il 30 settembre Per maggior informazioni sulla borsa di studio si consulti il sito dell'ABI. More than 60 German universities, research institutions and funding agencies will present their programs and job offers at the 15th Annual GAIN Meeting in San Francisco, the largest German science and research career fair in the U.

The opening day of the three day conference is open to international doctoral and postdoctoral students, as well as assistant professors seeking information on transatlantic careers and collaborations. Additionally, master's students who are interested in pursuing a PhD in Germany are also welcome. This is a unique opportunity to talk to the leading experts of Europe's largest economy and one of the leading powerhouses of international research and innovation.

Career Fair: Friday, August 28, am - am. Participants are invited to attend the career fair with over 60 exhibitors from all areas of the German research landscape. Our experts are looking forward to meeting you at their booths. Workshop: Friday, August 28, am - am. This workshop is targeted to doctoral and postdoctoral students, as well as assistant professors.

It provides information on postdoctoral careers in Germany, how to set up a research team as junior faculty, as well as opportunities in non-university institutions and industry. All disciplines are welcome. The session will cover funding schemes for international researchers from any country besides Germany. German scientists are encouraged to attend another concurrent session. Speakers : Dr. Further speakers will be announced shortly. Presentations will be conducted in English.

Registration : The event is free of charge. It provides information about research in Europe, European research policy, opportunities for research funding, for international collaboration and for trans-national mobility. Membership is free. EBRI's Blow-up. This may hold true for the "Icelander's" Sagas; EBRI's -- at least as re-told by Nature [ ] -- is seemingly unromantic, grim and difficult to relate to.

In , it is predicted that 1. This change has been tackled in two ways: the first panel focused on the impact of longevity on the economy and society, while the second looked at how technology robotics, artificial intelligence, augmented reality will contribute to providing us with healthier, longer and better lives. Annual Event Page. In his presentation he shared his experience spanning over six decades of scientific accomplishments from the Physics department at La Sapienza in Rome to the national laboratories of the Bay Area, as well as his views on the impact his field has had on society at large.

Watch Video Watch playlist. In her presentation she shared her experience spanning over six decades of scientific accomplishments from the Physics department at La Sapienza in Rome to the national laboratories of the Bay Area, as well as her views on the impact her field has had on society at large. Success Stories Our pride is to be able to help young Italian talents follow their dreams and have opportunities. Innovaging President V. Press Room Click here to enter.

RISeT intends to enhance the activity of Scientific researchers and of the expert working abroad inside the scientific, academic and entrepreneurial italian system Access from here Register. Network Find out who works in your area of expertise or geographic area. Mentorship program Long and short term mentorships aimed at supporting under ISSNAF affiliates in their career choices and professional growth.

Publish Send us your texts, videos or podcasts to: publish issnaf. La diaspora dei ricercatori. Programma reclutamento giovani ricercatori "Rita Levi Montalcini" Selezione dei beneficiari. Filippo Mancia left. Clicca qui per ulteriori informazioni. The figures are based on survey of institutions for the fiscal year ending June 30 , and a follow up with institutions for the following 5 months from July 1 to November 30, Click here to read the article D r.

Vasileios Petrou, first Author of the study left together with the senior Author Dr. Filippo Mancia right.

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I ricercatori non scendono, Unita'. Gelmini confirms that a Political Agreement is within reach if parties are ready to make way for a reform that is based on shared principles. Legge 6 agosto , n. Progetti di ricerca di eccellenza 1. Articolo correlato Alle start-up 55 mln per l'innovazione, Italia Oggi , 17 luglio Il programma di ricerca , finanziato dal Ministero del Lavoro, della Salute e delle Politiche Sociali, copre le seguenti aree: - epidemiologia; - etiologia, patogenesi e sviluppo di vaccini; - clinica e terapia; - infezioni opportunistiche I.

For the meeting agenda click here For the full list of the finalists click here For more about the awards here. For more information about FP7 click here. Send us an e-mail at membership issnaf. Membership Agreement By joining the foundation the forthcoming member agrees to the following statements: 1. Privacy ISSNAF is a non profit organization and all data collected will not be used for commercial aims, advertising or spam mass mailing.

These Advisory Boards at present comprise the following: Just browse the Internet, opt for a reliable platform, find the necessary treatment and add it to the cart. Alberto Alesina. Piero Anversa. Giorgio Bellettini. Emilio Bizzi. Michele Boldrin. Enrico Bombieri. George Bugliarello. The researchers are also trying to find out how the shells could be used as fillers for different types of plastic, with applications that range from ready-meal packaging to assembly and repair workshops.

The ultimate aim is to give egg shells a second life by using them to actually package and protect egg-based food products. Is it aware of the new research and does it not think that a project of this importance, which would lead to a reduction in the amount of waste produced, should be funded? I would like to thank the Honourable Member for this interesting information. The Commission is not aware of a new project transforming egg shells into a raw material for plastics production.

However, on the basis of the presently available information, it is not possible to determine whether the project may be eligible for EU funding. Quali sono i progressi fatti dall'Unione europea nel campo dello sport dal , anno di inserimento nella politica europea, ad oggi? Le regole di sicurezza applicabili allo sport sono fissate a livello nazionale. In tale contesto la Commissione ha adottato diverse iniziative nel campo dell'antidoping.

Unfortunately, sports reports increasingly contain news of deaths and illnesses that are not reflected in the normal population of the same age. Sudden deaths due to serious damage to the heart, tumours at a young age, specific degenerative diseases of the nervous system are all clearly or partially linked to long-term drug abuse. We now have athletes who are unable to accept their limits and who replace physical and mental effort with synthetic substances that can allow them to perform better in terms of results.

Does it not consider it appropriate to identify more stringent regulations in sport which would guarantee greater safety and protection for athletes? What progress has been made in the European Union in the field of sports since , the year it became part of European policy? Safety rules applicable to sports are set at national level. In this context the Commission has already taken many different initiatives in the field of anti-doping. Oggetto: Alimenti capaci di stimolare le difese immunitarie.

La salute passa dal cibo, persino dai primissimi anni di vita. Un istituto di oncologia ha iniziato a progettare alimenti e molecole funzionali capaci di stimolare le difese immunitarie dei bambini, con lo scopo di ridurre il rischio di malattie immunitarie come allergie, patologie infiammatorie, morbo celiaco e alcuni tumori.

Gli studi saranno condotti da un gruppo di ricercatori guidati da esperti di immunoterapia antitumorale. Inoltre, nel quadro del programma Orizzonte proseguiranno gli studi su alimenti e regimi alimentari in quanto principali fattori per promuovere e conservare la salute e per ridurre il rischio di sviluppare malattie. Food is vital for health, including in the very first years of life. The research will be conducted by a group of researchers led by antitumour immunotherapy experts. The researchers will focus in particular on functional foods, which are foods that, as well as having nutritional value, have a positive effect on one or more bodily functions and are thus capable of improving health and reducing the risk of illness.

There are high hopes for this research: the way is open for the development of innovative products — in the form of everyday foods, rather than pills or capsules — that can help children to grow healthily. In view of the above and the increasing attention being paid by the European Union to policies relating to public health, can the Commission say whether it is aware of the new study and whether it believes that this research could be financed through the Seventh Framework Programme FP7 or through the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme? The species and composition of the human gut microbiome have recently been discovered to be potential key factors in the development of innate and adaptive immune function, in development of metabolic syndrome and obesity and in brain development and behaviour.

There is, therefore, a need to further investigate the effects of food and diet including food production methods and other lifestyle factors on the human gut microbiome and its role in health, disease and ageing. Horizon will continue to explore food and diet as the main factors for promoting and sustaining health and for reducing the risk of diseases development.

As the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme CIP does not support any kind of research, no related activities have been funded under this programme. Non ritiene che si possano prevedere degli incentivi per chi fa un uso razionale dell'energia, incentivi non necessariamente economici? Per imprimere nuovo slancio alla tematica dell'efficienza energetica, la Commissione ha proposto una nuova direttiva sull'efficienza energetica.

La proposta contiene diverse misure atte a consentire al consumatore di compiere una scelta informata in base al consumo energetico, prevedendo tra l'altro che gli utenti usufruiscano di contatori individuali che misurano con precisione e indicano il consumo energetico reale e ricevano bollette concepite in modo tale da orientare le loro scelte in materia di consumo energetico. Savings can be achieved both by modifying energy processes, so that there is less waste, and by using technologies capable of converting energy from one form to another more efficiently.

The initiative is laudable, but attention also needs to be paid to energy saving on an everyday basis, not just for an hour a year. In large companies, energy saving is not taken into great consideration and offices are overheated in winter and excessively cooled in summer. Does it not consider that incentives — not necessarily financial — might be provided for those who make a rational use of energy?

A comprehensive mix of energy efficiency policies and supporting measures has been implemented at European and national level promoting more efficient use of energy in buildings, household appliances and industrial equipment, transport, industry and energy generation. These include measures aimed at raising citizens' awareness of their energy consumption and ways of making it more efficient.

In addition to these measures directly providing consumers with information, the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme supports initiatives aimed at raising the awareness of consumers on these matters. To provide a further impetus for energy efficiency the Commission has proposed a new Energy Efficiency Directive. The proposal includes several measures which would allow consumers to make informed choices linked to their energy consumption.


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It would ensure that consumers are provided with individual meters that accurately measure and inform them about their actual energy consumption and that they receive energy bills in a way that allows them to make informed choices. The proposal is currently the subject of negotiations between the Council and the Parliament. The Sudan air force recently went into action, bombing parts of Bentiu, the capital of the South Sudanese state of Unity, located close to the border.

Several international media outlets were alerted by South Sudanese Government officials, who also indicated that the alleged target was a bridge that connects the city with the north of the country, where a United Nations compound has been set up. Sudan and South Sudan have been involved in clashes, with border violations by their respective armies and air raids along the border. Both the African Union and the United Nations have expressed their concern over the possibility that tensions may lead to open conflict between Sudan and South Sudan and have called on both sides to remain calm; they have also called on South Sudan to withdraw its troops from Heglig.

In addition, they have appealed to the international community to attempt mediation efforts. According to a recent UN estimate, the recent clashes in the border areas have resulted in the displacement of 20, people in South Sudan. La coltivazione e la lavorazione del tabacco rappresentano un settore trainante per l'economia di interi Stati europei con un indotto che garantisce lavoro a migliaia di addetti.

Sulla base delle considerazioni sopraesposte l'interrogante chiede alla Commissione:. Tobacco cultivation and processing is a driver for the economy of entire European States with satellite industries that guarantee employment for thousands of workers. Jobs and businesses are, however, increasingly at risk and the sector is going through a critical period.

There is difficulty in disposing of high quality stocks, there are issues involving uncompetitive prices on the world market and there has been a significant fall in the surface area being cultivated. The tobacco sector must be protected and relaunched in a business sense, so as to avoid an irreversible crisis in a sector which for many years has guaranteed significant tax revenues.

At the same time, the expenditure incurred by companies to reduce the risk associated with tobacco consumption is constantly increasing, which demonstrates continuing efforts to guarantee consumers higher quality and better safety. What policies have been put in place to guarantee the sustainability of tobacco production and to try and restore a sense of certainty and stability to the thousands of agricultural companies and workers in the sector? Regarding the policies in relation to the tobacco sector, the production of raw tobacco is fully integrated into the general agricultural policy instruments.

These are the single payment scheme or the Single Area Payment, basic income support schemes that, under certain conditions, provide payments independently from which kind of commodities farmers actually produce. Thus, tobacco production is treated in a neutral way.

However, there also exists a well developed policy for rural development which in case of difficulties or special needs can provide assistance to tobacco growing regions. The Commission is currently working on the revision of the so called Tobacco Products Directive. A legislative proposal is expected for the end of The impact on farmers will be duly considered in this legislative process.

Mentre una normale stampante laser fornisce una carica positiva a ogni singolo pixel su carta, a cui poi aderiranno singole particelle del toner, una stampante che cancella funziona in maniera del tutto diversa. Questa procedura permetterebbe di effettuare passi da gigante nella riduzione della CO 2 che si produce sia per realizzare la carta che per riciclarla. A printer that can use the same sheet of paper several times: that is the goal achieved by researchers at the University of Cambridge, who have produced the first laser printer that can delete as well as print.

Whereas a normal laser printer gives a positive charge to every single pixel on the paper, to which individual particles of toner stick, a printer that can delete works in a completely different way. In this case, extremely brief laser pulses in the order of picoseconds one thousandth of a second consists of a billion picoseconds to vaporise the toner present on the page without damaging the paper, since the particular type of light is absorbed by the toner but passes through the cellulose fibres that make up the paper.

This process would make it possible to make great progress in reducing the CO 2 produced both by producing paper and recycling it. The Cambridge researchers estimate that, at best, one sheet of paper could be reprinted and deleted 20 times before becoming unusable and, at worst, once. This process would cut carbon dioxide emissions by half in comparison with paper recycling. In view of the above, is the Commission aware of the recent discovery at the University of Cambridge of a printer that can reprint the same sheet of paper several times, and does it intend to launch an experimental programme to assess the appropriateness of using this new discovery with the main aim of reducing CO 2?

The idea of print ink removal with laser light pulses has been published recently and seems interesting. Two opportunities exist for possible co-funding of such a project from the Commission's budget. Consortia of partners from at least three different EU countries may apply for these funding, granted on the basis of a peer review evaluation process, which is highly competitive. For closer-to-the-market solutions, e. Lattine, barattoli, tubetti, scatole, sottili fogli per confezionare il cibo, dopo la raccolta, un'accurata selezione, la fusione e la liquefazione, sono trasformati in lingotti e poi venduti.

Per una caffettiera moka da tre tazze Per un cerchione di auto ne servono , mentre per un paio di occhiali ne bastano tre. Intende la Commissione avviare iniziative volte a favorire la raccolta differenziata dell'alluminio e sensibilizzare i cittadini in proposito, visti i molteplici vantaggi che derivano dal suo riutilizzo?

After being collected, carefully sorted, melted and liquefied, cans, tins, tubes and foil for food-wrapping are transformed into bars and then sold. The applications of this versatile metal are almost endless and include construction, electrical goods, transport, furnishings and technical installations. A 3-cup espresso coffee maker requires A tyre rim requires and just 3 are enough for a pair of glasses. The scale of the work behind this sorted waste sector is revealed in the figures.

Can the Commission provide a general overview of the data on the sorted collection of metals, and in particular of aluminium, in the various Member States? This is particularly important for materials such as aluminium which require a far larger amount of energy to extract and process as virgin material than to recycle.

In response to the specific questions raised by the Honourable Member:. Aluminium is present in several waste streams most of them covered by European recycling targets packaging, electric and electronic equipment, construction and demolition waste, end-of-life vehicles. The priority of the Commission is to ensure the full implementation of existing collection and recycling targets so that aluminium and metals in general are recycled at high rates and in good conditions.

Questi tre nomi compaiono in un dossier redatto dall'intelligence saudita sulle possibili minacce di Teheran. Informazioni su scenari poi condivise con paesi amici nel corso di tre riunioni: le prime si sono svolte alla fine del , l'ultima a marzo. I sauditi hanno studiato attentamente le mosse dei rivali storici. Three names — Qassem Suleimani, head of the Quds Force, the Iranian group for covert operations, Hassan Boromand, an official who coordinates covert activities in major European capitals, and Majid Alavi, suspected of having played a role in the failed anti-Israeli attack in Thailand — appear in a dossier compiled by the Saudi intelligence services on possible threats from Tehran.

The Saudis have carefully studied the movements of their historic rivals, from whom they are divided by religion Shiites against Sunnis and by a desire to assert their own influence in the Middle East. In view of the above, can the High Representative say whether steps are being taken to monitor the activities of Iranian terrorist cells within the European Union? The European Union has neither the competence nor the operational capacities to monitor the activities of specific targets e.

Both the European External Action Service and the European Commission can rely on situational awareness capacities, mainly based on the monitoring of open sources information. However, these capacities do not constitute a competence or operational capacity to monitor specific targets.

Oggetto: Dispositivo che dimezza i consumi dell'auto. L'inventore varesino l'ha inseguita per anni e, dopo averla perfezionata, ha brevettato il sistema in Italia e Svizzera. Per avviare la marcia basta una lieve accelerata di 4 secondi. Finita la propulsione, con altri 4 secondi di acceleratore si assicura un altro minuto di marcia.

Intende avviare un programma sperimentale al fine di promuovere tale brevetto in tutti gli Stati membri? La Commissione ha fissato un forte quadro politico per la misurazione e la riduzione del consumo di combustibile e delle emissioni di CO 2 delle autovetture. Questo comprende il regolamento CE n. Inoltre sono state adottate numerose legislazioni nazionali di attuazione, anche in favore delle ecoinnovazioni. Queste normative creano efficacemente un importante incentivo per la diffusione di tecnologie per il risparmio di carburante e la riduzione della CO 2 , sulla base di oggettivi criteri di prestazione.

The mechanism, known as the kinetic drive system KDS , is inspired by the cycloid curve principle, a principle of physics dating back to Galileo Galilei. The inventor from Varese worked on the system for years and, after perfecting it, patented it in Italy and Switzerland.

The prototype has also been approved by the traffic department of the Ticino canton. All that is required to start moving is a slight acceleration for four seconds. After that, thanks to the KDS system, the car carries on at the desired speed for a minute with no need to keep the accelerator pressed down and, therefore, at the minimum engine speed where the saving is made. Once propulsion is finished, another four seconds of acceleration provide another minute of driving. This ensures a smooth drive.

In view of the above, can the Commission state whether it is aware of this device, which can reduce fuel consumption and, above all, harmful fuel emissions for cars? Does it intend to launch an experimental programme to promote this patent in all Member States? The Commission is aware of the new mechanical device to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emission from passenger cars mentioned by the Honourable Member. To mitigate emissions from transport, the European Union has adopted new regulations and continuously supports research and innovation for the development of new technologies and solutions.

The Commission has established a robust policy framework for the measurement and the reduction of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions of passenger cars. Furthermore, numerous implementing legislations have been adopted, also covering eco-innovations. These regulations effectively create an important incentive for the deployment of CO 2 and fuel saving technologies, based on objective performance criteria. La Duke University di Durham ha realizzato un impianto pilota che sfrutta gli escrementi degli animali per ricavarne metano, da bruciare per mettere in movimento un generatore di energia elettrica.

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La ricerca e lo sviluppo sui rifiuti agricoli sono stati portati avanti nell'ambito dei programmi-quadro di ricerca promossi dall'UE fin dall'inizio. Il biogas viene prodotto in impianti commerciali con l'ausilio di numerose fonti quali i fanghi di depurazione, i rifiuti agricoli, i concimi, i rifiuti biologici e le discariche municipali.

Attualmente la Commissione sta valutando se tali criteri volontari siano sufficienti oppure se non sia necessario introdurre criteri vincolanti. Duke University in Durham has constructed a pilot plant that processes animal dung to recover methane from it, which is burned to power an electricity generator. It is a new form of renewable energy that many, in fact, have thought about for some time, and which could make a large contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to energy production.

Capturing the methane produced to put it on the market to fuel cars, for example, would be extremely difficult, which is why it is better to use it in situ. Research to assess the actual environmental impact has just begun, as has work to find solutions for making the system even more efficient and economically viable. Research and development on agricultural waste has been pursued under EU Research framework programmes from the beginning. Biogas is been produced at commercial installations using a large number of sources including sewage sludge, farm wastes, manures, municipal organic waste and landfills.

In , 3. Across Europe, more than biogas plants are operating commercially today. Biogas production may indeed help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This will depend on the extent to which biogas will substitute the use of fossil fuels in a life cycle perspective, and on whether methane emissions to the atmosphere can be avoided.

Research and development is continuing in this area to produce better gas quality, to improve operational efficiency and safety and to help developing better regulation to bring the innovation to the market. If biofuels are produced, Member States should ensure that it meets the sustainability criteria contained in that same directive. Regarding solid and gaseous biomass for heating and cooling, the Commission published a report on a sustainability scheme for non-biofuel biomass in and recommended to Member States to use the Renewable Energy Directive requirements.

The Commission is currently assessing if these voluntary criteria are sufficient, or if binding criteria would be needed. Asunto: Escudo antimisiles de EE. Graves consecuencias medioambientales y retroceso en el necesario desarme mundial. Does the Commission believe that Spain has infringed European law in the light of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on public participation in environmental matters? Does the Commission not consider it necessary that information should be provided at all times on the payload of those ships so that environmental risks can be assessed effectively and plans can be put into effect to mitigate those risks?

Does the Commission intend to seek information from the Spanish Government regarding these issues? The Commission would like to inform the Honourable Member that the establishment of a defence shield as well as related measures is undoubtedly an activity serving national defence purposes and as such outside the scope of the Aarhus Convention. The Commission does not therefore intend to take any further action in this matter. Respuesta de la Alta Representante y Vicepresidenta Sra. Taking into account the consequences for, and changes to, EU security which this decision by the previous Spanish Government involves:.

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The EU does not have a position on this issue, which is the sovereign responsibility of Member States. Betrifft: Auslegung der EU-Dienstleistungsrichtlinie. Der Bereich Bildung wurde nicht explizit aus dem Anwendungsbereich der Richtlinie ausgenommen. The directive, which was also transposed in Germany at the end of , should create a legal framework for facilitating freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services within the European Union.

The directive applies to all services provided for remuneration, albeit with the exception of a number of sectors such as financial or healthcare services. The educational sector was not expressly excluded from the scope of the directive. Therefore, the directive could be applied to fee-based private education. The Services Directive applies indeed to education services as long as the educational institution concerned is not essentially financed by public funds. The activites of privately financed universities are therefore covered by Services Directive.

In a federal Member State, an authorisation of a private educational institution granted by one state Land should therefore be recognised, in principle, in the other states. Exceptions are possible where justified by a public interest objective. Exceptions to this general rule of unlimited duration of authorisations are, inter alia , permitted when the authorisations are automatically renewed or are subject only to a condition that they continue to fulfil certain requirements.

This could apply, for example, in the case of privately funded universities where a regular check is needed as regards the quality of the education being provided by a private university. To what extent is the Commission aware of this incident, and how has it been involved in any subsequent investigation?

The study concludes that single-use plastic carrier bags, mostly given away for free by retailers, are particularly harmful to the environment as they are not degradable and are discarded more frequently. Does the Commission recognise the inconsistencies present throughout the report, particularly in terms of the legal measures recommended by BIOIS? The views expressed in the study are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect possible future actions of the Commission. The assessment of various options to reduce the environmental impact of plastic carrier bags is still ongoing.

A decision on the most appropriate instrument and its scope will be taken upon completion of the evaluation process. Nello specifico, si pone in rilievo che i cittadini in questione raccontano di un numero crescente di segnalazioni circa la presenza di personale militare inglese e francese a fianco degli insorti per organizzare azioni di guerriglia.

L'Unione europea ritiene che le brutali aggressioni e le diffuse violazioni dei diritti umani inflitte alla popolazione dalle forze di sicurezza del regime hanno fomentato la violenza in Siria. Tuttavia, l'UE ha continuamente sollecitato l'opposizione siriana a seguire un percorso non violento verso un cambiamento democratico ed inclusivo. L'UE sostiene pienamente l'inviato speciale delle Nazioni Unite e della Lega araba, Kofi Annan, e il suo piano in sei punti per una composizione politica della crisi.

L'UE accoglie con favore le risoluzioni e del Consiglio di sicurezza dell'ONU, che autorizzano l'invio di osservatori ONU al fine di sorvegliare in modo imparziale la piena cessazione della violenza e l'attuazione degli altri aspetti contenuti nel piano dell'inviato speciale. Tali misure sono concepite in modo da minimizzare gli effetti negativi sulla popolazione e vengono sottoposte a costanti revisioni.

According to the witness accounts of a number of Italian citizens resident in Syria, reported in the newspaper Avvenire , the situation in the country is vastly different from that reported by European media. In particular, the sanctions imposed on the Syrian Government have had a very negative impact. It is highlighted in particular that, according to these citizens, there are a growing number of British and French military personnel working alongside the rebels to organise guerrilla activity.

Support for the liberation of Syria apparently now consists of contributing to the manipulation of information and fomenting civil unrest, which is destined to last for several years. In the coming days, the ultimatum for the withdrawal of the army will expire, despite the serious reservations of many inhabitants of outlying villages who see the military presence as a kind of guarantee of their safety as, according to reports, ambushes perpetrated by the rebels are rife.

The EU considers that violence in Syria has been instigated by the brutal attacks and widespread human rights violations inflicted by the regime's security forces on the population. Nonetheless, it has consistently called on the Syrian opposition to pursue a non-violent path towards democratic and inclusive change. It welcomes the UN Security Council's Resolutions and authorising the deployment of UN observers, which will provide impartial reporting on the implementation of a full cessation of violence as well as the other aspects of the Special Envoy's plan.

The EU is ready to provide necessary assistance to the mission upon request and urges all parties to the conflict to fully cooperate with UN observers. The measures are designed to minimise any negative effects on the population. The sanctions are kept under constant review. Un'azienda ha messo a punto un'innovativa pompa di calore a gas zeolite che, se impiegata su larga scala, permetterebbe enormi risparmi sia economici che ambientali. L'energia cinetica delle molecole che si trovano rallentate viene trasformata in calore.

Le zeoliti sono materiali estremamente porosi che hanno trovato vasta applicazione in molti settori industriali. La Commissione ha sostenuto la ricerca in quest'ambito attraverso i programmi quadro di ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico ed altri programmi. A company has developed an innovative zeolite gas heat pump, which, if used on a large scale, would have enormous advantages in terms of both saving money and protecting the environment. The new heat source was produced synthetically in order to be used in heating systems. The molecules are slowed down and give off kinetic energy, which is transformed into heat.

The pump is powered by built-in solar panels which trigger the adsorption process in the zeolite.

Zeolites are highly porous materials that have found widespread applications throughout many industrial sectors. The Commission has supported research into these materials through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development and other Programmes. The topics cover all aspects from zeolite synthesis to innovative applications. The Commission also supports research on heat pumps where both, innovative heat pumps and heat pump integration into larger hybrid systems are considered. Oggetto: Cauzione per smaltire adeguatamente i cellulari. Si tratta di una cauzione di 10 euro sull'acquisto di telefoni cellulari e smartphone che verrebbe poi restituita al consumatore una volta che ha destinato l'apparecchio a un centro di smaltimento adeguato.

Una stima rivela che vi sarebbero circa 83 milioni di vecchi cellulari nelle case dei tedeschi. La cauzione sui cellulari rappresenterebbe un primo progetto pilota. Se dovesse funzionare, infatti, si potrebbe estendere ad altri prodotti tecnologici come i computer, i tablet, le console per i videogiochi e apparecchi simili. La restituzione di una somma di denaro ai consumatori potrebbe indurre gli stessi a porre maggiore attenzione al rispetto dell'ambiente e, quindi, a destinare i prodotti tecnologici a centri di riciclo adeguati.

La proposta appena descritta ha suscitato non poche polemiche da parte delle associazioni dei produttori di oggetti elettronici. In Germany a proposal has been put forward to encourage more responsible use of technological products among consumers.


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As we know, the recycling of electronic appliances is fundamental for protecting the environment. The deposit on mobile telephones would be a first pilot scheme. If it were to work, it could be extended to other technological products such as computers, tablets, video games consoles and similar appliances. The return of a sum of money to consumers could prompt them to pay greater attention to respecting the environment and, as a result, to send technological products to suitable recycling centres. The proposal described has aroused fierce debate by the associations of electronic goods manufacturers.

Deposit systems can make a contribution to the achievement of higher collection targets, but have also shown to have the potential to create administrative burdens and possible market barriers. In particolare sul fronte delle PMI, la recente indagine sull'accesso ai finanziamenti condotta dalla Commissione europea consente di rilevare che in Italia le condizioni applicate dalle banche registrano un netto peggioramento rispetto agli altri paesi dell'UE.

Dall'indagine emerge che, negli ultimi sei mesi, ben il 75 per cento delle PMI italiane ha registrato un incremento dei tassi d'interesse, mentre quasi il 65 per cento ha dichiarato di aver visto aumentare le commissioni bancarie applicate sui finanziamenti. Tra i principali paesi dell'area euro, Francia e Germania mostrano uno scenario ben diverso da quello italiano.

Analogo discorso per il credito al consumo: le commissioni bancarie, in percentuale dei finanziamenti, a gennaio sono state pari all'1,43 per cento in Italia, contro circa il mezzo punto percentuale di Spagna, Francia e Germania. Le PMI dipendono in larga misura dal finanziamento bancario e, pertanto, si dovrebbero evitare penalizzazioni di costo per le stesse all'interno dei singoli Stati membri.

Le condizioni applicate dalle banche per la concessione di crediti sono determinate da molti fattori diversi. Banks are exerting ever greater pressure on businesses and households alike. With reference to SMEs, a recent survey on access to funding conducted by the Commission clearly shows that the terms applied to bank loans in Italy have worsened in comparison with other EU countries.

The figures for the major eurozone countries show that the situation in France and Germany is very different from that in Italy. With regard to interest rates, the assertions made by the SMEs polled by the Commission are borne out by comparative data compiled by the central banks and released by the ECB. The figures for new loans granted to non-financial companies show that economic conditions in Italy have severely deteriorated over the last two years. In , the interest rates paid by Italian companies in were lower than those in the other major eurozone countries. In more recent times, however, expenditure on bank interest by Italian companies has been higher than that by their competitors elsewhere in Europe.

SMEs rely heavily on bank loans, and costs which penalise such companies should therefore be avoided in individual Member States. The aim should therefore be to maximise harmonisation, through a single corpus of rules. In view of the above, can the Commission say whether the terms applied by banks in Italy are incompatible with this objective and whether they could result in risks and underlying exposure being transferred to SMEs, thus constituting a measure that restricts competition between them?

Many different factors impact on banks' lending standards. This may explain why Italian banks have tightened their standards to a greater extent than their peers in other countries. In this respect, tightening of lending standards may be legitimate given that banks are expected to price loans according to the perceived riskiness of the borrower. La gestione degli immobili confiscati ai mafiosi richiede un sistema di trasparenza e di adeguate forme di controllo volte ad assicurare che gli stessi abbiano la funzione e la fruizione sociale che la legge impone e prevede.

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