Self-Esteem Issues and Answers: A Sourcebook of Current Perspectives

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New York: Springer. Roberts, J.

References for "The use and misuse of self-esteem," June 2007

Self-esteem from a clinical perspective. Kernis Ed. New York: Psychology Press. Wood, J. Cite this article as: MacDonald, D. Your email address will not be published. General Introduction, Michael H. Section 1. Conceptualizing and Assessing Self-Esteem. Question 1. Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Marsh, Rhonda G. Question 2. Chapter 4. Self-esteem, Psychopathology, and Psychotherapy, Edward J. Leitze l. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Question 3.

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Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Nonconscious Self-esteem: Is there something you're not telling yourself? Jordan, Christine Logel, Steven J. Chapter 9.

The adaptive functions of self-evaluative psychological mechanisms — University of Arizona

Chapter Question 4. Question 5. What is Optimal Self-Esteem? Richard M.


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Section II. Development and Determinants of Self-esteem. Question 6. Question 7. Changing Self-Esteem, Christopher J. Self-Esteem Change, Heather D. Improving Self-Esteem, Roos Vonk. Question 8. What are these processes? Conor Seyle. Both explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem are subtypes of self-esteem proper.

Narcissism is a disposition people may have that represents an excessive love for one's self. It is characterized by an inflated view of self-worth. Individuals who score high on Narcissism measures, Robert Raskin's 40 Item True or False Test , would likely select true to such statements as "If I ruled the world, it would be a much better place. Threatened egotism is characterized as a response to criticism that threatens the ego of narcissists; they often react in a hostile and aggressive manner.

Low self-esteem can result from various factors, including genetic factors, physical appearance or weight, mental health issues, socioeconomic status, significant emotional experiences, peer pressure or bullying.

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A person with low self-esteem may show some of the following characteristics: [58]. Individuals with low self-esteem tend to be critical of themselves. Some depend on the approval and praise of others when evaluating self-worth. Others may measure their likability in terms of successes: others will accept themselves if they succeed but will not if they fail. This classification proposed by Martin Ross [60] distinguishes three states of self-esteem compared to the "feats" triumphs , honors , virtues and the "anti-feats" defeats , embarrassment , shame , etc.

The individual does not regard themselves as valuable or lovable. They may be overwhelmed by defeat, or shame, or see themselves as such, and they name their "anti-feat". For example, if they consider that being over a certain age is an anti-feat, they define themselves with the name of their anti-feat, and say, "I am old".

They express actions and feelings such as pity, insulting themselves, and they may become paralyzed by their sadness. The individual has a generally positive self-image. However, their self-esteem is also vulnerable to the perceived risk of an imminent anti-feat such as defeat, embarrassment, shame, discredit , consequently they are often nervous and regularly use defense mechanisms. Although such individuals may outwardly exhibit great self-confidence, the underlying reality may be just the opposite: the apparent self-confidence is indicative of their heightened fear of anti-feats and the fragility of their self-esteem.

They may employ defense mechanisms, including attempting to lose at games and other competitions in order to protect their self-image by publicly dissociating themselves from a 'need to win', and asserting an independence from social acceptance which they may deeply desire.

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In this deep fear of being unaccepted by an individual's peers, they make poor life choices by making risky choices. People with strong self-esteem have a positive self-image and enough strength so that anti-feats do not subdue their self-esteem. They have less fear of failure. These individuals appear humble, cheerful, and this shows a certain strength not to boast about feats and not to be afraid of anti-feats.

They can acknowledge their own mistakes precisely because their self-image is strong, and this acknowledgment will not impair or affect their self-image. A distinction is made between contingent or conditional [63] and non-contingent or unconditional [64] self-esteem. Contingent self-esteem is derived from external sources, such as a what others say, b one's success or failure, c one's competence, [65] or d relationship-contingent self-esteem. Therefore, contingent self-esteem is marked by instability, unreliability, and vulnerability.

Persons lacking a non-contingent self-esteem are "predisposed to an incessant pursuit of self-value. No one receives constant approval and disapproval often evokes depression. Furthermore, fear of disapproval inhibits activities in which failure is possible. Non-contingent self-esteem is described as true, stable, and solid. It is an acceptance given " in spite of our guilt , not because we have no guilt ". Harris translated Tillich's "acceptable" by the vernacular "OK", a term that means "acceptable".

A secure non-contingent self-esteem springs from the belief that one is ontologically acceptable and accepted. Abraham Maslow states that psychological health is not possible unless the essential core of the person is fundamentally accepted, loved and respected by others and by her or his self. Self-esteem allows people to face life with more confidence, benevolence and optimism, and thus easily reach their goals and self-actualize.

Self-esteem may make people convinced they deserve happiness. On the contrary, an attitude of love toward themselves will be found in all those who are capable of loving others. Self-esteem allows creativity at the workplace, and is a specially critical condition for teaching professions. Bonet claims that this corresponds to Major depressive disorder. He has lost his self-respect".

The Yogyakarta Principles , a document on international human rights law addresses the discriminatory attitude toward LGBT peoples that makes their self-esteem low to be subject to human rights violation including human trafficking.


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Other than increased happiness, higher self-esteem is also known to be correlated with a better ability to cope with stress and a higher likeliness that the individual takes on difficult tasks relative to those with low self-esteem. From the late s to the early s many Americans assumed as a matter of course that students' self-esteem acted as a critical factor in the grades that they earn in school, in their relationships with their peers, and in their later success in life. Under this assumption, some American groups created programs which aimed to increase the self-esteem of students.

Until the s little peer-reviewed and controlled research took place on this topic. Peer-reviewed research undertaken since then has not validated previous assumptions. Recent research indicates that inflating students' self-esteem in and of itself has no positive effect on grades. Roy Baumeister has shown that inflating self-esteem by itself can actually decrease grades. It simply means that high self-esteem may be accomplished as a result of high academic performance due to the other variables of social interactions and life events affecting this performance.

It is only when students engage in personally meaningful endeavors for which they can be justifiably proud that self-confidence grows, and it is this growing self-assurance that in turn triggers further achievement. High self-esteem has a high correlation to self-reported happiness; whether this is a causal relationship has not been established.

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Additionally, self-esteem has been found to be related to forgiveness in close relationships, in that people with high self-esteem will be more forgiving than people with low self-esteem. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. In a research conducted by Robert S. Chavez and Todd F. Heatherton, it was found that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of the frontostriatal circuit.

How To Coach Someone With Low Self Esteem

The frontostriatal pathway connects the medial prefrontal cortex , which deals with self-knowledge , to the ventral striatum , which deals with feelings of motivation and reward. Stronger anatomical pathways are correlated with higher long-term self-esteem, while stronger functional connectivity is correlated with higher short-term self-esteem. The American psychologist Albert Ellis criticized on numerous occasions the concept of self-esteem as essentially self-defeating and ultimately destructive. Questioning the foundations and usefulness of generalized ego strength, he has claimed that self-esteem is based on arbitrary definitional premises , and over-generalized, perfectionistic and grandiose thinking.

The healthier alternative to self-esteem according to him is unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other- acceptance. For persons with low self-esteem, any positive stimulus will temporarily raise self-esteem. Therefore, possessions, sex, success, or physical appearance will produce development of self-esteem, but the development is ephemeral at best. Such attempts to raise one's self-esteem by positive stimulus produce a "boom or bust" pattern.

For a person whose "self-esteem is contingent", success is "not extra sweet", but "failure is extra bitter". In narcissists, by contrast, an " uncertainty about their own worth gives rise to Instead, the narcissist emphasizes his virtues in the presence of others, just to try to convince himself that he is a valuable person and to try to stop feeling ashamed for his faults; [13] unfortunately such "people with unrealistically inflated self-views, which may be especially unstable and highly vulnerable to negative information, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the psychological concept. For the music single from Offspring, see Self Esteem song. For the band, see Self Esteem band. For other uses of "Esteem", see Esteem disambiguation. This is the Pauline-Lutheran doctrine of 'justification by faith.

Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press.

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Social Psychology Third ed. Hove: Psychology Press. Journal of Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original on 24 January

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