The art of learning can be learned and taught and Waitzkin not only teaches it, but teaches how to learn it. He guides his reader step by step through the process telling his story along the way. Josh Waitzkin is not only a master of The Art of Learning, but also a master storyteller. His book was as entertaining as it was enlightening.
Also covered is the legacy of Cato down through the centuries from the Roman Stoics to the American Revolutionaries who saw him as a Sage. God is the light of the heavens and the earth. Light upon light whomever God will: and God gives people examples; and God knows all things. The author of this exegesis is the second most important figure in the Islamic tradition after the Prophet Muhammad, and one of the mot important figures in all of intellectual history, being known in the Islamic tradition as Hujjat al-Islam The Proof of Islam and being in the Western tradition an acknowledged intellectual influence on St.
Thomas Aquinas, who knew him by his Latinized name, Algazel. Interestingly, while al-Ghazali seems to have rejected Neoplatonism in his The Incoherence of the Philosophers , this work seems to be Neoplatonic. Thomas Aquinas. This edition is an abridged English translation made by Claude Field from the original Persian. Al-Ghazali wrote this work in Persian for the uneducated masses. The Flowering of Muslim Theology by Josef Van Ess consists of a series of four lectures given by Professor van Ess at the Institut du monde arabe in Paris in with a fifth chapter and introduction added.
This English translation by Jane Marie Todd was published in I read it with interest in a couple of days. Rouse Author , M. Smith Author. This year, I started and ended the year reading it. I read the verse translation of Ian Johnston at the beginning of the year and this, the prose translation of W. Rouse at the end. This Loeb Classical Library edition afforded me the opportunity to read the Latin whenever a particular passage tickled my fancy.
I included passages that did in my commonplace blog, where you can read them, along with commonplaces from other translations. Lucretius is one of three philosophical poets, along with Dante and Goethe, as Spanish-American philosopher George Santayana pointed out in his book, Three Philosophical Poets: Lucretius, Dante, and Goethe, Lucretius being the poet of the natural, Dante the supernatural, and Goethe the romantic. She begins with a brief biographical sketch of Muhammad familiar to anyone who has read her earlier book The First Muslim: The Story of Muhammad.
Hazleton recounts the passing over of Ali as Caliph or successor khalifa to Muhammad as political leader of the Islamic community Umma , first in favor of Abu Bakr, then Umar, then Uthman, before becoming the fourth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs Rashidun only to be assasinated like Umar and Uthman before him.
Along the way, Hazleton describes in detail the Battle of the Camel, the first Fitna or Muslim civil war. After the assasination of Ali, Hazleton covers the martyrdom of his son, Hussein and the subsequent significance of both and of the entire ordeal of the passing-over of Ali in terms of the tension that tore and continues to tear apart an erstwhile united community and the politicization of succeeding the Prophet to this day.
The Shia-Sunni split was the beginning of civil strife among Muslims that continues to this day and is exacerbated by the same political jockeying that brought it about 1, years ago, political jockeying that now involves Wahabbis and Washington, in addition to Shias and Sunnis. Jonathan A. It is erudite and accesssible. It has breadth and depth. It is for the most part a treatment of the Hadith, or reports of the Prophets sayings and doings, and his Sunna, or practice. It covers the controversial nature of both, given the difficulty of the epistemology involved, as well as the penchant under political pressure for the forgery of Hadith.
While, on the one hand, Brown is a believing Muslim, on the other hand, he is an objective scholar. He covers all of the most controversial topics in Hadith scholarship from flagrant forgery to pious pretension and everything in between. Brown gives us a sweeping sense of the turbulent tradition of Hadith scholarship while at the same time defending its soundness, without failing to admit its pitfalls and follies. Among the most controversial issues in the Islamic tradition dealt with are child brides and wife beating.
The Iliad covers the siege of Troy to win back Helen, who was taken there by Paris, a prince of Troy. As for whether Helen was taken by Paris to Troy by force or whether she went willingly, the story is variously told in other works of ancient literature. While The Iliad is all about war, and includes serial scenes of slaughter, each warrior cut down in battle is given a human face and so the poem is more mournful than merely magnifying of martial virtue.
In other words, The Iliad, contrary to popular belief, is best read an anti-war poem. I will never read scripture the same way again after reading this book. God allows this injustice just as he allows His Son to be unjustly crucified, showing his true nonviolent nature in both cases. One of my mentors, Dr. Glen Cooper, who was in the process of writing me a letter of recommendation and helping me write my CV and Statement of Purpose had also recommended it to me. I read it over the course of a weekend. The subject of this book, the Islamic Jesus, is little-known by Muslims and less-known by non-Muslims.
It has been the source of Christian-Muslim polemics for centuries.
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Mustafa Akyol has and it is well-written, well-researched, and well-documented. The book deals not only with the Islamic Jesus but, as hinted by its subtitle, with the Jewish and Christian Jesus as well. Crush It! Malcolm X is one of my greatest heroes. What I admire most about him is his tenacious spirit of kaizen i.
One way in which it simultaneously adds and corrects is by critically analyzing the construction of the narrative Malcolm X presents in The Autobiography. While I do not in any way object to this analysis, I do not take it as certain either.
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Marable was only a historian. It is difficult to put into words how moving the poetry of Parmenides and Empedocles as rendered in verse by Stanley Lombardo is. Parmenides presents an unchanging, wholistic view of the cosmos that explicitly mentions the opposite view as a false perception. Empedocles presents a synthesis of Heraclitus and Parmenides in which he relates the one to the many and the many to the one. Still, I found insights into the nature of the relationship in which I stand to the things I own such that I was able to gain a better appreciation for the few things I have in addition to my books, of course and a path to minimize and simplify more while appreciating what little I have or am left with.
All three were intellectually stimulating in pointing out the corruption of Christian culture in America and in presenting solutions to the decay. That I expected from the title of his book. The rest was a pleasant surprise. I read it aloud as I always do poetry and thoroughly enjoyed it! Alas, he did not and since he passed in , he cannot. The Jowett translation has been the standard translation for a century and is still readable despite its age.
These four dialogues recount the last days of Socrates. In the Euthyphro, we meet Socrates on his way to his trial. Significant occurrences in politics and finance are speculated to be orchestrated by an extremely influential cabal operating through many front organizations. Numerous historical and current events are seen as steps in an on-going plot to achieve world domination through secret political gatherings and decision-making processes. Prior to the early s, New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures, primarily the militantly anti-government right , and secondarily fundamentalist Christians concerned with end-time emergence of the Antichrist.
Political scientists warn that this mass hysteria may not only fuel lone-wolf terrorism but have devastating effects on American political life, such as the far right wooing the far left into joining a revolutionary Third Position movement capable of subverting the established political powers. During the 20th century, many statesmen , such as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill , used the term " new world order " to refer to a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power after World War I and World War II.
They all saw these periods as opportunities to implement idealistic or liberal proposals for global governance only in the sense of new collective efforts to identify, understand, or address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve. These proposals led to the creation of international organizations, such as the United Nations and NATO , and international regimes, such as the Bretton Woods system and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power as well as regularize cooperation between nations, in order to achieve a peaceful phase of capitalism.
These creations in particular and internationalism in general, however, would always be criticized and opposed by the American Old Right on isolationist grounds and by the New Right on benevolent imperalist grounds. In the aftermath of the two World Wars, progressives welcomed these new international organizations and regimes but argued they suffered from a democratic deficit and therefore were inadequate to not only prevent another global war but also foster global justice. Thus, activists around the globe formed a world federalist movement bent on creating a "real" new world order.
A number of Fabian socialist intellectuals, such as British writer H. Wells in the s, appropriated and redefined the term "new world order" as a synonym for the establishment of a full-fledged secular , social democratic world government. During the Red Scare of — , conspiracy theorists of the American secular and Christian right increasingly embraced and mongered unfounded fears of Freemasons , Illuminati , and Jews being the driving force behind an " international communist conspiracy". The threat of world communism in the form of a state atheistic and bureaucratic collectivist world government, demonized as a "Red Menace", therefore became the main focus of apocalyptic millenarian conspiracism.
In the s, producerist groups like the John Birch Society and the Liberty Lobby disseminated a great deal of right-wing conspiracy theories focused on the United Nations as the vehicle " internationalists " would use to create the "One World Government", and contributed to a conservative movement for United States withdrawal from the U. American writer Mary M. Federal Reserve System in by international bankers , who she claimed later formed the Council on Foreign Relations in as the shadow government. At the time the booklet was published, "international bankers" would have been interpreted by many readers as a reference to a postulated "international Jewish banking conspiracy" masterminded by the Rothschilds.
Thus, after the fall of communism in the early s, the main demonized scapegoat of the American far right shifted seamlessly from crypto-communists who plotted on behalf of the Red Menace to globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order. The relatively painless nature of the shift was due to growing right-wing opposition to the globalization of capitalism but also in part to the basic underlying apocalyptic millenarian paradigm, which fed the Cold War and the witch-hunts of the McCarthy period. Congress , President George H. Bush described his objectives for post-Cold-War global governance in cooperation with post-Soviet states :.
Until now, the world we've known has been a world divided—a world of barbed wire and concrete block, conflict and cold war. Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a "world order" in which "the principles of justice and fair play A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.
The New York Times observed that progressives were calling the new world order a rationalization for American imperial ambitions in the Middle East , while conservatives rejected new security arrangements altogether and fulminated about any possibility of U. When President Bush announced his new foreign policy would help build a New World Order, his phrasing surged through the Christian and secular hard right like an electric shock, since the phrase had been used to represent the dreaded collectivist One World Government for decades.
Some Christians saw Bush as signaling the End Times betrayal by a world leader. Secular anticommunists saw a bold attempt to smash US sovereignty and impose a tyrannical collectivist system run by the United Nations. American televangelist Pat Robertson with his best-selling book The New World Order became the most prominent Christian popularizer of conspiracy theories about recent American history as a theater in which Wall Street , the Federal Reserve System, Council on Foreign Relations, Bilderberg Group , and Trilateral Commission control the flow of events from behind the scenes, nudging us constantly and covertly in the direction of world government for the Antichrist.
Observers note that the galvanization of right-wing populist conspiracy theorists, such as Linda Thompson , Mark Koernke and Robert K. Spear, into militancy led to the rise of the militia movement , which spread its anti-government ideology through speeches at rallies and meetings, through books and videotapes sold at gun shows , through shortwave and satellite radio, and through fax networks and computer bulletin boards.
The worldwide appeal of these subcultures then transmitted New World Order conspiracism like a " mind virus " to a large new audience of seekers of counterknowledge from the mids on. In Europe, National-Anarchism , a syncretic political ideology articulated by British post- Third-Position activist Troy Southgate , evolved into a radical political movement calling for an insurrection against, and secession from, the imagined " Zionist , capitalist New World Order".
After the turn of the century , specifically during the financial crisis of — , many politicians and pundits, such as Gordon Brown , [ 16 ] Henry Kissinger , [ 17 ] and Barack Obama , used the term " new world order " in their advocacy for a Keynesian reform of the global financial system and their calls for a "New Bretton Woods" , which takes into account emerging markets such as China and India.
These declarations had the unintended consequence of providing fresh fodder for New World Order conspiracism, and culminated in former Clinton administration adviser Dick Morris and conservative talk show host Sean Hannity arguing on his Fox News Channel program Hannity that "conspiracy theorists were right". In , American film directors Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel released New World Order , a critically-acclaimed documentary film which explores the world of conspiracy theorists, such as American radio host Alex Jones , who are committed to exposing and vigorously opposing what they perceive to be an emerging New World Order.
There are numerous secular and religious conspiracy theories through which the concept of a New World Order is viewed. The following is a list of the major ones in relatively chronological order: [ 24 ]. For over 2, years, apocalyptic millenarian Christian theologians and laymen have feared a globalist conspiracy as the fulfillment of prophecies about the " end time " in the Bible , specifically in the Book of Ezekiel , the Book of Daniel , the Olivet discourse found in the Synoptic Gospels , and the Book of Revelation.
They assert that human and demonic agents of the Devil are involved in a primordial plot to deceive humanity into accepting a satanic world theocracy that has the Unholy Trinity — Satan , the Antichrist and the False Prophet —at the core of an imperial cult. In many contemporary Christian conspiracy theories, the False Prophet will either be the last pope of the Catholic Church groomed and installed by an Alta Vendita or Jesuit conspiracy or a guru from the New Age movement or even the leader of a fundamentalist Christian organization like The Fellowship , while the Antichrist will either be the president of the European Union or the secretary-general of the United Nations or even a supercomputer.
Some of the most vocal critics of end-time conspiracy theories come from within Christianity. Camp's book Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Times Paranoia , [ 2 ] which has been described as "impressive both as a historical and theological work". Gomes , argue that the Bible must be read carefully to avoid misusing the text to legitimize reactionary prejudices in the dominant culture. More broadly, preterist Christians argue that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the end time refer literally or metaphorically to events which already happened in the first century after Jesus' birth.
In their view, the "end time" concept refers to the end of the covenant between God and Israel , rather than the end of time, or the end of planet Earth. They argue that prophecies about the Rapture , the defiling of the Temple , the destruction of Jerusalem , the Antichrist, the Number of the Beast , the Tribulation , the Second Coming , the Last Judgment , and the resurrection of the dead were fulfilled at or about the year 70 when the Roman general and future Emperor Titus sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple in Jerusalem, putting a permanent stop to the daily animal sacrifices.
According to Preterists, many passages in the New Testament indicate with apparent certainty that the second coming of Christ, and the end time predicted in the Bible were to take place within the lifetimes of Jesus' disciples rather than millennia later: Matt. Ultimately, full Preterists argue that all Christians should reject apocalyptic eschatology and embrace realized eschatology. Anti-Masonic conspiracy theorists believe that "high-ranking" Freemasons are involved in conspiracies to create an occult New World Order.
They claim that some of the Founding Fathers of the United States , such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin , had Masonic symbolism interwoven into American society, particularly in the Great Seal of the United States , the United States one-dollar bill , the architecture of National Mall landmarks , and the streets and highways of Washington, D. Conspiracy theorists speculate that Freemasons did this in order to bind their planning of a government in conformity with the luciferian plan of the Great Architect of the Universe whom, they are said to believe, has tasked the United States with the eventual establishment of the " Kingdom of God on Earth " in the form of an hermetic world theocracy , and the building of the Third Temple in New Jerusalem as its holiest site.
Freemasons rebut these claims of Masonic conspiracy. They assert that Freemasonry, which promotes a balance between rationalism and mysticism through an initiatory system of degrees and sacred geometry , [ 32 ] places no power in occult symbols themselves. It is not a part of Freemasonry to view the drawing of symbols, no matter how large, as an act of consolidating or controlling power.
More broadly, Freemasons assert that a long-standing rule within regular Freemasonry is a prohibition on the discussion of politics in a Masonic Lodge and the participation of lodges or Masonic bodies in political pursuits. Freemasonry has no politics, but it teaches its members to be of high moral character and active citizens.
The accusation that Freemasonry has a hidden agenda to establish a Masonic government ignores several facts. While agreeing on certain Masonic Landmarks , the many independent and sovereign Grand Lodges act as such, and do not agree on many other points of belief and practice.
Also, as can be seen from a survey of famous Freemasons , individual Freemasons hold beliefs that span the spectrum of politics. The term "Masonic government" has no meaning since individual Freemasons hold many different opinions on what constitutes a good government , and Freemasonry as a body has no opinion on the topic.
The Order of the Illuminati was an Enlightenment-age secret society founded on 1 May , in Ingolstadt Upper Bavaria , by Adam Weishaupt , who was the first lay professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt. The movement consisted of freethinkers , secularists , liberals , republicans and pro-feminists , recruited in the Masonic Lodges of Germany, who sought to promote perfectionism through mystery schools.
In , the order was infiltrated, broken up and suppressed by the government agents of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria , in his campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow his Bavarian monarchy and its state religion Roman Catholicism. In the late 18th century, reactionary conspiracy theorists, such as Scottish physicist John Robison and French Jesuit priest Augustin Barruel , began speculating that the Illuminati survived their suppression and became the masterminds behind the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The Illuminati were accused of being enlightened absolutists who were attempting to secretly orchestrate a world revolution in order to globalize the most radical ideals of the Enlightenment: anti-clericalism , anti-monarchism , and anti-patriarchalism. During the 19th century, fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of European ruling classes , and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in the very revolutions they sought to prevent.
During the interwar period of the 20th century, fascist propagandists, such as British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster and American socialite Edith Starr Miller , not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which serves the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both finance capitalism and Soviet communism in order to divide and rule the world. American evangelist Gerald Burton Winrod and other conspiracy theorists within the fundamentalist Christian movement in the United States, which emerged in the s as a backlash against the principles of the Enlightenment, modernism , and liberalism , became the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in America.
Right-wing populists subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities , gentlemen's clubs and think tanks of the American upper class are front organizations of the Illuminati, which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government. Skeptics argue that evidence would suggest that the Bavarian Illuminati was nothing more than a curious historical footnote since there is no evidence that the Illuminati survived its suppression in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic canard , originally published in Russian in , alleging a Judaeo-Masonic conspiracy to achieve world domination.
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The text purports to be the minutes of the secret meetings of a cabal of Jewish masterminds, which has coopted Freemasonry and is plotting to rule the world on behalf of all Jews because they believe themselves to be the chosen people of God. The Protocols reflect themes similar to more general critiques of Enlightenment liberalism by conservatives who support monarchies and state religions. The interpretation intended by the publication of The Protocols is that if one peels away the layers of the Masonic conspiracy , past the Illuminati , one finds the rotten Jewish core.
The Protocols has been proven by polemicists, such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a The Times article, and British academic Norman Cohn in his book Warrant for Genocide , to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism. There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana , the secret police of the Russian Empire , as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the Russian Revolution , by plagiarizing it, almost word for word in some passages, from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu , a 19th century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly.
Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic hysterias of the 20th century, The Protocols is widely considered to be influential in the development of conspiracy theories related to a New World Order such as the notion of a Zionist Occupation Government , and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature.
They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic " United States of Europe ". Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a Merovingian sacred king , supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline , who occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See , this "Holy European Empire" would become the hyperpower of the 21st century. Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use the The Protocols is to claim that they "really" come from some group other than the Jews such as the Illuminati or alien invaders.
Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text, skeptics argue that it doesn't make much difference, since they leave the actual, antisemitic text unchanged. The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation when it deserves neither. English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing the United States of America and reforming itself into an " Imperial Federation " to bring about a hyperpower and lasting world peace.
In his first will, of , written at the age of 23, he expressed his wish to fund a secret society known as the Society of the Elect that would advance this goal:. In his later wills, a more mature Rhodes abandoned the idea and instead concentrated on what became the Rhodes Scholarship , which had British statesman Alfred Milner as one of its trustees.
Established in , the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British, American, and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford.
Milner and British official Lionel George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement , a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and its self-governing colonies. To this end, Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in June and, with his book The Commonwealth of God , began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U.
The Council on Foreign Relations began in with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period. Originally envisioned as a British-American group of scholars and diplomats, some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement, it was a subsequent group of New York financiers, manufacturers and international lawyers organized in June by Nobel Peace Prize recipient and U.
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The first of the council's projects was a quarterly journal launched in September , called Foreign Affairs. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States , Europe and Japan. Conspiracy theorists believe that the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission are " globalist " think tanks that serve as front organizations for the Round Table of the "Anglo-American Establishment ", which they believe has been plotting from on to rule the world through an " international banking cabal ".
Conspiracists therefore fear that the international bankers of financial capitalism are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U. The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley , author of the book Tragedy and Hope , are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right Cleon Skousen and New Left Carl Oglesby to substantiate this view, even though he argued that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Quigley also argued that, although the Round Table still exists today , its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group , designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of Nations , but faces strong opposition. Furthermore, in American society after , the problem, according to Quigley, was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly.
Larry McDonald , the 2nd president of the John Birch Society and a conservative Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the 7th congressional district of Georgia , wrote a forward for Allen 's book The Rockefeller File , wherein he stated:. The drive of the Rockefellers and their allies is to create a one-world government, combining super-capitalism and Communism under the same tent, all under their control Do I mean conspiracy?
Yes I do. I am convinced there is such a plot, international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent. For more than a century ideological extremists at either end of the political spectrum have seized upon well-publicized incidents Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as 'internationalists' and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure—one world, if you will.
If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it. Barkun argues that this statement is partly facetious the claim of "conspiracy" or " treason " and partly serious—the desire to encourage trilateral cooperation among the U. The statement, however, is taken at face value and widely cited by conspiracy theorists as proof that the Council on Foreign Relations uses its role as the brain trust of American presidents, senators and representatives to manipulate them into supporting a New World Order in the form of a one-world government. I don't think that I really feel that we need a world government.
We need governments of the world that work together and collaborate. But, I can't imagine that there would be any likelihood or even that it would be desirable to have a single government elected by the people of the world There have been people, ever since I've had any kind of position in the world, who have accused me of being ruler of the world. I have to say that I think for the large part, I would have to decide to describe them as crackpots. It makes no sense whatsoever, and isn't true, and won't be true, and to raise it as a serious issue seems to me to be irresponsible.
Some American social critics , such as Laurence H. Shoup, argue that the Council on Foreign Relations is an " imperial brain trust", which has, for decades, played a central behind-the-scenes role in shaping U. William Domhoff , argue that it is in fact a mere policy discussion forum, [ 53 ] which provides the business input to U. However, all these critics agree that historical studies of the council show that it has a very different role in the overall power structure than what is claimed by conspiracy theorists. Wells called for the intelligentsia of all nation-states to organize for the establishment of a global federation of strengthened and democratized global institutions , with plenary constitutional power accountable to global citizens and a division of international authority among separate global agencies, in order to build a world social democracy.
Wells warned, however, in his book The New World Order that:. Countless people When we attempt to evaluate its promise, we [must] bear in mind the distress of a generation or so of malcontents, many of them quite gallant and graceful-looking people. Wells' book was extremely influential in giving a second meaning to the term " new world order ", which would only be used by both democratic socialist supporters and anti-communist opponents for generations to come. Right-wing conspiracy theorists, however, simply changed their focus from the Soviet Union to the United Nations as the bureaucratic collectivist menace.
British neo-Theosophical occultist Alice Bailey , one of the founders of the so-called New Age movement, prophesied in the eventual victory of the Allies of World War II over the Axis powers which occurred in and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. She saw a federal world government as the culmination of Wells' Open Conspiracy but argued that it would be synarchist because it was guided by the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom , intent on preparing humanity for the mystical second coming of Christ , and the dawn of the Age of Aquarius.
According to Bailey, a group of ascended masters called the Great White Brotherhood works on the " inner planes " to oversee the transition to the New World Order but, for now, the members of this Spiritual Hierarchy are only known to a few occult scientists , with whom they communicate telepathically , but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases, there will be an "Externalization of the Hierarchy" and everyone will know of their presence on Earth.
Bailey's writings, along with American writer Marilyn Ferguson 's book The Aquarian Conspiracy , contributed to conspiracy theorists of the Christian right viewing the New Age movement as the " false religion " that would supersede Christianity in a New World Order. By their lights, anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully anti-Christian. The implication is that these independent and sometimes contradictory schools of thought are all part of a monolithic whole.
This is logically and empirically false, and rationally simplistic. Paradoxically, since the s, New World Order conspiracism is increasing being embraced and propagandized by New Age occultists , who are people bored by rationalism and drawn to what Barkun calls the "cultural dumping ground of the heretical, the scandalous, the unfashionable, and the dangerous" — such as alternative medicine , astrology , quantum mysticism , spiritualism , and Theosophy.
Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common, fallacious premises. First, any widely accepted belief must necessarily be false. Second, counterknowledge —what the Establishment spurns—must be true. The result is a large, self-referential network in which, for example, UFO religionists promote anti-Jewish phobias while antisemites claim direct reception of prophetic material : the voice of the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl.
Conspiracy theorists often use the term " Fourth Reich " simply as a pejorative synonym for the "New World Order" to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany's Third Reich. However, some conspiracy theorists take the research findings of American journalist Edwin Black , author of the book Nazi Nexus , to claim that some American corporations and philanthropic foundations—whose complicity was pivotal to the Third Reich's war effort, Nazi eugenics and the Holocaust —are now conspiring to build a Fourth Reich.
They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U. This neo-Nazi conspiracy is said to be animated by an "Iron Dream" in which the American Empire , having overthrown its Zionist Occupation Government , gradually establishes the Fourth Reich , formally known as the "Western Imperium", a pan - Aryan world empire modeled after Adolf Hitler 's New Order and the religious aspects of Nazism , as the best hope for the survival of Western civilization under the threat of the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy.
Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neo-Nazis on American society, and point out that American imperialism , corporatocracy and political repression have a long history that predates World War II. Some political scientists, such as Sheldon Wolin , have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status have paved the way in the U.
Since the late s, extraterrestrials from other habitable planets or parallel dimensions such as " Greys " and intraterrestrials from Hollow Earth such as " Reptilians " have been included in the New World Order conspiracy, in more or less dominant roles, as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and Milton William Cooper , and British writer David Icke. The common theme in such conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades, centuries or millennia, but a government cover-up has protected the public from knowledge of ancient astronauts and an alien invasion.
Motivated by speciesism and imperialism , these aliens have been and are secretly manipulating developments and changes in human society in order to more efficiently control and exploit it. In some theories, alien infiltrators have taken human form and move freely throughout human society , even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental, corporate, and religious institutions, and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world.
A mythical covert government agency of the United States code-named Majestic 12 is often cited by conspiracy theorists as being the shadow government which collaborates with the alien occupation, in exchange for assistance in the development and testing of military "flying saucers" at Area 51 , in order for U. Skeptics, who adhere to the psychosocial hypothesis for unidentified flying objects , argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and UFO conspiracy theory is a product of not only the era's widespread mistrust of governments and the popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs but of the far right and ufologists actually joining forces.
Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that, if conspirators plotting to rule the world are believed to be aliens, traditional human scapegoats Freemasons , Illuminati , Jews , etc. Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories. They speculate that the global power elite are modern Luciferians pursuing a transhumanist agenda to develop and use human enhancement technologies in order to become a " posthuman ruling caste ", while change accelerates toward a technological singularity —a theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them.
Conspiracy theorists fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World -like dystopia —a "Brave New World Order"—or the extinction of the human species. Democratic transhumanists , such as American sociologist James Hughes , and singularitarians , such as American inventor Raymond Kurzweil , counter that many influential members of the American Establishment are bioconservatives strongly opposed to human enhancement , as demonstrated by President Bush's Council on Bioethics 's proposed international treaty prohibiting human cloning and germline engineering.
Regardless, transhumanists and singularitarians claim to only support developing and making publicly available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities for the common good; as well as taking deliberate action to ensure that the Singularity—the moment when technological progress starts being driven by superintelligence —occurs in a way that is beneficial to humankind. Just as there are several overlapping or conflicting theories among conspiracists about the nature of the New World Order, so are there several beliefs about how its architects and planners will implement it:.
Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually , citing the formation of the U. An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American right-wing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and the amero currency, proposed by the Council on Foreign Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada , will be the next implementation of the New World Order.
The theory holds that a group of shadowy and mostly nameless international elites are planning to replace the federal government of the United States with a transnational government. Therefore, conspiracy theorists believe the borders between Mexico, Canada and the United States are in the process of being erased, covertly, by a group of globalists whose ultimate goal is to replace national governments in Washington, D. Most of these get passed around in their own circles and eventually filed away and forgotten by junior staffers in congressional offices.
Some of these papers, however, become touchstones for the conspiracy-minded and form the basis of all kinds of unfounded xenophobic fears especially during times of economic anxiety. In March , as a result of the financial crisis of — , the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation have pressed for urgent consideration of a super-sovereign reserve currency and a U.
Conspiracy theorists have misinterpreted the proposal as vindication of their beliefs about a global currency for the New World Order. Judging that both national governments and global institutions have proven ineffective in addressing worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, some political scientists, such as Mark C. Partrige, argue that regionalism will be the major force in the coming decades, pockets of power around regional centers: Western Europe around Brussels , the Western Hemisphere around Washington, D.
As such, the E. The question then is not whether global governance is gradually emerging, but rather how will these regional powers interact with one another. Following the Rex 84 and Operation Garden Plot plans, this military coup would involve the suspension of the Constitution , the imposition of martial law , and the appointment of military commanders to head state and local governments and to detain dissidents.
These conspiracy theorists, who are all strong believers in a right to keep and bear arms , are extremely fearful that the passing of any gun control legislation will be later followed by the abolishment of personal gun ownership and a campaign of gun confiscation, and that the refugee camps of emergency management agencies such as F. Before year some survivalists wrongly believed this process would be set in motion by the predicted Y2K problem causing societal collapse. Skeptics argue that unfounded fears about an imminent or eventual gun ban, military coup, internment, or U.
Conspiracy theorists concerned with surveillance abuse believe that the New World Order is being implemented by the cult of intelligence at the core of the surveillance-industrial complex through mass surveillance and the use of Social Security numbers , the bar-coding of retail goods with Universal Product Code markings, and, most recently, RFID tagging via microchip implants. Skeptics warn that some consumer privacy advocates, such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre , [ 74 ] who claim that corporations and government are planning to track every move of consumers and citizens with RFID as the latest step toward a -like surveillance state , have become Christian conspiracy theorists who believe spychips must be resisted because they argue that modern database and communications technologies , coupled with point of sale data-capture equipment and sophisticated ID and authentication systems, now make it possible to require a biometrically associated number or mark to make purchases.
They fear that the ability to implement such a system closely resembles the Number of the Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by the United States Congress in Although DARPA eventually removed the logo from its website, it left a lasting impression on privacy advocates.
American historian Richard Landes , who specializes in the history of apocalypticism and was co-founder and director of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, argues that new and emerging technologies often trigger alarmism among millenarians and even the introduction of Gutenberg's printing press in caused waves of apocalyptic thinking. The Y2K problem , bar codes and Social Security numbers all triggered end-time warnings which either proved to be false or simply were no longer taken seriously once the public became accustomed to these technologies.
Conspiracy theorists of the Christian right believe there is an ancient occult conspiracy—started by the first mystagogues of Gnosticism and perpetuated by their alleged esoteric successors, such as the Kabbalists , Cathars , Knights Templar , Rosicrucians , Freemasons , and, ultimately, the Illuminati —which seeks to subvert the Judeo-Christian foundations of the Western world and implement the New World Order through a New Age one-world religion that prepares the masses to embrace the imperial cult of the Antichrist.
They believe that, like Nazi occultists , these conspirators use the power of occult sciences numerology , symbols Eye of Providence , rituals Masonic degrees , monuments National Mall landmarks , buildings Manitoba Legislative Building [ 32 ] and facilities Denver International Airport to advance their plot to rule the world. For example, in June , an unknown benefactor under the pseudonym " R.
Christian " had a huge granite megalith built in the U. A message comprising ten guides is inscribed on the occult structure in many languages to serve as instructions for survivors of a doomsday event to establish a more enlightened and sustainable civilization than the one which was destroyed. The " Georgia Guidestones " have subsequently become a spiritual and political Rorschach test onto which any number of ideas can be imposed.
Some New Agers and neo-pagans revere it as a ley-line power nexus while a few conspiracy theorists are convinced that they are engraved with the New World Order's anti-Christian " Ten Commandments ". Should the Guidestones survive for centuries as their creators intended, many more meanings could arise, equally unrelated to the designer's original intention.
Skeptics argue that the demonization of Western occultism by conspiracy theorists is rooted in religious intolerance but also in the same moral panics that have fueled witch trials in Early Modern Europe , and satanic ritual abuse allegations in the United States. Conspiracy theorists believe that the New World Order will also be implemented through the use of population control in order to more easily monitor and control the movement of individuals. The means range from stopping the growth of human societies through reproductive health and family planning programs, which promote abstinence , contraception and abortion , or intentionally reducing the bulk of the world population through genocides by mongering unnecessary wars, through plagues by engineering emergent viruses and tainting vaccines , and through environmental disasters by controlling the weather HAARP , chemtrails , etc..
Skeptics argue that fears of mandated population control can be traced back to the traumatic legacy of the eugenics movement's "war against the weak" in the United States during the first decades of the 20th century but also the Second Red Scare in the U. Social critics accuse governments, corporations, and the mass media of being involved in the manufacturing of a national consensus and, paradoxically, a culture of fear due to the potential for increased social control that a mistrustful and mutually fearing population might offer to those in power. The worst fear of some conspiracy theorists is that the New World Order will be implemented through the use of mind control —a broad range of tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his or her own thinking, behavior, emotions, or decisions.
Skeptics argue that the paranoia behind a conspiracy theorist's obsession with mind control , population control , occultism , surveillance abuse , Big Business , Big Government , and globalization arises from a combination of two factors, when he or she: 1 holds strong individualist values and 2 lacks power. The Eye of God. The Blood Gospel. The Innocent. The Lincoln Myth. Steve Berry. The Casual Vacancy. Best Kept Secret. A Wanted Man with bonus short story Not a Drill.
The Infernos of Dante and Dan Brown | D&R - Kültür, Sanat ve Eğlence Dünyası
Career of Evil. The 14th Colony. The Gods of Guilt. The Martian. Andy Weir. E L James. Unlucky James Patterson. The Goldfinch. Donna Tartt. Natchez Burning. Greg Iles. The Lake House. Kate Morton. Cross Justice. The Whistler. The Patriot Threat.
Stephen King. Night School. Bones of the Lost. Kathy Reichs. Patricia Cornwell. The Black Box. Go Set a Watchman. Harper Lee. Hope to Die. Bones Never Lie with bonus novella Swamp Bones. The Litigators. Alex Cross, Run. Private Vegas. Depraved Heart. The Rosie Project. Graeme Simsion. Speaking in Bones. The Book of Life. Deborah Harkness. Tom Clancy Full Force and Effect.
Mark Greaney. Flesh and Blood. The Bone Tree. The Survivor.