In its current form, our database allows users to automatically establish shared trajectories and actor networks and classify publications by genre and generation, which is a major step forward from the original fact sheets, where similar operations were only possible by way of a lengthy and resource-intensive effort. Figure 7. Rather than simply sources, the periodicals are also considered to be part of the corpus of works. We account for this twofold dynamic in the cultural space thanks to the configuration of our data, but also and most importantly, to our ability to raise multiple interrelated questions pertaining to the data.
Likewise, we must also take into account the rise of magazines, which had a major impact on the literary field in terms of popular literature. With the transition to digital, we were able to consider an increased number of original questions and verify them more quickly. Our data on the participation of actors in venues of sociability can for instance be fed into structural network analysis software to analyse the structure and strength of these networks of sociability. This is also the case for data that lend themselves to geolocation.
Figure 9. Distribution of every publication for the period according to their genre.
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Several stages of our work now entail the production of numerous graphs. Our work on the upcoming volumes increasingly relies on data presented in table form, some for internal use and intended primarily for interpretation purposes, others to be featured in the volumes to synthesize various aspects of our analysis. These representations of data are not a magical system: we use them to illustrate our argument at each step, and to test and document a variety of inferences. We only include those that have been validated and appear to give insight into our subject matter.
Lastly, it is worth noting that this opportunity to verify the validity of our inferences, to refine and adjust them, is not only a matter of efficiency. Indeed, it significantly speeds up the retroaction process and gives us a chance to collectively consider larger series of hypotheses in a way that suits the collaborative working method that characterizes our team. Figure Evolution of the distribution of every publication according to their genre, for each year of the period These founding principles of our data collection and of their organization on the basis of our table of contents are both reflected and augmented by their implementation in a digital environment.
The multilateral cross-interpretations and the retroaction made possible by the acceleration of the process through which interpretative inferences are produced and hypotheses are validated come with a substantial increase in the amount of data we consider in the making of our history of literary life. Acceleration and refinement are often perceived as positive aspects, but they remain limited by the synthesis and reduction required by our principles.
This section addresses this counterweight. The specificity of our research resides in the fact that we consider the entire process through which literary life is built in each period and in our continual references to this context. However, beyond the measurement of literature and the usual applications of quantitative methods to our research topics, our self-imposed constraint for synthesis has become increasingly pressing.
It has now reached a degree that makes it even more necessary to include an overarching meta-reflexive dimension to the project, which serves as a means to constantly strike a balance between the two opposite forces that inform our work by refocusing our objectives, methods, and possibilities.
We then organized the indexing of sources on the basis of this table, which serves as a thesaurus of sorts, to enable us to group our documents into around sixty thematic folders. The following table, which synthetizes the appendixes in each of our volumes, gives us a glimpse into the synthesis effect at work in our history of literary life. These indexes refer to individuals and newspapers or journals mentioned in the books, wherever they are from, or for the individuals whatever their class or occupation are.
This raw data therefore is to be interpreted cautiously, but it confirms the continuous increasing in the number of processed documents, and it clearly shows the thresholds on which we want to focus here. We will not comment on the increase in the number of actors of literary life at length, as this issue was covered in greater detail in an article on our analysis of actor cohorts by two members of our collective:. The growth suggested by our table is therefore something that happens outside our sample. We can nevertheless infer from this that in recent volumes, we increasingly discuss different actors from those selected in the sample that serves as the basis for our analysis of the literary world.
We can also get a sense of the double movement of growth and reduction required by our work from index entry statistics and bibliographies of works and periodicals. While there is little to add at this point, in the absence of finer statistical processing to quantify this growth more precisely, we can observe that these data show a fairly sharp increase. Here, we will discuss our attempt to gauge the more synthetic treatment that these raw materials require. A distinction between two types of texts and authors is thus introduced, although it should be noted that Mullins Leprohon is mentioned to the same extent as the other authors in the text proper.
In the text proper, while categories dominated as they are the subject of sub-sections, the presentation by novel and author was retained with a slight tendency towards a discussion by work as opposed to by author, as attested by the fact that the output of some authors was addressed in different sub-sections when the emergence of new sub-genres required it. This points to the growing importance of literary sub-genres, which have become more instrumental to the description of transformations than stable categories. The number of works and authors explicitly mentioned in the text proper remained similar To conclude, we wish to stress three aspects that we believe to be important.
The first is the multiplication of cross-queries in our database. This is far from a strictly quantitative aspect; we can already perceive its impact on the number, selection, and ultimately the quality of the hypothesis we formulate. It gives us a window into the multilaterality of the relations between the indicators we take into consideration. The second is the acceleration of the pooling and sharing of data. Instead, it benefits our collective approach, whose process can now begin at a slightly earlier point of the work.
This phenomenon comes with heightened demands when it comes to interpretation, especially in the context of the dizzyingly vast amount of collaborative work necessary to collectively sign each of our books, which is a trademark of our team. Roughly speaking, we need to adopt an increasingly perilous overarching perspective to get a sense of this totality and to address its heart, the wider perspective, and the margins in the same breath. The third and final aspect deserving emphasis is that digital tools have made it considerably easier to store data and make it available, which in turn makes exchanges and collaborations possible with other teams, individual researchers, and students.
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Sharing the data and their interpretation at various stages is both a necessary and a valuable endeavor. The three observations made in the previous paragraph increase our confidence that in committing to the digital transition we have remained faithful to our original principles and our scientific mandate. Our attention to the modalities of the reduction of our basic materials required to produce our synthesis insightfully documents the steps in the process.
In that sense, we believe that our work is to a far greater degree an extension of the shift introduced by the Annales School than the manifestation of a digital revolution. The databases briefly presented here, their conception as well as their practical use in the course of our analytical work constantly bring us back to the need to make up for reduction and distortions by elucidating the conditions of production of knowledge and committing to a meta-reflexive effort; but they also call us to highlight the heuristic benefits of this kind of work.
Foreign Determinants; 2. General Conditions; 3. The Agents of Literary Life; 4. The Literary Market; 5.
L' « Histoire littéraire de la France » et l'érudition bénédictine au siècle des Lumières - Persée
For …. The volumes are authored collectively to reflect our collective …. Bourdieu Pierre English translation by Susan Emanuel. Palo Alto, Stanford University Press. Sur la place. Animation David Spring. Animation Manguy Planche. Animation Jeff Schwab. Animation Marie Musy. Animation Johanne Boulat. Pulitzer Prize laureate in for his admirable and sublime Empire Falls, he is one of the greatest influences for generations of American authors. His outstanding novels chronicle small-town America with caustic humor and make him one of the most important American writers of all time!
It is with great pleasure and excitement that I announce… that my idol said yes! What an honor! From the 27th to the 29th of September, come discover, meet, and listen to the extraordinary, the wonderful, the one and only Mr.
Bienvenue! - Welcome!
Richard Russo! This year America in Oron will have a slight Southern touch and a strong Southern accent! We are thrilled and honored to announce that the wonderful Michael Farris Smith , author of the sublime, somber, and harrowing Desperation Road Little, Brown and Company , has accepted our invitation. Welcome Mississippi!
It is with great joy and excitement that the America in Oron Committee announces the exceptional attendance of the extraordinary Laura Kasischke from the 27th to the 29th of September, be there! California will be in the spotlight in Oron as the marvelous Jean Hegland also hails from there. We would like to extend a warm welcome to our second confirmed author.
It is with great joy and happiness that we announce the first confirmed invited author for the next edition of America in Oron! Author of a book that we absolutely loved, a literary revelation in and a finalist in the American Literature Grand Prize, The Animals from the Liveright Publishing Corporation, Kiefer will come to us from Northern California.