The Atlantic Monthly 77 No. Warren, Jonathan W. Journal of Black Studies 2 : Portuguese in the Americas Series. North Dartmouth, Mass. Zangwill, Israel, and Edna Nahshon. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, One of the smallest modes of interpersonal social relationship, the family, thus reproduces to some extent the hierarchies and modes of arrangement of the macrosociety in which it is settled, creating internal power relations that affect and characterize the whole system. Anthropologist George Murdrock described the nuclear family, basis of the western communal organization, as a social group characterized by a common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction, generally formed by two adults who have an approved sexual relationship and one or more natural or adopted offspring, whose main functions within society are the sexual, economic, reproductive and educational ones cf.
Social Structure, Mexican and Chicano families follow the structure described by Murdrock and are the chore of the social organization of these groups, becoming the natural space in which traditions, customs and individual roles, among others, have been perpetuated. The two adults that Murdrock refers to are united by Holy Matrimony and the reproductive function of the family is always developed within this established kind of relationship. The father becomes the provider of economic stability and has the most authority within the group, whereas the mother becomes the physical and spiritual nurturer, generally works at home and has accepted her role within the walls of the house, an acceptance which she many times transmits to her offspring.
Outside the limits of the microsociety that families represent, Literature from and about the community, as well popular culture in all forms and art in general, has served to maintain these roles, contributing to the subjugation of women in the name of tradition and community unity. Much of this literature depicts an authoritarian, patriarchal unit where the macho i. However, things are changing. In this sense, an early study developed by Scott Coltrane at the dawn of the nineties among twenty middle-class Chicano families is especially useful: We found conventional masculine privilege as well as considerable sharing in several domains.
Second, … , we found that couples described their decision-making to be relatively fair and equal. Third, fathers in these families were more involved in child rearing than their own fathers had been, and many were rated as sharing a majority of child care tasks. Finally, while no husband performed full half of the housework, a few made substantial contributions in this area as well. The corrido, concretely, with its enormous audience, is one of the most important forms of contemporary Mexican and Chicano popular culture, and as a consequence, may perfectly serve as an example to be studied.
Corridos have always portrayed the state of affairs of the society in which they are produced and developed and could thus be considered the thermometers of the contemporary social tendencies regarding several societal issues and concerns. The corrido, a short narrative song, whose origin is found during the 19th century, deals with everyday life issues, such as love, war, revolutions, natural disasters, heroes, political and social events, immigration, murders, etc.
Similarly, a quick overview of the lyrics of Los Tigres del Norte may lead us to the conclusion that the protagonists of the majority of their songs and the stories told in them are men who respond to the previously mentioned characteristics. But we all pay for our acts in this life, and one day you will have nothing left and you will cry tears of blood and will come to me, asking me for forgiveness. These two sentences lose their meaning when I think of you, because I love you, and you make me suffer. But time goes by and I cannot forget you. I lost everything because I gave you everything; I always cared for you, never for myself.
Me, who fought against titans and was never defeated by the best gladiator, who was always the great champion who won thousands of crowns, just one woman has made me kiss the canvas …. All these lyrics describe a very masculine, self-conscious man, but who overtly admits his weakness when it comes to deal with women.
That woman died of sorrow the day I was born. So, are you my son? Sir…engendering a baby does not make one a father, a father is full of love….. Forgive me, my son…. I cannot forgive you, but let my blessed mother rest in peace…]. However, the band also has some stories that deal with fathers and their roles and duties. Among these songs and the stories they tell, we could establish two big thematic lines with regards to the depiction of fatherhood.
On the other hand, the second group of lyrics presents a desperate father who has lost his kids for several reasons. I see you are shocked when I kiss you affectionately. If I never asked you for the dammed divorce for our kids, I do not want to set a bad example and leave them without a father. If my children ever ask you whether destiny has separated us, tell them not to worry, that we still love each other, that your frozen body provides me with the heat that I have always longed for.
The corrido shows a very Catholic way of understanding marriage that is presented as a sacred rite. After the divorce, which is not contemplated by the religious law, the relationship between the couple turns into a cold, commercial one and the couple becomes linked by a contractual relationship in favor of their sons and daughters. You take your way and I take mine. It all seems so easy, but there is an eternal bond that ties us forever, our beloved children.
This bitter failure will remain in our personal histories; we are undoubtedly offending the Supreme Being. Now, more than ever, we should support and help them so that they do not suffer. Signing that paper was no good business at all; the damned and cruel divorce does not do any good to any of us. This is why we will be partners forever, for those pretty little faces. The youngest one said: daddy, stop talking, your life is ending and mine is starting. We give them all our love; this is part of our lives.
Spending money on them is not a lost account. A son can become a judge in his own home and should teach his brothers how to respect their father. The lyrics show how a father can lose his authority and respect and be paid back with disrespect from his wife and kids when they grow up after having had to work hard to provide welfare and material happiness to them.
God bless the offspring who care for their parents and love them. God bless the offspring who return home and want to give their lives for their parents.
- A Companion to Early Modern Hispanic Theater.
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A lonely old man once said: I have my children, they live luxuriously and have plenty of money and power, and I wander alone, living in the streets, they forgot who took care of them when they were kids. The old men who are alone at the end of their days are sad parents. This is the way life is: one offers everything to a son, with no hope of receiving anything back. The lyrics show fatherhood as an ultimate generous act that is not always recognized by the young generations. Hijo oye este consejo Que tu vida, fue una historia Y que pudiste escribirla Para ganar o perder Son, let me give you some advice: You are right, I am an old man, I may have already started to disturb you.
I was also young once and the many disappointments I have experienced in my life push me to talk to you today. Look at me as if I were your mirror, one day you will also become old, and you will then understand, even if it is too late that you could have written your life-story taking the role of a winner or a loser. And if you think that I have failed do not make the same mistakes, prepare yourself, study hard and look for a better future. Because you are now going to play on the love of your life, but you are betting on yourself.
Prepare yourself, count on me, you are young, you can do it now, it is easy for you. Just do not get involved in bad habits, vicious men get nowhere. See how many people get lost and make other people incredibly wealthy with their disgrace. I only want you to succeed. Is there anything bad in that? You should understand me. Life is long and there is no way back.
And if you think that I have failed, do not make the same mistakes, prepare yourself, study hard and look for a better future. Life is a great school. What is money and all I earned good for if drugs took my spoiled son away from me. If I had been next to him, this may not have happened.
I do not want to give advice and not have one for myself, but if you have any spare time, enjoy it with your beloved ones, and things will be great for you. Speaking : I know there are many fathers who lost their sons like me and suffer the same pain, drugs make you lose your life, family, shame and skills. You should know hospitals, prisons and pantheons become the last stop for many because of the damned drugs. I know many people who are now dealers. You should know that I lost a son and you are to blame for that.
Forgive me if I offend you, sirs, but this is the voice of the pain of a father. However, even though drug dealing is presented as something to denounce, all the lyrics show a regretful father, who blames himself for not having spent enough time with his kid and not having cared about his education. The father, similarly, feels guilty for having done something wrong and the man the daughter is with lectures the father, who is accused of not having been a good one.
Y si alguien es culpable, Ese culpable es usted No basta decir soy padre Sino hay que saberlo ser. Hello sir, how are you? Why are you so sad? Are you sick? Is there anything wrong? No, sir. No, Sir. You advised her, you led her to the wrong way, and worst of all, and you pushed her to the wild life! You must be a terrible man! She felt all alone and you did not understand her. What should I understand? There was always food on her table. I gave her good examples. That is not enough, there is something more valuable, which cannot be sold and bought, she lacked love. You are absolutely wrong, she had plenty of love.
You are the one who is wrong; you never showed your love to her. And if there is anyone to blame, you are the one. Thus, the stereotype of the working father, who is responsible for the material provision of his kids is still present in the contemporary popular tradition, and as a consequence, we can infer that in the contemporary popular code of behavior and morality also.
However, time does not always do all, and sometimes it is society that takes sons away from fathers. This father, in opposition to the others, has spent enough time educating his son but it is the system that has separated them. El respeto por la vida Pero otros Me lo entrenan pa matar Ya no juega a los soldados en mi casa Ahora vive en una base militar es un hombre De combate No llores padre me dijo Que me vas hacer Llorar Mi patria ha sido atacada Y por ella voy a pelear How many wars have been fought, how many heroes defeated by men, power and ambition.
How many heroes have ended up with their hearts tattooed, mutilated by bombs and cannons. The father, who once again is presented as an enduring man is convinced he should leave his son join the army, so that he can become a hero. The son, on his part, acquires the most traditionally described as masculine attributes: bravery, pride, honor, dignity and in this case, patriotism. A free man, who relates to women in a way that does not tie him down, with strong and very marked masculine characteristics, such as freedom, pride, bravery and so on, is still the protagonists of a genre that represents the present state of affairs of Mexican and Chicano popular culture.
The loss of the latter for one or another reason, results in the depiction of a sad man, who acquires behavioral attitudes that have traditionally been attributed to women, such as endurance and even submission to his offspring. And yet it is often given short thrift. Los Tigres del Norte do not. NOTES 1 The proposed translations respond to a free, thematic description of the storyline rather than to a word-to-word translation of the lyrics, and do not attempt at maintaining the rhyme and musical attributes of the songs.
Paulino, Eva. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, Anaya, Rudolfo. Muy Macho. Latino Men Confront their Manhood. Toronto: Anchor Books. Brandth, Berit and Kvande, Elin. The Sociological Review 2 : Coltrane, Scott. New York: Macmillan, Mariscal, George, Ed. Chicano and Chicana experiences of the War. Berkeley: Universtiy of California Press, Masculinity and Latino Culture.
Bolder, Colo. Murdock, George. Social Structure. New York: MacMillan, Herlinghauss, Herman. Saracho, Olivia, and Spodek, Bernard. Journal of Hispanich Higher Education 2: 2 April : Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion. Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. London: Virago Press, Fathering 3: 2 Spring : After graduating with a B. In , he published his inaugural novel Self, hardly noticed at the time. Only his prize-winning novel Life of Pi — a remarkable spiritual journey of a young Hindu-Christian Muslim boy, touching on questions of religion and metaphysics - would bring Martel and his work to the attention of the critics; it awarded him international recognition.
In April he published Beatrice and Virgil, where he deals with the theme of the holocaust and its relation with art. In November , the University of Saskatchewan announced that Martel would be scholar-in-residence. Considered by some as a nomad storyteller, Yann Martel lives now mainly in Montreal, where his parents have settled; Montreal is his base.
The literary glory, which as he commented in in The Guardian4, meant a passage from silence, isolation, solitude and discretion to a feeling of being a racehorse, due to the many reviews and invitations that have left him exhausted and thrilled, has not affected him personally, because it praises his creative act.
Critics have also been very eloquent in praising Martel. By the time Self was published, it was not so critically or commercially applauded as it is nowadays. In fact, only after the resounding success of The Life of Pi and very much in its shadow did the novel deserve any attention from the critics. Some enthusiastic critiques, mainly from the Canadian Press5, were unanimous in considering it an engaging, even mesmerizing book, with things that ring true, allied to a wildly, unusual, imaginative quality. What is autobiography? What is man? What is woman? What is violence?
What is happiness? Self narrates the story of a young man who, in the course of an overnight transformation, becomes a woman, only to morph back into masculine form in his mids. The intimacy and interconnectedness between his parents seems to set the tone for the interchangeability of roles and open the path to an adventurous change of gender, as he claims that: I cannot recall noticing, as a small child, any difference between my parents that I could ascribe to sex.
As it is constituted by language and directed toward its contemporary audience, it speaks through metaphors that are held in common, that are shared by the texts that surround it. As it is taken up into the ongoing discourse, autobiography establishes its place as universal word for transformation Barros Exploring the themes of interrelatedness and isolation, selfhood and otherness, the novel tells a tale that maps the self onto tellings of personal and social experiences, becoming a narrative with a self at its centre.
So it was that, by a mere whim of geography, I went to school in England, played outside in Spanish and told all about it at home in French. Each tongue came naturally to me and each had its natural interlocutors. I no 60 Op. English became the language of my exact expression, but it expressed thoughts that somehow have always remained Latin Self According to Raymond Williams every human being needs to describe his experiences because in this description he remakes himself, beginning a creative change in his own personal organization, a change which includes and controls experience.
This is a change that frees the self, that is to say creates another self, freeing the one subjected to the determinative power of culture, creating an empowered subject, able to recreate both culture and his place in it, paving the way for a geography of the possible. Framed by a postmodernist vision of the self as a discursive entity, an agent of discourse in the autobiographical narrative, a producer of meaning and an organizer of knowledge Ashley et al , we can read the self at the centre of the novel not as the essentialist self, but rather as a dynamic subject that changes over time, and is positioned in multiple discourses, as a set of techniques and practices Probyn The several enunciative modalities Foucault do not refer to a synthesis or to a unifying function of the subjects, but rather show dispersions, revealing the different states, places and positions which the enunciative subject occupies or is given in the moment of speaking or of writing.
Recounting his own story, the protagonist constructs a dual landscape Ochs and Capps , of action and of consciousness; while the former focuses on what the protagonist does under certain circumstances, the latter focuses on his beliefs and on his feelings. Oscillating between a narrative structure framed by the past of the action and the present of the writing, Self offers a process of self-comprehension that is reminiscent, in the sense that it gathers together all the dimensions of the self, the dimensions which had been until the moment of writing, unarticulated, dispersed, scattered or lost.
The novel is composed of two chapters. I weigh pounds. My hair is brown and curly. My eyes are grey-blue. My blood type is O positive. I am Canadian. I speak English and French Self The moment when past and present intersect and when the author has to put an end to time, to knowledge and to the self. Stuart Hall argues that the practice of representation implies the positions from which one writes or speaks — the enunciative positions — because, though we speak about ourselves, in our name and about our experience, who speaks or writes, who determines the identity of the narrator and the subject about whom it is written or spoken are not identical and are not in the same place.
As if paradoxically, I were then nothing but a huge eager eye, an emotional eye, looking out, always looking out Self And Portugal is the stage where his other self is positioned, now in the voice of a woman, as on his eighteenth birthday, he wakes up as a female: 64 Op. I sat up. I was confused. I knew that I was thinking in English, that much I knew right away. My identity was tied to the English language.
And I knew that I was a woman, that also. English speaking and a woman. Interestingly, it is with men, for whom she later starts to feel attracted, that she is conscious of a homosexual relationship. This is homosexuality. Which is crazy, I know. In my memory the past and the present tenses do not measure temporal sequences, but emotional weight. What I cannot forget repeats itself in the present tense Self Being born in Spain, of Canadian parents and having lived all over Europe and America, the character tries not to compartmentalise his identity; according to Amin Maalouf , you cannot divide it up into halves or thirds or any other separate segments.
Thus, the self becomes simultaneously the object and the subject of the autobiography. For Elspeth Probyn , the self is not an end in itself, but rather the opening of a perspective, a perspective which allows us to transform ourselves. This search takes place through the enactment of several identities, through a play that is at the centre of the different narratives, namely the narratives that tell about the change of identity, 66 Op.
The protagonist is on the one hand prolonging her pain and fear, her trauma in order to give the reader the sense of brutality, the never ending moment of such an experience, but, on the other hand, deep inside, as a woman and as an artist, she wants to reproduce the disruption it caused in her as a human being, as a writer and as a mother who lost her baby, containing it within the physical limits of a column.
To me it was murder. In fact, the subversive character of Self does not satisfy the demand for truth in experience, neither does it consolidate the meaning of being a man or a woman. The meaning of masculine and feminine, male and female, man and woman becomes, in consequence of all the strategies used in the novel, a place of struggle and the location of change.
It is a self involved in the modes of living the daily life, while, simultaneously, producing a mode of questioning the material conditions of that same life. The position one occupies in the social space, the practices and the identities are not separated categories in a deterministic or hierarchical relation: all these inform each other mutually, creating a dense and detailed texture of narratives, of relationships and of experiences.
This double articulation, the knowing of the self and the care of the self, the constraints of daily life, compensated by the density of the individual experiences, allow us to analyse this text of life based on epistemological and ontological technologies of the self. As a technique, the care of the self articulates the different modalities of identity and the experience of living through them. The diverse enunciative modalities do not refer to a synthesis or a unifying function of the subject, but rather to its dispersion, revealing the different states, places and positions which the subject occupies or which are given to him in the moment of producing a discourse.
An experience and an identity comprise in themselves the other, the ruptures and discontinuities, as the cultural identity is both a question of becoming as a question of being. Telling his life story, he gets to know himself as he uses narrative to apprehend experiences and navigate relationships with others. Through his life writing, his sense of entity is an outcome of his personal involvement in the world and with others.
This involvement is mediated by a personal narrative that shapes how he attends to and feels about events. The personal narratives we encounter in the novel are but partial representations of the world and hence generate a self that is multiple and relational. Being multiplicity possible to happen along such dimensions as subject and object, past and present, male and female, the last pair is the one that calls our attention due to the gender transformations and all the political, ideological and emotional traits of the meaning of being a man and a woman.
This link does not offer any other information regarding publication, date or page. Nonetheless, I have chosen to include these references, as they constitute the existing material on Martel. Amherst Univer- sity of Massachusetts Press, Barros, Carolyn. Autobiography: Narrative of Transformation. Bauman, Zygmunt. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, Benveniste, Emile. Paris: Gallimard, Bruner, Jerome. Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press: Massachusetts, Burns, Tom and Jeffrey W. Hunter eds. Gale Cengage, Retrieved July Butler, Judith. New York: Routledge, Churchwell, Sarah.
Review of Beatrice and Virgil. The Observer. Retrieved June Curti , Lidia. Cultural Studies. Lawrence Grossberg et al. Eakin, Paul John. How Our Lives Become Stories. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, Elbaz, Robert. The Changing Nature of the Self. A Critical Study of the Autobiographic Discourse. London: Croom Helm, Technologies of the Self. A Seminar with Michel Foucault. Luther H. Martin et al. Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, Gilmore, Leigh.
Postmodern Studies 33, Rodopi, Hall, Stuart. Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Jonathan Rutherford. London: Lawrence and Wishart, , Questions of Cultural Identity. Holcombe, Garan. Maalouf, Amin. Martel, Yann. Marchand, Philip 4 May Ochs, Elinor and Lisa Capps. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. History, Experience and Cultural Studies. London: Macmillan Press, Probyn, Elspeth. London and New York: Routledge, Robbins, Timothy. Barbara Adam and Stuart Allan. London: University College London Press, , Oxford: Clarendon Press, Smith, Sidonie.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Williams, Raymond. The Long Revolution. But undoubtedly it also sprang from the unusual intellectual abilities which gave way to secret fantasies. Once the nature of their relationship was detected and labelled as inappropriate, the families decided on their being separated.
The murder has been preserved in the memory of the nation and even beyond it. In this paper I propose to investigate the manner whereby the historical event was reconstructed over a period of forty years of national mythologisation and also its extraordinary impact on the arts. During the six-day long trial, the newspapers followed the story closely, satisfying the curiosity of a nation both shocked and mesmerized by the matricide. In addition to the cautious plans to kill Honora Parker, the jury and the nation were also informed of the deceiving characters of the two girls. By the time the trial began, the case was of public knowledge in New Zealand and beyond, so much so that the Crown Prosecutor, Mr Adam Brown, feels the need to warn the jury against their already formed opinion: Most of you will have read in the newspapers, and no doubt discussed among your friends, the story of this crime.
A good deal of evidence has already been given in throughout New Zealand, I am given to understand even overseas. The circumstances of this crime are unusual, and indeed unique [ Because of the unusual circumstances, the case has been given a considerable amount of publicity and it would be foolish to suppose you know nothing of the evidence, and therefore you may have formed opinions upon it.
What I shall argue is that besides the context of reinforcement of the lost imperial force New Zealand became an independent dominion in and an independent nation in , there is also the question of patriarchal law over female youth. This situation enraged Pauline when she learned about it, just prior to the murder. They also envisioned the publication of the novels they were writing and which, they were certain, would bring them fame and fortune.
What was on trial therefore was only their sanity, the Crown adamantly arguing for it while the defence tried to present a case of a folie a deux, a documented situation of paranoia of the exalted type. This mental illness, which has become known to the world with the case of Leopold and Loeb in Chicago in , was characterised by the estrangement of their victims from reality. In the end Pauline and Juliet were found guilty, the crime of female autonomy and sexual responsibility thus also suitably reinforced as such, and were only spared the death penalty because they were under eighteen.
The jury came to a decision in mere two hours. The script Angela Carter prepared based on the Christchurch affair presents little variation from the facts, as far as they had been publicly known. Juliet and Pauline were contrastive girls at several levels; some were immediately evident: the physical appearance, class status and nationality. The girls throw back their heads and laugh but we cannot hear them. They look wild, ecstatic, beautiful, free as they run down the hill. Carter The characterisation of the girls is contrastive although always felt as complementary too.
At school Nerissa is a swan among geese, that is, New Zealander girls Carter ; her Englishness is terribly attractive to her fellow colleagues and even to her teacher: Nerissa sits, composedly changing her shoes. The hymn ends. The girls incline their heads. She turns; their eyes meet. Dearly beloved Nerissa is taken aback by the sheer passion of Lena which is intense and uncompromising. She represents the centre, as if the heart of the empire has travelled to this remote part of its frontiers, even when the empire is a ruin of itself.
Nerissa has suffered from TB like Keats , a condition which has kept her away from her family, and especially from her mother whose love she so passionately craves for, so that she can recover in properly equipped health facilities. The illness also required that Lena had to be committed for many months and, like Nerissa, she feels she has been abandoned by her mother. Nerissa watches Mary in sexual activities with her lover in their own home, making her physically sick.
She sees Bobb as a monster and by the same reasoning herself as well. Both of them. Loving both of them, Nerissa acts on the one she has access to. There Pauline, as Gina, is so happy to encounter Deborah that she cries, thus giving way to a lesbian affection even in their fantasy world. Juliet bursts through the screen as a giggling and blushing princess as part of the garden games she plays with her brother.
Consequently, the viewer associates Pauline with the male hero, Romeo. In the second scene Pauline pretends to be dying after a bicycle accident. The erotic quality of the adolescent bodies leads casually, naturally, to a kiss. Juliet continues to be queen Deborah and her status is not equalled.
In fact, when Pauline explains the novelistic plot to John, she informs him that Deborah would never be involved with a commoner, in this case Nicholas, the tennis instructor, and that his romantic involvement is instead with Gina, the gypsy. There is instead the exploration of that element in the dynamics of the family and even of maintenance of a sense of class. Pauline has delusions of extracting herself from her own family as she feels they are embarrassing. Furthermore, Pauline accuses her mother of being the most ignorant person she knows, a stark contrast to Dr Hulme and most especially to Juliet and herself as they consider themselves geniuses.
The boat fantasy shows therefore not only the acceptance of Pauline and Juliet as a couple they kiss in front of the Hulmes but also of Pauline as a daughter the Hulmes embrace both girls.
In addition, it is the ultimate fantasy of not only being like Juliet, but being Juliet herself. They seem to be mad with happiness for being reunited and they throw their arms around him as if both were his daughters. The incident also forces the disclosure of the secret which anticipates the dismantling of the Hulme family, the divorce. This psychological trauma was prepared cinematically by their physical scars, Pauline on her leg and Juliet on her lungs, as she proudly puts it.
The superiority is connected with her origin for she is quick to emphasise in front of the class that she comes from England. In another instance Juliet reads the Borovnian novel in class as a deliberate strategy to enrage the teacher by attacking New Zealander values. But it is also, as the American-Neo Zealander playwright admits, about putting love above reason and moral Forster In accordance with Forster, and despite the different approaches to the crime, New Zealander Peter Jackson and British Angela Carter construct their texts so as to demythologise a certain nationalistic structure which is based on resilient imperialistic parameters regarding class and gender.
Therefore, from both geographic and power opposing sides of what was once the British empire, artistic productions acknowledge the long imperial shadow which renovates a homophobic and class biased construction of a crime with national identity repercussions. David Callahan for the useful references which helped in the research process for this paper.
The Christchurch Murder. Mark Bell. London: Vintage, Star-Sun 28 August 1. Parker-Hulme Murder Case, Christchurch City Libraries. Star-Sun 23 August 1. Forster, Michaelanne. Daughters of Heaven. Auckland: Victoria UP, Heavenly Creatures. Peter Jackson. Film Quarterly. King Art. And it is by and large this rapidly growing crop of cultural mulattoes that fuels the New Black Aesthetics.
We no longer need to deny or suppress any part of our complicated and sometimes contradictory baggage to please either white people or black. Passing: The Lies of the Body Passing, both as a social gesture and as a literary motif, depends in the American racial hegemonic architecture on a discourse of identity difference that imposes an irreconcilable opposition between the categories of blackness and whiteness, two spaces of self actualization to which the very logic of the dichotomy attributes a quality of irreducible substance.
That visual evidence is, in turn, negated by legal and social pre-existing racialised criteria that impose a reading of exclusive blackness by virtue of an intangible unseen. But even in the classical American narratives, the passer emotionally inhabits spaces of both blackness and whiteness, which blend and blur to a degree, because they are negotiated by individual selves who are agents of their own reinvention, albeit within externally imposed limitations.
Unlike Cole who carries unproblematically the signs of her mixed heritage, she is visibly and embarrassingly white-looking. But unlike Angela in the Faucet narrative, Birdie desires not whiteness but blackness, and her childhood is imprinted by a deep sense of being betrayed by her body. Back then I was content to see only Cole, three years older than me, and imagine that her face — cinnamon-skinned, curly haired, serious — was my own… That face was me and I was that face and that was how the story went. There had been a time when I thought I was just going through a phase. That if I was patient and good enough, I would transform into a black swan.
Her parents are the unconscious catalysts of her racial remaking attempts when they enroll the girls in the Nkrumah Black Power School where she is hardly recognized as belonging, saluted as she is by puzzlement. You white! I felt the familiar tightening in my lungs. The children stared at me, mouths hanging open. Potter, the teacher, entered the room. Performing blackness in Caucasia is, therefore, not an act of opportunity or the resolution of a psychological puzzle, but a deliberate attempt to construct an identity of desire for a self riddled by uncertainty about her racial authenticity.
It requires a kind of performance that goes beyond verbal codes, transforming her body into a contested site of symbolic manipulation. In Plum Bun the family is equally divided, but while Fausset highlights the link between the white-looking mother and daughter, who engage in a kind of recreational passing game when they are alone — in one of the most brutal early scenes they pretend not to recognize the father and daughter who look black in order to keep playing the game they both cherish — Senna exposes the toll that the dermo-difference has on the relationship between the girls and their othered parent.
Deck, the father, though occasionally affectionate, tends to keep an emotional distance from Birdie that she cannot help but notice. I understood that even then. Just like the time my knees were ashy. It looks crazy. Under maternal pressure to use her skills in the art of changing in the small New Hampshire town where mother and daughter settle after months of nomadic existence, her specular whiteness is now turned into a tool of a much wider performance of identity.
I talked the talk, walked the walk, swayed my hips to the sound of heavy metal, learned to wear blue eyeliner and frosted lipstick and snap my gum. That is precisely what she does, but her experience as both a racial spy and a racial performer complicates her concept of self. It also troubles whiteness, exposing the layers and nuances of its construction and the plasticity and temporality of its attributes.
Her narrative may be post-soul, but it certainly is not post-historical in any abstract or romanticized sense. Elam, Michele. Ellis, Trey. Gilroy, Paul. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Ginsberg, Elaine, ed. Passing and the Fictions of Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, London: Lawrence and Wishart, Harrison-Khan, Lori. Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man. Robinson, Amy. Rottenberg, Catherine.
Hanover: University Press of New England, Senna, Denzy. Rebecca Walker. New York: Anchor Books, New York: Riverhead Books, Taylor, Paul C. These paratextual materials will help us to ascertain how the works were received in the two cultures and whether their position in the receiving cultural system paralleled or deviated from that enjoyed in the source culture. Genette proposed that the study of a text should not be limited to the text proper, but should extend the borders of its textual frontier and incorporate all the paratextual material generated around the literary text itself.
The author divides paratextual phenomena according to their spatial relationship with the book into peritexts and epitexts Genette 5. The former comprise those paratextual elements physically located within the bounds of the printed book, such as prefaces, table of contents, front page, title, etc. The latter consist of all the documents generated outside the book such as letters and reviews.
Table 1. The following year, on April 13th, at the 36th 98 Op. Comer, Robert R. As well as these Academy nominations and awards, the movie received several other distinctions. When the scriptwriters adapted the literary work for the screenplay, they accommodated its contents to the tastes and demands required for the target audience of a mass market medium like the cinema, which from the censorship point of view was more vulnerable than the novel.
However, what they had conjectured would serve to denounce the vices of contemporary amoral American society Reilly 24 , in fact, served to create a mass hero, as Newman himself pointed out in an interview in External graces; he was good with women, he did all those macho things, he wore his pants right, he was a womanizer. But we thought that the fact that he was rotten at the core would be the distinguishable feature. We just made a mistake. We thought people would turn away from him.
He betrayed his neighbors… he would betray anybody, but apparently was a part of the American Dream Jackson In spite of these adjustments, McMurtry believed that the screen writers were too faithful to his work on transferring the contents of the book to the script: Touches which were overpoetic in the novel became merely awkward in the screenplay; occasionally a line of description from the book would be turned into a line of dialogue, but with no change in the adjective, a practise hardly recommendable McMurtry In the rush of production, that and the rest of my suggestion somehow got brushed aside — the next report I had, Paramount was going to call it Hud Bannon Against the World McMurtry 4.
The Texas Observer critic, David L. In this respect, the reviewer points out the question of perspective in the treatment of violence in the novel. This scene, half-incredible as it is, is a real shocker. How the old grandfather gets his punishment from Hud is even more a challenge to normal probability Tinkle 9. In this way, Hud emerges as the epitome of this alienated human being that is contemporary man.
He concludes his critique by admitting that the main theme of the movie is not the destruction of hope, of life or of the legend, but that Ritt has used those elements with great lyric intensity to achieve through them a catharsis in the process. Alma is an attractive separated or divorced woman whose husband left her for gambling after six years of marriage. Nevertheless, as the narrative evolves, he learns to accept life as it is and to judge people by their actions.
We have not found any press reviews on the reception of the novel in Spain. Subtle psychological study of an elementary man, with violent and unpredictable reactions, the story of Hud draws us into life in rural America, a region where the harshness of the environment seems to condition the temperament of its dwellers.
The suggestive style of the author, almost poetic at times, and brimming with a breathtaking naturalism at others, brings to mind the prose of the best Salinger. Director: Martin Ritt. Distribuidora Nacional: Filmax. Local de Estreno en Madrid: P. Fecha de su estreno: 2 Septiembre Permanencia en cartel: Laborables y festivos. Doblaje: Parlo Films, S. Table 2. Against the backdrop of the contemporary West with the action set in a modern Texan cattle ranch, the violent, profound and bitter plot of this psychological drama is played out.
The main theme, with hardly any action, is a study of tough characters, confronted by problems which, if not exciting, are at least interesting. There are scenes — like the cattle slaughter sequence — that are impeccably executed and charged with strong dramatic effect. In contrast, the unexpected and sudden ending, without easy concessions, may not be to the liking of those viewers accustomed to easy solutions where everything ends well.
The photography is excellent and the sound and dubbing are very good.
In a Op. Through the Censorship Board 4. The publisher stated that the book would be two hundred pages long in 15x The reader, whose signature is unreadable, produced the following report on the 13th September, , authorizing publication of the book: The novel Hud describes the life of Texan ranchers.
An epidemic kills the whole herd and the owner, an old rancher, is unable to overcome the disaster. The young ones do not feel so attached to the cattle, as those were the early days when oil had been found. On October 7th, once printing permission had been received, the publishing house presented another request for authorization of the book covers. A week later, the Inspection Section permitted the circulation of the novel with the proposed covers.
The censorial bureaucracy was completed on 18th October , when the publisher handed over the reglamentary three volumes of the novel on deposit. On the 6th March, , the distribution company, Filmax, asked the General Director of Foreign Trade for permission to change the title of Importation Licence no. In the report signed by the censors who banned the trailer there is no indication as to which scenes were considered offensive, so it must be assumed that the ban was due to the transgressive tone of all the scenes in the trailer. On July 16th, a censorship board composed of practically the same members as those who had banned the trailer the previous day, met to examine the dubbed version of Hud.
It should be noted that the two contradictory resolutions were passed by censorship boards with a similar composition. In the application, the producer informed the Board that they had introduced some suppressions and expressed the hope that the trailer could be exhibited with the adaptations introduced: Entrance of Paul Newman in P. Neal kitchen scene17 The Board met on 8th October to review the trailer for Hud and with a majority vote authorized it for over 18s.
The coarseness of its language and the crude realism depicted in some of its passages did not pass unnoticed. The Jesse Jones Award won by this contemporary Western about the loss of the frontier values of independence and freedom served McMurtry as a letter of introduction in the literary realm. On transferring the plot to the new medium, the intention of director and scriptwriters alike was to condemn materialism and to expose the despicable nature of its callous antagonist, Hud. However, by defying American conventions and creating a national ethos, this antihero received popular acclaim.
Thus, contrary to all expectation, Hud ended up as a folk hero. In the target culture, the work had a quite differentiated reception in the two media. All the English translations of quotes from Spanish paratexts are mine. Un trailer previo y frases publicitarias en folletos de mano pueden aumentar bastante la rentabilidad del estreno y sucesivas proyecciones.
Una epidemia mata todo el ganado y el propietario, un viejo, no puede sobrevivir al desastre. Parte escena en la cocina Paul Newman y P. Cine Asesor. Degenfelder, E. Dyer, P. Folsom, James K. The Western Humanities Review 24 : Genette, Gerard. Thresholds of Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Giesen, Tom. Jackson, Carlton. Library Journal. Limsky, Drew. James Encyclopaedia of Pop Culture 29 January In a Narrow Grave: Essays on Texas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Miller, Gabriel. Gabriel Miller. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, Ministerio de Cultura.
Minter, David L. Monthly Film Bulletin. Poore, C. Primer Plano.
Reilly, John M. Larry McMurtry. A Critical Companion. Westport, Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, Reynolds, Clay, ed. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, Sonnichsen, C. Tinkle, Lon.
Narrating War in Peace
Cine Estudio 14, 14 October, Whitehall, Richard. Comparemos: I think artists recognise the distancing of glass and ice as an ambivalent matter, both chilling and life-giving, saving as well as threatening Preserving solitude and distance, staying cold and frozen, may, for women as well as artists, be a way of preserving life. OHS The phrase came into her head: Those are pearls that were his eyes. A song of grief made fantastic by a sea-change. I'm sailing across the water, A-stealing bread and meat so free, Along with a precious harlot, And she has been the ruin of me. Oprey the rukh adrey the wesh Are chiriclo and chiricli; Tuley the rukh adrey the wesh Are pireno and pireni.
Jaw to lutherum, tiny baw! I'm teerie deya's purie mam; As tute cams her tud canaw Thy deya meerie tud did cam. Thy mother's gone abroad to spae, Her kindly milk thou shalt enjoy When home she comes at close of day. Sleep thee, little tawny guest! Thy mother is my daughter fine; As thou dost love her kindly breast, She once did love this breast of mine.
Gare yourselves, pralor! Ma pee kek-komi! The guero's welling - Plastra lesti! Up, up, brothers! Cease your revels! The Gentile's coming - Run like devils! Cherie podey mangue penouri. Russian Gypsy Song. She can neither eat nor nest With love she's so distress'd; At length she's heard to say: "Oh here I cannot stay, Go saddle me my steed, To my lord I must proceed; In his palace plenteously Both eat and drink shall I; The servants far and wide, Bidding guests shall run and ride. And when within the hall the multitude I see, I'll raise my voice anew, and sing in Romany.
Guillate a tu quer Y nicabela la peri Que terela el balicho, Y chibela andro Una lima de tun chabori, Chabori, Una lima de tun chabori. Hie home, and from the pot! Take the flitch of bacon out, The flitch good and fat, And in its place throw A clout, a dingy clout of thy brat, Of thy brat, A clout, a dingy clout of thy brat. Chalo Malbrun chingarar; No se bus trutera! No se bus trutera! La romi que le camela, Birandon, birandon, birandera!
La romi que le camela Muy curepenada esta, Muy curepenada esta. S'ardela a la felicha, Birandon, birandon, birandera! S'ardela a la felicha Y baribu dur dica, Y baribu dur dica. Dica abillar su burno, Birandon, birandon, birandera! Dica abillar su burno, En ropa callarda, En ropa callarda. Burno, lacho quiribo, Que nuevas has dinar?
Que nuevas has dinar? Las nuevas que io terelo Te haran orobar, Te haran orobar. Mero Malbrun mi eray Mero en la chinga, Mero en la chinga. Sinaba a su entierro La plastani sara, La plastani sara. Seis guapos jundunares Le llevaron cabanar, Le llevaron cabanar. Delante de la jestari Chalo el sacrista, Chalo el sacrista. El sacrista delante, Y el errajai pala, Y el errajai pala. Al majaro ortalame Le llevaron cabanar, Le llevaron cabanar.
Y ote le cabanaron No dur de la burda, No dur de la burda. Guillabela un chilindrote; Soba en paz, soba! Soba en paz, soba! Malbrouk is gone to the wars; He'll never return no more! He'll never return no more! His lady-love and darling, Birrandon, birrandon, birrandera His lady-love and darling His absence doth deplore, His absence doth deplore.
To the turret's top she mounted, Birrandon, birrandon, birrandera! To the turret's top she mounted And look'd till her eyes were sore, And look'd till her eyes were sore. She saw his squire a-coming, Birrandon, birrandon, birrandera! She saw his squire a-coming; And a mourning suit he wore, And a mourning suit he wore. O squire, my trusty fellow, What news of my soldier poor? What news of my soldier poor? The news which I bring thee, lady, Will cause thy tears to shower, Will cause thy tears to shower. Malbrouk my master's fallen, He fell on the fields of gore, He fell on the fields of gore.
His funeral attended The whole reg'mental corps, The whole reg'mental corps. Six neat and proper soldiers To the grave my master bore, To the grave my master bore. The parson follow'd the coffin, And the sexton walk'd before, And the sexton walk'd before. They buried him in the churchyard, Not far from the church's door, Not far from the church's door. There sings a little swallow: Sleep there, thy toils are o'er, Sleep there, thy toils are o'er. They lels our gryor, They lels our wardoes, And wusts us then Drey starripenes To mer of pishens And buklipen. Ley teero sollohanloinus opreylis!
Our horses they take, Our waggons they break, And us they fling Into horrid cells, Where hunger dwells And vermin sting. When the dead swallow The fly shall follow Across the river, O we'll forget The wrongs we've met, But till then O never: Brother, of that be certain. When speaking to each other, they say "Pal" and "Pen"; that is, brother and sister. All people not of their own blood they call "Gorgios," or Gentiles. Gypsies first made their appearance in England about the year They probably came from France, where tribes of the race had long been wandering about under the names of Bohemians and Egyptians.
They roamed about in bands, consisting of thirty, sixty, or ninety families, with light, creaking carts, drawn by horses and donkeys, encamping at night in the spots they deemed convenient. The women told fortunes at the castle of the baron and the cottage of the yeoman; filched gold and silver coins from the counters of money-changers; caused the death of hogs in farmyards, by means of a stuff called drab or drao, which affects the brain, but does not corrupt the blood; and subsequently begged, and generally obtained, the carcases.
The men plied tinkering and brasiery, now and then stole horses, and occasionally ventured upon highway robbery. The writer has here placed the Chies before the Chals, because, as he has frequently had occasion to observe, the Gypsy women are by far more remarkable beings than the men. It is the Chi and not the Chal who has caused the name of Gypsy to be a sound awaking wonder, awe, and curiosity in every part of the civilised world.
Not that there have never been remarkable men of the Gypsy race both abroad and at home. Duke Michael, as he was called, the leader of the great Gypsy horde which suddenly made its appearance in Germany at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was no doubt a remarkable man; the Gitano Condre, whom Martin del Rio met at Toledo a hundred years afterwards, who seemed to speak all languages, and to be perfectly acquainted with the politics of all the Courts of Europe, must certainly have been a remarkable man; so, no doubt, here at home was Boswell; so undoubtedly was Cooper, called by the gentlemen of the Fives Court--poor fellows!
How blank and inanimate is the countenance of the Gypsy man, even when trying to pass off a foundered donkey as a flying dromedary, in comparison with that of the female Romany, peering over the wall of a par-yard at a jolly hog! Sar shin Sinfye? Koshto divvus, Romany Chi! So shan tute kairing acoi? Sinfye, Sinfye! Daughter of Rome, good day to you! What are you thinking here to do? After a time the evil practices of the Gypsies began to be noised about, and terrible laws were enacted against people "using the manner of Egyptians"--Chies were scourged by dozens, Chals hung by scores.
Throughout the reign of Elizabeth there was a terrible persecution of the Gypsy race; far less, however, on account of the crimes which they actually committed, than from a suspicion which was entertained that they harboured amidst their companies priests and emissaries of Rome, who had come to England for the purpose of sowing sedition and inducing the people to embrace again the old discarded superstition. This suspicion, however, was entirely without foundation. The Gypsies call each other brother and sister, and are not in the habit of admitting to their fellowship people of a different blood and with whom they have no sympathy.
There was, however, a description of wandering people at that time, even as there is at present, with whom the priests, who are described as going about, sometimes disguised as serving-men, sometimes as broken soldiers, sometimes as shipwrecked mariners, would experience no difficulty in associating, and with whom, in all probability, they occasionally did associate--the people called in Acts of Parliament sturdy beggars and vagrants, in the old cant language Abraham men, and in the modern Pikers.
These people have frequently been confounded with the Gypsies, but are in reality a distinct race, though they resemble the latter in some points. They roam about like the Gypsies, and, like them, have a kind of secret language. But the Gypsies are a people of Oriental origin, whilst the Abrahamites are the scurf of the English body corporate. The language of the Gypsies is a real language, more like the Sanscrit than any other language in the world; whereas the speech of the Abrahamites is a horrid jargon, composed for the most part of low English words used in an allegorical sense--a jargon in which a stick is called a crack; a hostess, a rum necklace; a bar-maid, a dolly-mort; brandy, rum booze; a constable, a horny.
But enough of these Pikers, these Abrahamites. Sufficient to observe that if the disguised priests associated with wandering companies it must have been with these people, who admit anybody to their society, and not with the highly exclusive race the Gypsies. For nearly a century and a half after the death of Elizabeth the Gypsies seem to have been left tolerably to themselves, for the laws are almost silent respecting them. Chies, no doubt, were occasionally scourged for cauring, that is filching gold and silver coins, and Chals hung for grychoring, that is horse-stealing; but those are little incidents not much regarded in Gypsy merripen.
They probably lived a life during the above period tolerably satisfactory to themselves--they are not an ambitious people, and there is no word for glory in their language--but next to nothing is known respecting them. A people called Gypsies are mentioned, and to a certain extent treated of, in two remarkable works--one a production of the seventeenth, the other of the eighteenth century--the first entitled the 'English Rogue, or the Adventures of Merriton Latroon,' the other the 'Life of Bamfield Moore Carew'; but those works, though clever and entertaining, and written in the raciest English, are to those who seek for information respecting Gypsies entirely valueless, the writers having evidently mistaken for Gypsies the Pikers or Abrahamites, as the vocabularies appended to the histories, and which are professedly vocabularies of the Gypsy language, are nothing of the kind, but collections of words and phrases belonging to the Abrahamite or Piker jargon.
At the commencement of the last century, and for a considerable time afterwards, there was a loud cry raised against the Gypsy women for stealing children. This cry, however, was quite as devoid of reason as the suspicion entertained of old against the Gypsy communities of harbouring disguised priests. Gypsy women, as the writer had occasion to remark many a long year ago, have plenty of children of their own, and have no wish to encumber themselves with those of other people. A yet more extraordinary charge was, likewise, brought against them--that of running away with wenches. Now, the idea of Gypsy women running away with wenches!
Where were they to stow them in the event of running away with them? Nevertheless, two Gypsy women were burnt in the hand in the most cruel and frightful manner, somewhat about the middle of the last century, and two Gypsy men, their relations, sentenced to be hanged, for running away with a certain horrible wench of the name of Elizabeth Canning, who, to get rid of a disgraceful burden, had left her service and gone into concealment for a month, and on her return, in order to account for her absence, said that she had been run away with by Gypsies.
The men, however, did not undergo their sentence; for, ere the day appointed for their execution arrived, suspicions beginning to be entertained with respect to the truth of the wench's story, they were reprieved, and, after a little time, the atrocious creature, who had charged people with doing what they neither did nor dreamt of doing, was tried for perjury, convicted, and sentenced to transportation. Yet so great is English infatuation that this Canning, this Elizabeth, had a host of friends, who stood by her, and swore by her to the last, and almost freighted the ship which carried her away with goods, the sale of which enabled her to purchase her freedom of the planter to whom she was consigned, to establish herself in business, and to live in comfort, and almost in luxury, in the New World during the remainder of her life.
But though Gypsies have occasionally experienced injustice; though Patricos and Sherengroes were hanged by dozens in Elizabeth's time on suspicion of harbouring disguised priests; though Gypsy women in the time of the Second George, accused of running away with wenches, were scorched and branded, there can be no doubt that they live in almost continual violation of the laws intended for the protection of society; and it may be added, that in this illegal way of life the women have invariably played a more important part than the men.
Of them, amongst other things, it may be said that they are the most accomplished swindlers in the world, their principal victims being people of their own sex, on whose credulity and superstition they practise. Mary Caumlo, or Lovel, was convicted a few years ago at Cardiff of having swindled a surgeon's wife of eighty pounds, under pretence of propitiating certain planets by showing them the money.
Not a penny of the booty was ever recovered by the deluded victim; and the Caumli, on leaving the dock, after receiving sentence of a year's imprisonment, turned round and winked to some brother or sister in court, as much as to say: "Mande has gared the luvvu; mande is kek atugni for the besh's starripen"--"I have hid the money, and care nothing for the year's imprisonment. Townsley of the Border was some time ago in trouble at Wick, only twenty-five miles distant from Johnny Groat's House, on a charge of fraudulently obtaining from a fisherman's wife one shilling, two half-crowns, and a five-pound note by promising to untie certain witch-locks, which she had induced her to believe were entwined in the meshes of the fisherman's net, and would, if suffered to remain, prevent him from catching a single herring in the Firth.
These events occurred within the last few years, and are sufficiently notorious. They form a triad out of dozens of a similar kind, in some of which there are features so odd, so strangely droll, that indignation against the offence is dispelled by an irresistible desire to laugh. But Gypsyism is declining, and its days are numbered. There is a force abroad which is doomed to destroy it, a force which never sleepeth either by day or night, and which will not allow the Roman people rest for the soles of their feet. That force is the Rural Police, which, had it been established at the commencement instead of towards the middle of the present century, would have put down Gypsyism long ago.
But, recent as its establishment has been, observe what it has produced. Walk from London to Carlisle, but neither by the road's side, nor on heath or common, will you see a single Gypsy tent. True Gypsyism consists in wandering about, in preying upon the Gentiles, but not living amongst them. But such a life is impossible in these days; the Rural Force will not permit it. Take yourself off, you Gypsy dog! You must e'en live amongst the Gorgios. And for years past the Gypsies have lived amongst the Gorgios, and what has been the result?
They do not seem to have improved the Gentiles, and have certainly not been improved by them. By living amongst the Gentiles they have, to a certain extent, lost the only two virtues they possessed. Whilst they lived apart on heaths and commons, and in shadowy lanes, the Gypsy women were paragons of chastity, and the men, if not exactly patterns of sobriety, were, upon the whole, very sober fellows.
Such terms, however, are by no means applicable to them at the present day. Sects and castes, even of thieves and murderers, can exist as long as they have certain virtues, which give them a kind of respect in their own eyes; but, losing those virtues, they soon become extinct. When the salt loses its savour, what becomes of it?
ParSTLTests/rmlavtxt at master · fenbf/ParSTLTests · GitHub
The Gypsy salt has not altogether lost its savour, but that essential quality is every day becoming fainter, so that there is every reason to suppose that within a few years the English Gypsy caste will have disappeared, merged in the dregs of the English population.
They have a double nomenclature, each tribe or family having a public and a private name, one by which they are known to the Gentiles, and another to themselves alone. Their public names are quite English; their private ones attempts, some of them highly singular and uncouth, to render those names by Gypsy equivalents. Gypsy names may be divided into two classes, names connected with trades, and surnames or family names. First of all, something about trade names. There are only two names of trades which have been adopted by English Gypsies as proper names, Cooper and Smith: these names are expressed in the English Gypsy dialect by Vardo-mescro and Petulengro.
The first of these renderings is by no means a satisfactory one, as Vardo-mescro means a cartwright, or rather a carter. To speak the truth, it would be next to impossible to render the word 'cooper' into English Gypsy, or indeed into Gypsy of any kind; a cooper, according to the common acceptation of the word, is one who makes pails, tubs, and barrels, but there are no words in Gypsy for such vessels. The Transylvanian Gypsies call a cooper a bedra-kero or pail-maker, but bedra is not Gypsy, but Hungarian, and the English Gypsies might with equal propriety call a cooper a pail-engro.
On the whole the English Gypsies did their best when they rendered 'cooper' into their language by the word for 'cartwright. It is not very easy to say what is the exact meaning of Petulengro: it must signify, however, either horseshoe-fellow or tinker: petali or petala signifies in Gypsy a horseshoe, and is probably derived from the Modern Greek [Greek: ]; engro is an affix, and is either derived from or connected with the Sanscrit kara, to make, so that with great feasibility Petulengro may be translated horseshoe-maker.
But bedel in Hebrew means 'tin,' and as there is little more difference between petul and bedel than between petul and petalon, Petulengro may be translated with almost equal feasibility by tinker or tin-worker, more especially as tinkering is a principal pursuit of Gypsies, and to jal petulengring signifies to go a-tinkering in English Gypsy. Taken, however, in either sense, whether as horseshoe-maker or tin- worker and, as has been already observed, it must mean one or the other , Petulengro may be considered as a tolerably fair rendering of the English Smith.
So much for the names of the Gypsies which the writer has ventured to call the trade names; now for those of the other class. These are English surnames, and for the most part of a highly aristocratic character, and it seems at first surprising that people so poor and despised as Gypsies should be found bearing names so time-honoured and imposing. There is, however, a tolerable explanation of the matter in the supposition that on their first arrival in England the different tribes sought the protection of certain grand powerful families, and were permitted by them to locate themselves on their heaths and amid their woodlands, and that they eventually adopted the names of their patrons.
The initial Bo or Bui is an old Northern name, signifying a colonist or settler, one who tills and builds. It was the name of a great many celebrated Northern kempions, who won land and a home by hard blows. The last syllable, well, is the French ville: Boswell, Boston, and Busby all signify one and the same thing--the town of Bui--the well being French, the ton Saxon, and the by Danish; they are half- brothers of Bovil and Belville, both signifying fair town, and which ought to be written Beauville and Belville.
The Gypsies, who know and care nothing about etymologies, confounding bos with buss, a vulgar English verb not to be found in dictionaries, which signifies to kiss, rendered the name Boswell by Chumomisto, that is, Kisswell, or one who kisses well--choom in their language signifying to kiss, and misto well--likewise by choomomescro, a kisser. Vulgar as the word buss may sound at present, it is by no means of vulgar origin, being connected with the Latin basio and the Persian bouse.
The Gypsies who adopted it, rendered it into their language by Gry, a word very much resembling it in sound, though not in sense, for gry, which is allied to the Sanscrit ghora, signifies a horse. They had no better choice, however, for in Romany there is no word for grey, any more than there is for green or blue. In several languages there is a difficulty in expressing the colour which in English is called grey. In Celtic, for instance, there is no definite word for it; glas, it is true, is used to express it, but glas is as frequently used to express green as it is to express grey.
There are two Gypsy renderings of the word-- Rossar-mescro or Ratzie-mescro, and Balorengre. Rossar-mescro signifies duck-fellow, the duck being substituted for the heron, for which there is no word in Romany. The meaning of Balor-engre is hairy people; the translator or translators seeming to have confounded Hearne with 'haaren,' old English for hairs. The latter rendering has never been much in use.
The meaning of Purrurn is an onion, and it may be asked what connection can there be between Lee and onion? None whatever: but there is some resemblance in sound between Lee and leek, and it is probable that the Gypsies thought so, and on that account rendered the name by Purrum, which, if not exactly a leek, at any rate signifies something which is cousin-german to a leek. It must be borne in mind that in some parts of England the name Lee is spelt Legh and Leigh, which would hardly be the case if at one time it had not terminated in something like a guttural, so that when the Gypsies rendered the name, perhaps nearly four hundred years ago, it sounded very much like 'leek,' and perhaps was Leek, a name derived from the family crest.
At first the writer was of opinion that the name was Purrun, a modification of pooro, which in the Gypsy language signifies old, but speedily came to the conclusion that it must be Purrum, a leek or onion; for what possible reason could the Gypsies have for rendering Lee by a word which signifies old or ancient? The Gypsy word pooro, old, belongs to Hindostan, and is connected with the Sanscrit pura, which signifies the same.
Purrum is a modification of the Wallachian pur, a word derived from the Latin porrum, an onion, and picked up by the Gypsies in Roumania or Wallachia, the natives of which region speak a highly curious mixture of Latin and Sclavonian. The meaning of it is Leo's town, Lowe's town, or Louis' town.
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The Gypsies, who adopted it, seem to have imagined that it had something to do with love, for they translated it by Camlo or Caumlo, that which is lovely or amiable, and also by Camomescro, a lover, an amorous person, sometimes used for 'friend. A name of the same root as the one borne by that divinity was not altogether inapplicable to the Gypsy tribe who adopted it: Cama, if all tales be true, was black, black though comely, a Beltenebros, and the Lovel tribe is decidedly the most comely and at the same time the darkest of all the Anglo-Egyptian families.
The faces of many of them, male and female, are perfect specimens of black beauty. They are generally called by the race the Kaulo Camloes, the Black Comelies. And here, though at the risk of being thought digressive, the writer cannot forbear saying that the darkest and at one time the comeliest of all the Caumlies, a celebrated fortune-teller, and an old friend of his, lately expired in a certain old town, after attaining an age which was something wonderful. She had twenty-one brothers and sisters, and was the eldest of the family, on which account she was called "Rawnie P.
In the early Norman period it was the name of an Earl of Pembroke. The Gypsies who adopted the name seem in translating it to have been of opinion that it was connected with marshes, for they rendered it by mokkado tan engre, fellows of the wet or miry place, an appellation which at one time certainly became them well, for they are a northern tribe belonging to the Border, a country not very long ago full of mosses and miry places.
Though calling themselves English, they are in reality quite as much Scotch as English, and as often to be found in Scotland as the other country, especially in Dumfriesshire and Galloway, in which latter region, in Saint Cuthbert's churchyard, lies buried 'the old man' of the race,-- Marshall, who died at the age of They sometimes call themselves Bungyoror and Chikkeneymengre, cork-fellows and china people, which names have reference to the occupations severally followed by the males and females, the former being cutters of bungs and corks, and the latter menders of china.
Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel
It is probably descriptive of their original place of residence, for it signifies the stony lea, which is also the meaning of the Gaelic Auchinlech, the place of abode of the Scottish Boswells. It was adopted by an English Gypsy tribe, at one time very numerous, but at present much diminished. Of this name there are two renderings into Romany; one is Baryor or Baremescre, stone-folks or stonemasons, the other is Beshaley.
The first requires no comment, but the second is well worthy of analysis, as it is an example of the strange blunders which the Gypsies sometimes make in their attempts at translation. When they rendered Stanley by Beshaley or Beshley, they mistook the first syllable stan for 'stand,' but for a very good reason rendered it by besh, which signifies 'to sit, and the second for a word in their own language, for ley or aley in Gypsy signifies 'down,' so they rendered Stanley by Beshley or Beshaley, which signifies 'sit down.
The reason was a very cogent one, the want of a word in the Gypsy language to express 'stand'; but they had heard in courts of justice witnesses told to stand down, so they supposed that to stand down was much the same as to sit down, whence their odd rendering of Stanley.
In no dialect of the Gypsy, from the Indus to the Severn, is there any word for 'stand,' though in every one there is a word for 'sit,' and that is besh, and in every Gypsy encampment all along the vast distance, Beshley or Beshaley would be considered an invitation to sit down. So much for the double-name system in use among the Gypsies of England. There is something in connection with the Gypsies of Spain which strangely coincides with one part of it--the translation of names.
Among the relics of the language of the Gitanos or Spanish Gypsies are words, some simple and some compound, which are evidently attempts to translate names in a manner corresponding to the plan employed by the English Romany. In illustration of the matter, the writer will give an analysis of Brono Aljenicato, the rendering into Gitano of the name of one frequently mentioned in the New Testament, and once in the Apostles' Creed, the highly respectable, but much traduced individual known to the English public as Pontius Pilate, to the Spanish as Poncio Pilato.
The manner in which the rendering has been accomplished is as follows: Poncio bears some resemblance to the Spanish puente, which signifies a bridge, and is a modification of the Latin pons, and Pilato to the Spanish pila, a fountain, or rather a stone pillar, from the top of which the waters of a fountain springing eventually fall into a stone basin below, the two words-- the Brono Aljenicato--signifying bridge-fountain, or that which is connected with such a thing.
Now this is the identical, or all but the identical, way in which the names Lee, Lovel, and Stanley have been done into English Romany. A remarkable instance is afforded in this Gitano Scripture name, this Brono Aljenicato, of the heterogeneous materials of which Gypsy dialects are composed: Brono is a modification of a Hindoo or Sanscrit, Aljenicato of an Arabic root. Brono is connected with the Sanscrit pindala, which signifies a bridge, and Aljenicato is a modification of the Gypsy aljenique, derived from the Arabic alain, which signifies the fountain.
But of whatever materials composed, a fine-sounding name is this same Brono Aljenicato, perhaps the finest sounding specimen of Spanish Gypsy extant, much finer than a translation of Pontius Pilate would be, provided the name served to express the same things, in English, which Poncio Pilato serves to express in Spanish, for then it would be Pudjico Pani or Bridgewater; for though in English Gypsy there is the word for a bridge, namely pudge, a modification of the Persian pul, or the Wallachian podul, there is none for a fountain, which can be only vaguely paraphrased by pani, water.
They plied fortune-telling about France and Germany as early as , the year when the dusky bands were first observed in Europe, and they have never relinquished the practice. There are two words for fortune-telling in Gypsy, bocht and dukkering. Bocht is a Persian word, a modification of, or connected with, the Sanscrit bagya, which signifies 'fate. Gypsy fortune-telling is much the same everywhere, much the same in Russia as it is in Spain and in England. Everywhere there are three styles--the lofty, the familiar, and the homely; and every Gypsy woman is mistress of all three and uses each according to the rank of the person whose vast she dukkers, whose hand she reads, and adapts the luck she promises.
There is a ballad of some antiquity in the Spanish language about the Buena Ventura, a few stanzas of which translated will convey a tolerable idea of the first of these styles to the reader, who will probably with no great reluctance dispense with any illustrations of the other two:- Late rather one morning In summer's sweet tide, Goes forth to the Prado Jacinta the bride: There meets her a Gypsy So fluent of talk, And jauntily dressed, On the principal walk.
Believe me, believe me, Thou com'st in good hour. O lady high-born! Turn thine eyes on thy servant, But ah, not in scorn. O joy of our clime! Thou twice shalt be married, And happily each time. The writer does not know what the Ziganka told that exalted personage, but it appears that she gave perfect satisfaction to the Empress, who not only presented her with a diamond ring--a Russian diamond ring is not generally of much value--but also her hand to kiss.
Britannia is my name; I am a swarthy Lovel; The Gorgios say I be A witch of wondrous power; And faith they speak the truth, The silly, foolish fellows, For often I bewitch The money from their pockets. Fortune-telling in all countries where the Gypsies are found is frequently the prelude to a kind of trick called in all Gypsy dialects by something more or less resembling the Sanscrit kuhana; for instance, it is called in Spain jojana, hokano, and in English hukni.
It is practised in various ways, all very similar; the defrauding of some simple person of money or property being the object in view. Females are generally the victims of the trick, especially those of the middle class, who are more accessible to the poor woman than those of the upper. One of the ways, perhaps the most artful, will be found described in another chapter. THE HUKNI The Gypsy makes some poor simpleton of a lady believe that if the latter puts her gold into her hands, and she makes it up into a parcel, and puts it between the lady's feather-bed and mattress, it will at the end of a month be multiplied a hundredfold, provided the lady does not look at it during all that time.
On receiving the money she makes it up into a brown paper parcel, which she seals with wax, turns herself repeatedly round, squints, and spits, and then puts between the feather-bed and mattress--not the parcel of gold, but one exactly like it, which she has prepared beforehand, containing old halfpence, farthings, and the like; then, after cautioning the lady by no means to undo the parcel before the stated time, she takes her departure singing to herself:- O dear me!
O dear me! What dinnelies these gorgies be. The above artifice is called by the English Gypsies the hukni, and by the Spanish hokhano baro, or the great lie. Hukni and hokano were originally one and the same word; the root seems to be the Sanscrit huhana, lie, trick, deceit. CAURING The Gypsy has some queer, old-fashioned gold piece; this she takes to some goldsmith's shop, at the window of which she has observed a basin full of old gold coins, and shows it to the goldsmith, asking him if he will purchase it.
He looks at it attentively, and sees that it is of very pure gold; whereupon he says that he has no particular objection to buy it; but that as it is very old it is not of much value, and that he has several like it. The Gypsy puts down her head, and pries into the basin. Stay, stay! What's this, what's this? So se cavo, so se cavo? Oh, here is one like mine; or if not quite like, like enough to suit me. Now, Master, what will you take for this coin? So here's the money you asked, Master, and three three-groats, three shillings, besides.