The author accuses the Protestant de Brys' accounts of being filled with lies, and dwells on the barbaric cruelties of the natives in support of the notion that Satan ruled the native American religions. Only the first engraving is signed, by Wolfgang Kilian , Augsburg master-engraver, but the others are comparable in style and were probably also executed by him.
Kilian's plate shows a full length portrait of Columbus under a globe or circular map, with the inscription Almirante de nauios par las Indias. Original edition. He was corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris. Venice, Gioliti, Re-used vellum.
First edition of a letter written by Gasparo Coelho, dated 13 February, Coelho was Vice-provincial of the Jesuit mission in Japan, based in Nagasaki. Streit describes another edition printed by the same publisher in the same year, but with the following title: Lettera annale scritta di novo dal Giapone, delle cose iui successe lanno MDLXXXII.
The present edition is not recorded in Streit. A French edition, translated by Michel Coyssard, was published in Paris in , and a German translation was published in Dilingen in Sans lieu, Contemporary half vellum. Remarkable set of original drawings by the naval painter Antoine Roux , the most famous of the dynasty.
He was famous for its ships portraits: 11 of them in the present set, most of them belonged to the French Navy. Those pencil drawings are followed by some wash drawings depicting Mediterranean landscapes and harbors Toulons Baye. Exceptional work. Et de Tulard et Garnier. Engraved frontispieces, engraved plates and tables. Original pink boards, spines gold-stamped. By a Field Officer on the Staff. Illustrated with a Plan of the Operations.
London, Printed for John Joseph Stockdale, Sabin, ; Alberich, Contemp cardboard binding. Auchmuty was born in New York, from a family of loyalists, was the son of the Rector of Trinity Church. This attack is part of a series of British incursions in South America in early Nineteenth century. Auchmuty's initial mission was to retake Buenos Aires, which had been briefly under British control.
Held in check in his mission, he decides to attack near Montevideo, a city much less fortified than Buenos Aires. The book contains the narrative of the operations and the text of Auchmuty general order of declaring the victory. An appendix gives Auchmutys version of the events, with the names of the British employed in the attack and those who were killed, the catches made at Montevideo and the related proceedings in Parliament. The engraved plan placed as a frontispiece shows the geographical area, with the delimitation of the movements of British troops.
Par ceux de la Co[m]pagnie du nom de Iesus, depuis lan Lyons, Benoist Rigaud, Cordier Japonica, DAcosta's work is divided in four parts containing about forty letters of Eastern missionaries written between and , mostly concerning Japan. Other letters discuss in detail the religion and government of Japan, as well as the missionaries' way of instructing and converting the Japanese. Historia naturale, e morale delle Indie; scritta dal R. Novamente tradotta della lingua Spagnola nella Italiana da Gio. Paolo Galucci Salodiano Academico Veneto. Petite mouillure d'angle interne sur les tous premiers ff.
Il sagit du premier travail important sur les Indes occidentales : le Nouveau Monde. JCB I, p. Antique full vellum, ink title. Acosta was one of the first Europeans to provide a detailed image of the physical and human geography of Latin America; his studies of the Indian civilizations of the New World were a major source of information for several centuries. He may, indeed, be called the first of the true Americanists. Relation dun voyage dexploration au nord-est de la colonie du Cap de Bonne Esperance, entrepris dans les mois de mars, avril et mai Paris, Arthus Bertrand, First edition of this account of a journey undertaken north-east of the colony of the Cape.
The work is illustrated with a fold. Thomas Arbousset converted into contact with a blind neighbor to whom he read the Bible, missionary accounts and stories of persecution suffered by their Huguenot ancestors. It was during these readings that he decided to become a missionary. The Society of Evangelical Missions sent him to Lesotho where he stayed for twenty-seven years. Following his journey in , he published, in Paris in , this poignant account of what he discovered in these "wild and unknown lands", as he defines them himself. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Exemplaire de l'imprimeur cachet imprimeur rouge sur la page de garde.
Beatrice Banning Ayers - married General Patton in She was bilingual French and translated many manuals of the French army into English. She traveled in the United States during the Second World War by collecting money during mandatory collections. After the death of her husband in , Mrs. Patton became an energetic and very persuasive speaker. She also had a good pen, and published 3 books including this book on the legends of Hawaii based on a rich bibliography. Amsterdam: Jodocus Hondius, Contempoary vellum. First edition due to Hondius. Copy from the collection of three generations of French cartographers.
The book contains 4 maps of the world and 15 relating to the Americas. Histoire de la Premiere Descouverte et Conqueste des Canaries. Faite des l'an per Messire Jean de Bethencourt. Paris, Michel Soly, Le tout receuilly de divers. Borba de Moraes I, p. Jean de Bethencourt's portrait by Balthasar Moncornet.
Original velum. Fine copy of this scarce Americana, complete with the 2 parts and portrait, only edition of the very first French publication dealing with the history of maritime explorations. The texts of the first part were compiled by Pierre Bergeron: it's a very complete history of world exploration at the age of discovery, concentrated on French' voyages, including Jacques Cartier du Mont, Lescarbot, Poutrincourt, Champlain With an amazing portrait.
A Paris, Chez H. Delatour, Title in red and black. Contemporary full calf. First edition of this important treatise with a detailled list of the all day and night signals used in Navy. Fresh copy in a fine contemporary binding. Polak - Scott - Brunet VI, First edition of this important work which lists in detail all the night and day signals used in the navy. Before publishing it, Bigot de Morogues used his manuscript for a few years to instruct the naval guards of Brest.
He then went to the navy in , served on the "Bourbon", and became captain in In , he commands the "Magnifique", forming the rear guard of the squadron of the marshal of Confians destined for a landing in Scotland, and supports alone, November 20, day of the battle of Quiberon, the shock of three English ships.
His solid knowledge of both the artillery and the navy has made him think several times about the ministry of the navy; but this nomination never succeeds. Appointed Inspector of Marine Artillery in , he ended his life on his land. His abilities enabled him to compose practical works of clear design and exposition, which for a long time were authoritative; he is also at the origin of the Academy of Marine formed definitively in , and of which he was the first director.
The work is divided in two parts: the first deals with naval evolutions and the second general signals and orders by day, by night, by fog that a naval army must know and execute. Impressed by the formalism of European naval tactics, the work is characteristic of the technical fights of the time.
As a result of a desire for prudence, we wanted to avoid random overflow maneuvers. Attempts to concentrate on the opposing fleet are becoming increasingly rare, and rigidity of the line and discipline of fire is imposed. The battles can be summed up in endless evolutions to take advantage of the wind, followed by a barren cannonade between two parallel lines.
This formalism reigns especially in France since the treaty of of Father Hoste, but also in Spain and, to a lesser extent, in England. It leads to a strategic deviation, the "non-battle" which contributes to developing the passivity of the officers. One of the rare copies printed on large paper, very fresh. Ecrit en Anglais par M. Faux-titre, Titre , xvi pp. Salissures marginales aux premiers et derniers feuillets. EO anglaise, , Londres. Ils rejoignent Tahiti le 26 octobre Ils rejoignent Tofoe, puis, durant quarante-huit jours, ils font route vers Timor. Contemp sheep.
First French edition of Bligh's own account of the mutiny on the Bounty, the most notorious incident in maritime history. This publication predates Bligh's full account of the voyage by two years. Bligh was anxious to have an account of the mutiny itself available to safeguard his own reputation and in order to present copies to the Lords of the Admiralty before the court-martial of the mutineers, to absolve him from blame.
Le bateau prit des passagers jusquau Portugal, fit escale en Afrique pour atteindre Valparaiso le 19 octobre Contemporary cloth binding. Spirited narrative by Gaston Boite, French emigrant to Chile in the beginning of the 20th century. The journey from France to South America still was an adventure, for the crossing and the installation and this log gives a vivid picture of it. A fascinating story by Gaston Boite, a French emigrant who left La Rochelle for Chile at the beginning of the 20th century.
At the beginning of the century, traveling to Chile was still truly adventurous both in crossing and settling in the country, and this newspaper gives a vision that is both lively, colorful and detailed. The first part is devoted to the journey: Gaston Boite retraces the stops by focusing on different atmospheres, depicts the landscapes and living conditions on board, reports the flow of passengers and goods, in a painting where the scenes are mixed more or less incredible on board and in the ports, including scenes of sale on the sly, and more precise elements on the prices of the various goods and the nationalities and social backgrounds of the passengers, all forming a precious testimony on these crossings at the beginning of the century.
La table en annonce 35 cartes et plans. Charming little maritime atlas fully engraved, giving the coast of France and many fortified ports. Allegorical title designed by Monnet engraved by Legrand. The table announces 35 cards and plans. Beautiful copy bound in red morocco. Par M. Bossu, Capitaine dans les troupes de la Marine. Half marbled sheep.
Second edition of primary interest for Louisiana, Alabama, and Illinois. Bossu, a captain in the French Navy, was the first to write about Louisiana in detail and based on personal experience. The work is actually a collection of 21 letters he wrote during his first two voyages to the country, in and Sabin I find no record of the first edition. Bossu arrived in New Orleans a few years after its founding, and only eighty years after La Salle came down the Mississippi. This collection of letters, revealing many vivid personal and secondhand recollections, gives a fascinating portrait of life and travels in that vast area.
Paris, Presentation copy. First edition of this founding text of the prehistoric science, due to Jacques Boucher de Perthes , pronounced during the session of June 7th, of the Imperial Society of emulation. The work is illustrated with two plates representing tools: "Probably out of axes and other tools of antediluvian flints" and a geological section: "reduced cut of the Menchecourt ground near Abbeville" lithographed in the text.
With his theory of the existence of an antediluvian man, the author attracts the wrath of the scientific community. It was not until and the discoveries of Henry Testot Ferry that scientists began to realize the importance of Boucher de Pertheswork, unfortunately very shortly before his death. Nice copy in its publisher cover. Provenance: Mr Cornuau, prefect of the Somme handwriting of the author.
LOUCHÉE - Definition and synonyms of louchée in the French dictionary
Published at a few copies. Rare on the market. Elle est due au navigateur Edmond Bigot de la Touanne, au naturaliste Lesson. Ferguson II, Paquet, fat spines gilt-lettered, blind-stamped anchor tools. Provenance: Lieutenant Commander H. Paquet binding. First edition of this nicely illustrated work on the French circumnavigation under command of Baron De Bougainville, son of the greatexplorer Louis de Bougainville.
The lithographed views were made by Bichebois,Sabatier, and Bayot after designs by E. The fine colour-printed engraved plates by H. Bessa, show plants and animals, including a curious case of Siamese twins, theAustralian kangaroo, two beautiful plates of the Australian parrot, and a finecolour-plate with butterflies.
The double-page maps and plates were all engravedby Amboise Tardieu, mostly after designs by E. Berlin, Paris, Ch. Jombert, Bel exemplaire, frais. Rare treaty on the construction of dikes by Mr. Bourdet - , French engineer and hydraulician of the Royal Academy of Architecture of Paris, who practiced especially in Germany.
The book is dedicated to Count Othon of Podexils - , Prussian ambassador. From time immemorial, man has sought to retain water, divert it, or protect itself from it, whether it is to sail, to increase agricultural surfaces or to build, to use the driving force of water. This work deals with the issues of interest of dykes, reasons of their construction, repairs in case of breakage, disadvantages and benefits for humans other than saving lives, all these topics are detailed in 19 chapters with the support of 9 plates of diagrams of a great precision.
Provenance: Bramshill ex-libris emblazoned on the back of the 1st dish. Nice copy, fresh. Avec introduction et notes. Cependant, peu de journaux de corsaires sont connus. Il dresse des cartes des rades quil visite. Their "catches" bring considerable sums of money to the treasure of the crown, and the names of several French corsairs remain famous. However, few privateers' journals are known. Lawrence in Canada on behalf of of the Company of New France. Thus begins his long career at sea of forty-eight years. Recognized as an excellent pilot, he is the privileged witness of the whole maritime history of the time of Louis XIV.
He remains, with Duguay Trouin, the most prolific corsaire, having left memories written with care and meticulousness. Here is an overview of his feats of arms as captain corsair: In , Jean Doublet takes command of a frigate corsair from Granville, the "Jeune Homme" barrels, 16 guns and 25 men , then the ton corsair frigate of Saint-Malo, the "Comte de Revel", with which he captured an English coastguard of barrels and 40 guns.
In he was captured by the British in the Channel and remained a prisoner for three and a half months in Plymouth. In , he commanded the St. He draws maps of the places he visits. On April 22, , he returned to Port-Louis with a booty of , piastres of gold and silver! Jean Doublet then retired in Honfleur, occupying his last years in the drafting of his journal. Like Duguay Trouin, he writes his memoirs for his family and his friends who want to know his sea adventures. The corsair's diary is accompanied by an introduction, a family tree, a series of pieces and documents and a table of names and vessels cited.
L'Egypte et la Syrie ou moeurs, usages, costumes et monumens des Egyptiens, des Arabes et des Syriens. Paris, Nepveu, Breton a produit des travaux similaires sur la Chine et la Russie. Superbe exemplaire. Blackmer ; Brunet I; Atabey First edition, beautifully bound and in period colors with heightened gold, of this book dedicated to Egypt and the Middle East.
A major actor in court reporting in France, co-founder and manager of the Gazette des Tribunaux, he knows almost all the languages of Europe English, German, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, Italian. He was thus the ideal man to carry out the work entrusted to him by the publisher Nepveu, a bookseller passionate about travel.
Breton has produced similar works on China and Russia. He yielded to Breton not only information, but also unpublished drawings he had himself made during his journey and that Breton adds those of Luigi Mayer published in England. In his preface, Breton praises the success of the French in Egypt "where the French name has left such beautiful memories. The iconography consists of 84 plates with an important ethnographic part: inhabitants of all social categories, scenes of life, crafts, objects, furniture, weapons, musical instruments and views of monuments, cities and landscapes of the Holy Land and from Egypt.
The double page plates are mostly reduced versions of Mayer's Egypt. The set is in period colors with especially fresh. Superb copy. Paris, Durand, First Edition of this important work by Charles de Brosses , considered as one of the major works dealing with the first voyages in the Pacific, intended to stimulate French exploration and colonization of the South Seas. This publication is the major work of Brosses, French magistrate, historian, linguist and writer.
In the eighteenth century, "Terres Australes" does not refer only to the glacial continents of the Arctic and Antarctic, but refers to a larger and more indefinite region of the southern hemisphere from the Cape of Good- Hope to the Strait of Magellan via the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific, three distinct regions that the author names respectively: Australasia, Polynesia and Magellania this last name based on the belief in existence from a continent beyond the tip of South America. The book contains the story of all journeys to the south, starting with the second Vespucci expedition from to , including trips to Magellan, Drake, Schouten, Tasman The text was later used as base for Callander's highly influential "Terra Australis Cognita" of in this form it had much to do with British plans for colonial expansion through transportation.
Brosses suggests that France should colonize Australia thus virtually predicting its ultimate destiny! The text is illustrated with 7 maps by Robert de Vaugondy, which gives the geographical representation of the mid-eighteenth century world. The first represent the whole of the southern hemisphere with Australia in center. Broughton arriva en Inde en , comme Cadet de lEtablissement du Bengale. Bel exemplaire, coloris frais. Original card-board bindings. First French edition. Broughton first arrived in India in as a cadet on the Bengal establishment.
Following the siege of Seringapatam in , in which he was actively engaged, he was appointed commandant of the cadet corps. At the time he wrote the present work he was military resident with the Mahrattas. His book is dedicated to the Marquis of Wellesley, "the acute detector of Mahratta wiles, the firm repeller of their insolent pretensions, and the formidable barrier to their ambitious projects; their vigorous opponent in time of war, and their generous pacificator in the hour of victory.
Abbey, Travel, ; Tooley, ; Colas, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, Faux-titre, Titre , pp. Dans cet ouvrage technique, il aborde les questions du lestage et donne la comparaison du poids de la charge et du poids de la coque. L'illustration se compose de 6 planches : 1. Plan du lest de fer d'un vaisseau de 74 canons.
Premier plan de futailles d'un vaisseau de 74 canons. Second plan de futailles d'un vaisseau de 74 canons. Plan de la Coupe Verticale-longitudunale d'un Vaisseau de 74 Canons. Full calf binding with the guilted arms of France. First and only edition of this scarce treatise by Burgues de Missiessy At the beginning of his brilliant carrier as a sea officer he was Vice Amiral in the French Navy in , he served under Admiral d'Estaing during his campaigns in the American Revolutionary War. He also was Directeur of the French shipbuilding school. The present book was printed by order of the Governement.
Superb copy of this rare work, printed on a special heavy velum paper with the binging of the king Louis the XVIth. Jomard, membre de linstitut. T, T et 1 portrait frontispice de l'auteur , XII, pp. Catalogue ; , ,  pp. Gay, Publisher covers. Original edition of this scarce account. Rene Caillie was presented with the Legion of Honor as the first European to return alive from Timbuktu. Then he went to the mysterious city, saw something of its real character, and crossed the Sahara to Morocco, reaching the west coast of Fez.
For this journey he was rewarded by the Geographical Society of Paris" Baker. Fx-titre, frontispice, titre , pp.
Meaning of "louchée" in the French dictionary
Provenance : Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay , prince de Bauffremont et du Saint-Empire, marquis de Bauffremont et de Listenois, comte de l'Empire , pair de France , premier duc de Bauffremont , chevalier de lordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis. Contemporary half-sheep. Armorial ex-libris. First edition of this beautiful work richly illustrated with detailed hand-colored full-page engravings depicting scenes, Ottomans costumes, portraits, weapons, tools, musical instruments etc.
Castellan gives an elaborate account of the history, emperors, people, religion, arts and professions, richly illustrated. The French publisher Nepveu published a series of books with similar descriptions of different countries and regions of the world. Fine copy of a prestigious provenance.
Paris, Le Rouge, Millard, Second edition in French. In this set of drawings made on site, Chambers aims to stop the "extravagant productions A Chapter is devoted to the distribution of Chinese gardens. A first edition containing only 19 p. Vial du Clairbois. A Brest, Chez R. Il en prend la direction sur ordre du roi Gustave III qui l'anoblit en Il construira au total 24 vaisseaux de ligne.
French edition translated from the Swedish, of one of the most famous naval architecture treatises produced in the 18th century. Copy with 80 pages of notes and handwritten addendum diagrams in English. In the 18th century, naval architecture is the equivalent of what will be the 20th aerospace industry. However, in it remains an empirical art based on the knowledge and the eye of some exceptional master carpenters: most military and merchant ships are built without a specific plan, based on simple sketches and arsenal models.
Duhamel Du Monceau's work "Elements darchitecture navale" published in , is a revolution. It addresses shipbuilding for the first time in a scientific way and accessible to all. From then, the civil and military shipyards adopt a rational work based on the physical and mathematical sciences and perfectly established plans. This work by Sweden Frederick Henry of Chapman, appeared for the first time in Translated into several languages, he will not know an edition in English until Smith, Cambridge.
This treatise is the work of a sailor who knew perfectly the construction of the vessels. At the age of 15, he left for Stockholm to learn the art of shipbuilding. With a partner he opened a shipyard in Gothenburg from This did not prevent him from traveling a lot and even being briefly arrested in , when he visited an English shipyard without authorization.
In he took the mathematics classes of English Thomas Simpson He will thus use Simpson's method numerical calculation of an integral to determine mathematically the different characteristics of a ship volumes, surfaces, center of gravity He was then relieving the Swedish fleet, which had fallen somewhat into decay. He built a total of 24 ships. Appointed Vice Admiral in , he ceased his activity in , when he was 72 years old.
The work is divided into IX chapters dealing with every aspect of the construction: displacement, stability, center of gravity, resistance, sails, proportions of buildings and rigging, and construction practice. It is illustrated with 8 out-of-text tables and 11 out-of-text plates, including 3 folding cutaway schematics. Copy used by a British construction site: it is riddled with forty sheets of manuscripts in ink of additions and notes, diagrams, tables of calculation as well as annotations in the margins, all written in English.
Thus, while an English edition was available from , some British architects continued to use the present copy and supplemented it with large manuscript additions. Il sinstalle en Angleterre et se marie. Dirk Van der Cruysse: "Chardin le Persan". First edition of of the first volume of Chardin's manuscript.
Born in Paris in a Huguenot Protestant family, Jean Chardin undertook his travels to Persia because of his father's position as a jeweller and shareholder in the French East India Company. Soon after his arrival in Persia, he received a commission to create jewellery for Shah Abbas II, who died in and was succeeded by Shah Safi.
After witnessing the latter's coronation, Chardin went on India and finally returned to Paris in In , he published an account of the coronation and in the same year set off for Persia again, arriving in Isfahan in and remaining there for several years, before once more visiting India and returning home in With the persecution of the Huguenots in France, he moved to England in This first edition deals with the period , which appeared in and was followed by several counterfeit editions.
The complete set of his works was published only in in Paris, but was incomplete of several passages cut by the editor who found them anti-papists! Chardin enjoys the reputation of being one of the best-informed European observers of Safavid Persia. The plates in Chardin's work are said to be after the artist Guillaume Grelot; they include illustrations of Tiflis, Erivan, Kashan, Kom and a large folding map of the Black Sea. A valuable work, highly praised by Montesquieu, Rousseau etc.
Scarce original edition of this treaty by naval Lieutenant Chopart, which was animated by the desire to disseminate to all officers of the Navy knowledge inherent in the maneuvers of the Fleet, deficiencies considered disastrous by Chopart since it existed at the time only a manual on board the ships, the "Tactic", intended for the captain alone. Provenance: Jacques Lapierre, navy officer handwritten dedication by the author. A Dunkerque, le 22 septembre These plan was made by this officer when English and Dutch fleets attacked the city in They were repelled by Jean Bart in a battle which is considered as the last victory of the famous sailor.
Some marks of folding, and the title on the verso of the document show it was either classify with military papers, or send to the authorities. Drawn by a professionnel on the first day of the attack, it shows many accurate details, offers the position of both fleets, with the name and place of both ships and batteries. Up on the right, a table gives the explanation for the depicted elements: kind of ships, batteries, fortifications.
The attack was repelled. Rare and precious historical document, depicting the last victory of the famous French corsair. Frankfurt, Johann Peter Zubrodt, Choulant-Frank, pp. Ancient vellum. First edition of the first illustrated work on Chinese medicine published in Europe. These Latin translations of a late medieval version of the Mo cheh Instructions relating to the pulse and other short texts were the work of the Polish Jesuit Michael Boym They were published, with no mention of Boym, by Andreas Cleyer , a physician with the Dutch East India Company who served in Java in the s and later in Japan.
The only earlier printed Western work on Chinese medicine was a short unillustrated collection of Jesuit translations of similar Chinese works entitled Secrets de la medicine chinoise Grenoble The texts translated here, of which several are by Vam Xo Ho or Wang Shu-ho , deal primarily with theories relating to the pulse, and the closely related subject of acupuncture is discussed extensively.
One chapter gives remedies for various types of disorders of the pulse, while the chapter on materia medica lists and describes plants, with phonetic transcriptions of their Chinese names, and their Latin names where the plants have been identified. The final section contains 36 descriptions of various pathological symptoms as manifested in the appearance of the tongue, illustrated by woodcuts of the tongue with captions describing localized discoloration, etc.
The curious engravings, copied from a Chinese source, probably Chang Chieh-Pin's Lei ching include several anatomical engravings of organs as well as the first acupuncture charts published in the West; unfortunately, these were dubbed 'anatomical' by Western writers, causing much confusion and misguided criticism. A portion of Boym's translation of the section on the pulse was abridged and paraphrased in English in the second volume of John Floyer's Physician's pulse-watch Floyer, presumably influenced by Chinese theory, was the first European physician to advocate regular observations of the pulse.
Paris: Claude Barbin et Christophe Ballard, Sabin Streit II, Palau Artents Add. JCB II, See also Church re. First French edition, translated from the original Italian , Venise , of the first biography of Christopher Columbus, by one of his contemporaries who knew him best, his portside son, Ferdinand. Henry Vignaud, severe critic of the origins of the so-called Columbus Legend, judged it to be "the most important of our sources of information on the life of the discoverer of America," and Washington Irving honored it as "the corner-stone of the history of the American continent.
Rutgers University Press , - calls it "a work of great authority," and continues: "Ferdinand's Historie is more than a rich and faithful source of information about Columbus. It is also a moving personal document that vividly re-creates the moral and intellectual atmosphere of Columbus's world and the swirling passions of which he was the center. It is in large part a straightforward narrative of action. He wrote, therefore, from participation, from verbal narrative from his father's lips concerning the other voyages, and from unique access to his father's papers.
That the first edition of the Historie was not published till more than thirty years after its author's death, and in Italian rather than the Spanish in which it was written, is accounted for in this passage from Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison's life of Columbus The manuscript, which has since disappeared, was taken by D.
Luis Colon, the Admiral's grandson, to Italy in , before any Spanish edition had been printed; and the sole surviving text is an Italian translation by Alfonso Ulloa printed at Venice in He sold the manuscript of Ferdinand's Historie to a wealthy Genoese physician, Baliano de Formari, who underwrote the translation and publication, and to whom the work is dedicated. Parenthetically, in the past century doubt of Ferdinand's authorship was cast by the able Americanist, Henry Harrisse, on the basis of evidence which seemed impressive at the time.
Discovery of subsequent evidence strongly tends to refute Harrisse's conclusion and demonstrates the pitfalls of bibliographical conjecture, even when made by experts. When Ferdinand Columbus born in was a young boy he became a page to the Spanish heir apparent, Prince Juan, and later to the Prince's mother, Queen Isabella. At thirteen, in , he went to America with his father, and again, in , with his elder brother, Diego, who was Governor of Hispaniola Espafiola.
Thereafter, he traveled widely in Europe, served the Spanish government with his knowledge of the colonies and of geography, and acted as Diego's legal adviser in the latter's disputes with the Crown over the rights of the heirs of the Discoverer. The rest of the engraved figures appear unfinished or, at least, were carried out with a lesser degree of detail. Concerning the chronological information, the stratigraphic data from the E. Passemard excavations does not enable a relationship to be established between the?
A LA JEUNESSE FRANÇAISE
Formal comparisons allow the figures of the engraved pillar to be related to the Middle Magdalenian level of the Grande Salle, while the technology and features of the pillar? We propose naming this settlement??? With a surface area of at least hectares, the site is located in a little sheltered valley in the hills to the south of the Durance River valley. Its geographical position, between the Alpilles hills to the west, the Crau plain to the south-west, the Durance valley to the north and the Aix-en-Provence basin to the south-east, as well as its large surface area, suggests that this site could have played a central role in the organization of the Chassey culture territories in western Provence.
The Cazan site is currently documented by 23 discovery points, including four planimetrical archaeological excavations, representing almost 2. At the most, all that can be said is that this type of extensive site is rare in southern France. The data collected allowed several questions related to these megasites to be answered: timespan and nature of occupation, detailed chronology and site functions.
The geomorphological study allowed the insertion of the archaeological remains in a complex stratigraphic sequence deposited in a slight depression inherited from the Ice Ages, in which the highest density of remains were found, to be understood. The current gently sloping topography and the lateral variations in the sedimentary sequence demonstrate that the natural and archaeological layers are not evenly preserved, some of the areas having suffered more than others from erosion. In contrast, some areas show more important sedimentary deposits, where archaeological remains have been preferentially trapped and well-preserved.
Among the 35 actual features discovered, 15 storage pits, 2 or 3 water wells, one artefact deposit, 3 heated stone features, 8 to 10 fire pits, 2 hearths and what is probably wedging for a post can be distinguished. The pits are of average volume, and, on the whole, have a quick and non-anthropogenic filling. The two wells have been used as disposal places for artefacts and various organic remains, and provided two stratigraphic sequences rich in information on the nature of human activities.
The fire-pits display evidence of burning on their bottom and walls, but some of them have probably been disturbed, as the stones partially filling the pits are not always in primary position. The presence of only two hearths and one post wedging suggests activities which left little evidence on the ground. The ceramic production study outlined four morphological groups, interpreted as as many occupation phases.
The latter could point to the existence of several domestic production units using different methods. The technical and morphological specificities observed could be interpreted as a local style variation but overall, the four phases identified on the site can be placed in the existing regional seriation of ceramic production. The lithic collection, a series of elements, demonstrates that the site was part of several exogenous raw material exchange and distribution networks Sardinian obsidian, Bedoulian flint from Vaucluse, Oligocene flint such as the Apt-Forcalquier type.
The typo-technological analysis indicates two successive Chassey chronological phases. The oldest phase is only represented by scattered artefacts while the recent phase is more largely represented, but it was not possible to distinguish any stages within it. Cross-examining the data provided by the stratigraphy, ceramic seriation and the seven radiocarbon dates suggests four Chassey culture phases during the occupation of the "l'Heritiere"site: 1 an older phase before BC, attested by scattered artefacts and a radiocarbon date conflicting with the related artefacts; 2 a following phase with both "Terres Longues"and "Rocalibert"type Chassey culture stages C and D1 stages of the regional ceramic seriation during which the wells were dug and then filled up again, one stage also being associated with pits; the dating ranges between and BC, that is to say a century and a half at most; 3 a final phase, related to the???
The spatial distribution of artefacts does not reveal any specific polarity that could be related to one of the occupation phases. In other words, on the archaeological excavation scale, we are dealing with repeated and extensive occupations over three centuries, each occupation having left only very few remains. This result suggests a non-intensive occupation model, but a real appropriation of the location. The high chronometric resolution achieved in the??? Future research directions include the confrontation of our interpretation with other sectors excavated on this megasite and further analyses on archaeological material to define subsistence patterns, raw material provenance, and their evolution during the Chassey period translation Alexis Taylor and Dorcas Vannieuwenhuyse.
Il trouve peu de comparaisons approchantes en France. Abstract: A bronze dagger, sword, and cup were found by chance in and in the Seine flood plain at Varenne in the town of Melun. These objects, which can be dated to the beginning of the Late Bronze Age, were considered for a long time to be Gallo-Roman because of the sizeable number of antique vestiges discovered in the same period in this particular area.
The weapons, according to Gabriel Leroy's written account of the discovery, were linked to a burial. The context of the cup can not however be specified. The typology of the three objects evokes a non-local production. The fragmented sword has a tripartite tongue and a straight blade. It belongs to the Reutlingen type and bears strong similarities to examples from the eponymous necropolis situated in Germany. Few swords of this type have been discovered in France.
The dagger, with a bipartite tongue and blade with rectilinear edges, can be compared to the Peschiera type defined by Italian models. One can find very few appropriate comparisons in France. The cup is characterized by a rounded body, a flared rim and a ribbon handle with incised longitudinal decoration.
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It belongs to a family of cups of the Gusen type which are among the first beaten bronze dish productions from the Bronze Age. This type, which originated in Central Europe, is rare in France and the example from the Varenne Plain is the most westerly find to date. On account of the morpho-types, the typology, and the deliberate damage inflicted on the sword, the Melun tomb stands out from the dozen sword tombs which have been found in the Yonne and Upper Seine Valleys. It is a sword tomb which furthermore is situated further down the Seine. These various vestiges indicate the presence of an elite in this part of the Seine Valley which occupied a privileged position near the important exchange route which was the river.
They also bear witness to the existence of a Bronze Age cemetery which has disappeared from the Varenne Plain. Chauchat et C. Several occupations dating to MIS 3 indicate that the plateau was heavily utilized during that period. Thus far, an artefact originating from the Upper Palaeolithic layers was dated via thermoluminescence to It is thought that this artefact could have moved up from the Middle Palaeolithic layers but this conclusion awaits other TL samples currently being dated.
However, these dates provide a preliminary time range for the late Middle Palaeolithic occupation of the plateau between 45 and 50 ky BP. This new chronological and stratigraphic framework has allowed the reevaluation of several older collections and surface finds in an attempt to characterize more precisely the use of the Saint-Pierre d'Irube plateau during the late Middle Palaeolithic. Chauchat and C.
Thibault in the late s. We thus identify a relative contemporaneity between these three occupations. This spatial patterning can be largely explained by anthropogenic activities, specifically the location of knapping events that produced the high-density clusters and use of flakes and tools in adjacent areas. Retouched flakes, bifaces and flake cleavers, and lithics with evidence for use-wear are over-represented in the medium and low density parts of the site, probably abandoned at their place of use.
A similar spatial organization was found at Jupiter. The presence of refitted lithics may indicate relatively good spatial preservation. Flakes from the main part of the reduction sequence are under-represented in the refitted sample and were thus probably exported off-site. In contrast, large bifacial pieces, namely handaxes and flake cleavers, were not produced on-site but were imported and abandoned. These two occupations are interpreted as flake production sites where secondary activities compatible with butchery based on use-wear analysis were performed at the periphery of the lithic clusters.
Cores with indications of the Discoid method are rare. The majority of flakes were the result of the manufacture of bifacial tools. The bifacial shaping flakes can be attributed to different stages in biface manufacture according to their size. Large flakes, with full or partial cortex, are present, along with small flakes that correspond to phases of sharpening or re-sharpening. The flakes are accompanied by 17 bifaces at different stages of reduction. This occupation is focused on the production of bifacial tools for exportation and for use on-site evidence for re-sharpening is present.
The area would have had several attractive features for Neanderthal groups, especially its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, the nearby confluence of two major rivers, the Nive and the Adour, and the abundant and high-quality local flint. The remaining archaeological potential of the area around Bayonne is increasingly threatened by rapid urbanization. Therefore, these recent archaeological excavations, and their incorporation with a study of old collections, is particularly timely in light of this destruction of cultural heritage.
Keywords: Neanderthal, Late Middle Palaeolithic, lithic technoeconomy, spatial analysis, use-wear analysis, site function, territorial organization, settlement dynamics. Abstract: Bones collected on Palaeolithic archaeological sites are rarely found whole. While a range of natural factors and mechanisms can be the cause of this bone fragmentation e.
The bone marrow contained in the medullary cavity of long bones is an important food resource for many human groups, particularly in periglacial areas, such as among the Nunamiut of Alaska or the Siberian Koriak. These groups each use different processes to remove the bone marrow. This variability is partly explained by the technical traditions and modes of consumption specific to each group, which often lead to a standardization of fracturing techniques within the group. Can recurring patterns of this kind be observed in the Palaeolithic context?
And if so, is it possible to demonstrate the transmission of such processes in terms of the removal of the bone marrow? This includes an inventory of the number of impact marks on each fragment, their nature, their arrangement in relation to each other, and their location on the anatomical element. The degree of percussion has been calculated for the different parts of the anatomical elements in order to establish whether there were any preferred impact zones.
The patterns observed were then compared with those described in publications in order to establish their specific characteristics and to assess the parameters that may have affected such distributions of marks. This homogeneity in the constitution of the assemblage reduces the risk of confusion between human and natural agents in the attribution of the marks observed. The corpus studied was composed of bone remains, all of which were fragments of the main long bones containing bone marrow humeri, radioulnae, femurs, tibias, and metapodials.
Recurrences in the location of the impact points were nonetheless identified. These recurrences varied in relation to the skeletal elements considered and differed in degree. In the case of the radii, for example, the vast majority of impact marks were found on the proximal parts, in contrast with the humeri and tibias for which the distribution of percussion marks, although more variable, appeared to indicate a selection predominantly in favour of the distal parts.
The preferred percussion surface also varied according to the element, mainly the anterior surface in the case of the radii but the lateral or medial surfaces in the case of the humeri. The existence of such recurrences indicates that the arrangement of the impact points results from deliberate choice.
This choice of location to perform the fracturing of the bone does not appear to be dictated solely by mechanical constraints e. If that were the case, the patterns observed for a specific species would be relatively similar from one level to another and one site to another. The most striking case is that of the radii, as between the two complexes the arrangement of the impact points is diametrically opposed. This variability is not specific to this species as at other sites attributed to different techno-complexes, differences in the choice of the location of the percussion marks have also been observed, particularly for reindeer and ibex.
This is also the case for sites attributed to the same period. Thus, while we cannot completely exclude the possibility of a preferential choice in relation to the bone structure itself, the existence of such inter and intra-species variability suggests choices dictated in part by cultural factors. Furthermore, the analysis of percussion marks has allowed us to highlight in some cases the presence of several impact points on the same bone fragment.
Thus, some of the bone fragments have multiple percussion marks up to eight identified , sometimes located over a small area and in the form of chopmarks. This type of mark is generally attributed to the disarticulation stage of the limbs during the butchery process. Given their location on the bone element, this does not however appear to be the case here. Moreover, they do not appear to be of a technical nature and cannot be attributed to retouchers.
One of the hypotheses that we can put forward here is that several attempts were made at fracturing the bone. This then raises the question of the tenacity and mastery of the technique and could imply that these bones were fractured by novices. La Honteyre Le Tuzan, Gironde : a Magdalenian hunter-gatherer occupation in a sandy desert environment. Abstract: The mid-west part of the Aquitaine basin is characterized by a vast sandy terrain, today covered by the Landes de Gascogne forest.
This geological formation was recently the subject of new geomorphological and chronostratigraphic analyses, demonstrating that the formation corresponds to an erg that began to form in the early Quaternary. During the Late Glacial, the Sable des Landes was already a large natural unit in southwestern France.
How did Magdalenian human groups appropriate this unique area? And what was the impact of this desert on the mobility and exchange networks of these groups? To date, surveys of the area have only documented two sites within this sandy desert clearly identified as belonging to the Upper Magdalenian: Tizon to the south and La Honteyre to the north.
Compared with the more densely populated regions of Entre-Deux-Mers to the north and the western Pyrenees to the south, this area therefore appears to have been more constraining for hunter-gatherer groups, doubtless due to the low plant and animal biomass. The open-air site of La Honteyre, discovered in by G. Belbeoc'h and excavated between and by M. Lenoir, presents a single level with a relatively low thickness. We here propose a re-evaluation of the site in order to gain a better understanding of the technical and economic strategies implemented by Magdalenian hunter-gatherers in a sandy desert environment that was a priori constraining.
In relation to previous studies, we present a qualitative evaluation of the taphonomy of the assemblage and propose a petrographic, technological, and typological analysis of the lithic remains. The results of the vertical projection of the coordinated remains, the spatial distribution of the lithic refits, and the typo-technological nature of the assemblage all indicate that the layer of remains is homogeneous.
The analysis of the siliceous raw materials indicates a supply area clearly focused northwards, in particular with the importation of roughly worked blocks transported from over km away in the Charente region. Mid-distance from this around 60 km , flint was also imported from deposits in the Dordogne. It appears that more distant materials may also have been imported Cher Valley? The high level of economic foresight illustrated by this behaviour perfectly illustrates a strategy of planning for the needs of a group that had come to occupy an area devoid of flint for blade knapping.
It also highlights the importance Magdalenian groups placed on blade production. The low quantities of this flint could indicate a relatively short occupation of the site. Blade knapping was based on raw material imported from the Charente area and the terraces of the Dordogne using the traditional methods of the period unipolar, semi-tournant, soft organic percussion.
This economic objective can be observed in the presence of some original foliate lithic points Laugerie-Basse type and bladelets. An autonomous bladelet production complements these blanks, filling the need for blanks for hunting armatures on bladelets. Two main methods are involved in a single convergent unipolar concept for obtaining naturally pointed blanks. The backed bladelets present a typological diversity demonstrated in the manufacture of the pieces: backed, truncated, denticulated, inversely pointed, notched, and scalene triangles.
Some specific objects such as certain burins and lithic points are good tracers for identifying the cultural links maintained between the occupants of La Honteyre and the sites located on either side of the Sable des Landes. Furthermore, the presence of parrot-beak burins and Laugerie-Basse points indicates clear interactions between the Vienne region and the western Pyrenees, an area that now includes the Sable des Landes thanks to the site of La Honteyre.
Finally, the convergent unipolar bladelet production confirms the links between these sites and the cultural identity of these late Upper Magdalenian groups. It therefore appears that we are dealing with a site located in the heart of a cultural territory, confirmed by the widespread presence of specific objects and technical behaviour. Thus, by comparing the data from this site with other occupations to the south and north of the Sable des Landes, we can gain a better understanding of this constraining region as a place of passage for groups travelling from the north to the south, as implied by the broader circulation network of raw material between these different western Aquitaine sites.
Keywords: Sable des Landes, Magdalenian, desert, Late Glacial, petroarcheology, lithic technology, mobility, networks. Megalithic monuments are part of a landscape that has been profoundly transformed by people, and are reflections of a desire to erect social and territorial markers. Geophysical prospecting undertaken for the first time on and around these monuments has revealed original features that contribute to the monumentalization of the landscape in the same way as the fortifications associated with the world of the living.
The builders clearly focused on the monoliths of the funerary chamber, as exemplified by the construction of the stone door of Motte de la Jacquille, a unique example in European megalithism. This work goes beyond mere aesthetic preoccupations, and demonstrates a genuine investment of symbolism in megalithic construction.
One of the most significant advances relates to the discovery of numerous examples of old structural stones in the construction of the Motte de la Jacquille funerary chamber. These point to the recycling of a previously existing funerary chamber, specifically deconstructed for this later occasion. Several scenarios are discussed to explore the possible motivations underlying such reuse. Keywords: Neolithic, Western France, megalithism, passage grave, multi-method prospecting, landscape, reused monoliths. La tradition du travail de la pierre typique des dolmens de type angoumoisin se traduit dans les techniques de transformation du calcaire.
They are monolithic monuments, partly or entirely carved. Their morphology can result from the natural shaping of rock blocks or they may have an architectural form. In the latter case, the stelae are built around an axis. Their volume can be decomposed into three parts: top, shaft and baseplate.
The shaft sides may be decorated. The methodology is based on the comparative study, on macro- and microscopic scales, of both the monuments and the surrounding geological massifs. The latter are parts of the Variscan crystalline basement of Armorica which recorded strain, metamorphism and granitisation about million years ago. Two test-zones have been selected: the Cap Sizun and Concarneau areas. Stela density is very high in the first area, where fifty-six uniformly distributed monoliths were identified. No stela has been found in an archaeological context.
In the Concarneau area, with a nearly equal surface, only twenty-eight stelae are recorded. The archaeological context of two of them, adorned with fluting, is well-known. A first result is that the stela location is generally either within or near the boundaries of the massifs having a similar granitic or metamorphic lithology. The Cap Sizun stelae are characterized by a greater petrographic homogeneity than in the other area, up to more than four kilometres from the boundary of the source granitic massif.
Another original result has been the demonstration that the Iron Age artisans used natural forms and that the latter result from two contrasted mechanisms: 1 various erosional processes for the small granitic stelae and 2 high tectonic strain for the tall cigar-shaped gneissic stelae. It would thus seem that the Iron Age artisans usually used pre-existing natural morphologies of stones with a view to shaping their monoliths with the least possible effort or for reasons of symbolism. Furthermore, the presence of an unfinished stela to the north of Cap Sizun, a few kilometres away from the northern limit of the source massif, indicates than this monument was probably shaped close to the final erection site rather than near its extraction zone.
Thus, it would appear that the Cap Sizun artisans moved rough granitic blocks rather than shaped stelae. Finally, the location of two granitic stelae in the Concarneau area near a ria, away from the assumed granitic massif source, suggests that they were moved using maritime transport for a distance of about six kilometres. The present work aims at improving the characterization of the Upper Rhine metal production, by completing the typological analysis with the study of metallurgical traditions.
It also strives to fill a gap in research regarding copper alloys in the regions north of the Alps, where the Iron Age is still poorly known. Bas sub. Bas adj. Base, Isas, pl. Isisan et Isisa- nath. Basilic, Ib'abeq. Bassesse, dell; Iqebah'a. Bastonnade, tUir'eritb. Batailler, nar' , nour'er' , inour', h.
BAT 29 Bataillon, abataioul, i-en. Bateau, cheqof, pl. Icbeqal;, Ibabour, -ath. Battant, d'une porte, lob', louali'. Battement, de mains, ellir. Battoir, thamaddazth, pl. Battre, outh, h. Battue, acedhaou; thacedhoutli. Baudrier, thali'milt, pl. Baume, Ibekhour. Bave, ildaiiii. Baver, slouddi, h. Bazar, thah'anouts thamoqrant, pl. Bec, aqaboub, pl.
Bec d'ane, outil, aaienqar, i-en ; amenr'ar, i-en. Becqueter, neqeb, h. Beignet, coll. Belette, thad'r'ar'ats, pl. Belliqueux, amjehccl, pl. Benjoin, Idjaoui. Bercail, addaiiiin, i-en, et iddouinan ; abrah' , i-en ; Ib'ouch, pl. Berceau, eddoh', pl. Bercer, houzz eddoh'. Bergerie, lh'ouch,pL Ih'ouach. BIB 31 Bergeronnette , thaboiizgra- iesth, pl. Besogne, cherol, pL Ichour'ol; Ikhod'ma. Bestial, Ibahim, -ath. Bestialement, am Ibahim ; am Ih'onch ; am Imal. Bestiaux, Imal. Beuglement, aseroiigmeth, i-en.
Beugler, serougmelh, h. Beurre, fonda, ouil'i. Bible, kithab el meqeddes. Biche, tliizerzerth, pi. Bidon, abilioun, i-en ; abidoun, i-en. Ikhirath; Ih'asana. Bien que, khas ; r'as ; oula- mer; oulamma. Ikhiralh ; Ih'asana, -ath. Bienfaiteur, louali, -iaih ; amah'san, i-en. Bienveillance, hnezga, -atli ; Imezia, -ath. Bienveillant, bab, ath Imezga, Imezia. Bienvenue, astherh'ab.
BIV Biffer, meh'ou, meh'ir', imeh'a. Bifurquer se , mefereq, h. Bigame, bou, pl. Bigarrure, aberbach ; aberqach. Bijoutier, ah'addad' , i-en Ifet't'a. Bile, thamourejth; Imerar. Bille, thad'oabilt, pl. IkoLiar edh. Billot, aqejmoiir, i-en; aqe- roum, pl. Binette, thaqabachth, pl. Bise, azaiedh; adhou d' asem- madh. Bivouac, amkan Imah'alla. Bizarrerie, aklialef en lada. Blame, alouramou. Blamer, loumm, h.
Blanc, amellal, i-eii. Blancheur, themlel. Blanchir, semellel, h. Blanchissage, asired'; thard'a. Blessure, Ijerah', pl. Bloc, de pierre, azroa, pl. BOI 33 Blocus, ah'abbas. Bloquer, li'abes, h. Blottir se , berefc; khemeth. Blouse, lhablouzth, pL thi- blouzin. Blutage, asiDB. Bocal, abouqal, i-en. Boeuf, coll. Boire, souou, souir', isoua, h. Bois, asr'ar, pl. Boisson, tbissith. Boite, lhasendoa th, pl. Boitement, thirejd'elt.
Boiter, rejd'el, h. Bombance, alekhlakh ; lourd'a. Idjouad'; ili k d'idjid', pl. Bonbon, Ih'alouath. Bond, anegguez; areh'al; aje- qelleb; ajelleb. Bondir, negguez, h. Quel bonheur! Bonne, thaqeddachth, pl. I BOT Bonnement, s ennia. Bord, iri, pl. Border, ouqem as iri. Bordure, iri, pl. Borgne, aferd'i, i-iin ; bou, ath iouth tliit'. Borne, thilist, pl. Borner, h'oudd, h. Botanique, thamousni enneqe- lath. Botaniste, amousnaou enne- qelath.
Bouc, aqelouach, i-en ; ah'ouli, i-iin. Bouche, imi , pl. Ihi- leqmatliin ; thoufezlh , pl. Boucher, r'ounim, h. Boucherie, tliah'anouts bouk- soam. Bouchon, ihad'imth, pl.
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Boucle, thabzimth, pl. Boucler, qefel, h. Bouclier, lhazibba, pl. Boudeur, amtcbouh', i-en. BOU 35 Boue, ikbmir ; aloadb ; abroun. Boueux, illa d'eg s oualoudh, ikhniir. Bouffon, amqechem; imqejjem, i-en. Bouffonnerie, aqchem ; aqjem. Bouger, embouiouel, iemboua- ouel, h. Bouillon, asqi; Imarqa. Bouillonner, aizag, ouizager', iouizag, h. Boulangerie , thah'anouls b our'roum. Bouleversement , akherab ; - akhaladh. Bouleverser, kheledh, h. Bourbier, thinififth, -in; abrouii, i-en.
Bourgeon, akhalaf,pZ. Bourgeois, ftah', pl. Bourrache, iles founas ; tha- memth thizizoua. Bourrasque, agfour; Iguerra ; azaiedh, pl. Bourreau, asiaf, i-en. Bourrique, thar'ioult, pl. Bourru, amah'chour, pl. Bourse, thachekarth, pl. Bouse, thichichlh, -chin. Bout, ir'f, pl. BRA Boutade, thoathchh'a. Boutique, lhah'anouls, pl. Bouton, d'habit, thiqfilt, pL thiqfilin. Boutonner, qefel, h. Bouture, aget't'oura, pl. Bracelet, amqias, i-en.
Braise, irrij, pl. I — de palmier,- Wov, pl. Branchette, thaset't'a, pl. Brandir, sh'allef, h. Brandon, tison, asafou, pl. Branler, v. I sqelouqoul ; negougou , ine- I goaga, h. Braquer, qis, qaser', iqas, h. Bras, ir'ill, pl. Brasier, irrij ; aounnar, i-eii ; Ikanoun. I Idjouad'. Brebis, tbikhsi, pl. Bref, aoudzelan, i-en. BRO 37 Bride, du cheval, algam, i-en. Brider, un cheval, selguem, h. Brief, aoudzelan, i-en. Brin, azemzoum, i-en; akh- chelaou, i-oun. Brique, coll. Briquet, zenad', -ath. Brise, abah'ri. Broche, asl'oud', i-en.
Brochette, lemchek. Brodequin, thabechmaqth, pl. Brodeur, akheggadh, i-en. Bronze, enneh'as azouggouar'. Brosse, lhachita, -ath. Brosser, esfedh ; chit, h. Brouette, thabrouet', pl. Broussailles, amad'ar', pl. Brouter, qebbech ; eks, iksa. Broyer, enr'edh, h. Bru, thamet't'outh n emmi, ou thislith n emmi. Bruit, Ih'es; zedoua; derdih' ; deh'is. Brun, aras, pl. Brusquement, s ouah'char; s ihih'archouth. Brusquerie, ah'char ; Ikhecha- na ; thih'archouth. Brut, ah'archaou, i-ouen ; our indjer ara. Brutal, amah'chour, i-en; Ikhe- cliin, -ath. Brutalement, s ouah'char; s Ikhechana.
Brutaliser, sekhechen, h. Brute, aouah'chi, i-iin. Bruyamment, s Jh'es. Bruyant, deh'is, -sath. BucHE, thazeqourtii, pl. Buffet, asendouq, i-en. Bulle, de mvon, thachoufets, pL tliiclioufidliin. Burin, thamenqachth, pl. Buriner, enqech, h. CAD 3d Burlesque, imeqecliem, i-en. Burnous, abernous, pl. But, Ir'ordh ; Iqesed'. Cabale, complot, thichout'ena ; -magie, ash'ar ; tliamousni Irouab'. Cabaler, comploter, chit'en , chat'ener', icbat'en, h. Cabinet, thakhamtb, pl. Cable, amrar azouran, i-en.
Cabrer se , cbebbeb, h. Cachette, amkan touffera. En cachette, s tboulFera. Cachot, Ih'abs , pl. Cadavre, lfrisa,pZ. Cadeau, tharzefth, pl. Cadi , Iqadbi, pl. Iqodbats et Iqouadhi. Cadran, sa. Cafetier, aqahouadji, i-iin. Cage, Iqofs, pl. Iqefous ; Iqobs. Cahier, aAorras, i-en. Cahot, tliaseddarlli, pl. Cahoter, qelouqel, h. Caillasse, agricli ; agourracli. Caille, Ihiberdhefelt, -lin; tiii- bellefedlielt, -lin. Caillou, azemzi, i-iin; aoud'ech, lliaoud'echth, pl. Caisse, asendouq, i-en; petite, thasendouqth, pl.
Cajoler , selef , h. Cajoleur, aqezab, i-en; imqez- zeb, -en. Pour tromper, amel- laq, i-en. Calcaire , pierre calcaire , ad'r'ar' Idjir. Calciner, sebb Idjir. Calcul, lah'sab. Calculateur, amh'asab, i-en. Calculer, ah'aseb. Calembour , thaqchamth , pl. Calendrier, lah'sab b oassan. Calepin, thaklhabth our nklib ara, pl. Calibre, Iqaleb, pl. Calice, Ikis, pl. Calicot, Iketsan. Calife, Ikhalifa, -ath. Calme, Ihenna ; Ihedna. Calomnie, aqeradh, i-en. Calomnier, qerrcdli fell. Calotter, beqedli, h. Calvaire, Idjeldjelath. Il" ICamard, afennicb, i-en.
Camp, amkan Imab'alla. I — battre la, divaguer, tselejlij. Campement, thimersioath Ima- h'alla. Camper, ers, ersir', iers, h. Camphre, Ikafour. Camus, afennicb, i-en. Canaille, ab'araimi, i-en. CiNAL , tharga , pl. Cancan, t'on, pl. I Cancanier, bon t'enoun, at tenoun; ikath s t'enoun. Candidat, anidbeloub, i-en; ouin idhelben Iblaca. Candidement, s ennia. Canevas, pour tapisserie, bro- derie, Ikhicba, -atb. Cannibale, ouin, ouid' ithetsen iind'anen ; metcbi imd'anen. Canonique, bou Iqanoun. Canonisation, aseqeddes Itneg- tliin. Canoniser, qeddes Imegthin.
Canonnier, at'obji, i-iin. Canot, tliaflouMb, pl. Cantique, Ir'ouna, -ath. Cap, ir'f, pl. Capitaine, Ikobl'on ; akobt'an. Capital le , ras. Capitulation, el khed'ma. Capituler, kbed'em, h. Capote, akebbodh, i-en. Caprice, tsenefchich. Capricieux, bou, pl. Caprification, addouker. Captif, amerhoun, pL imerhan; lisir, pl. Capturer, el't'ef, h. Capuchon, aqelmoun, pl. Caqueter, sqaqi, sqaqar',isqaqa, h. Car, imi ; alakhat'er. Caracoler, hrouel, h. Carafe,- thaqrats , pl. Caravane, Iqafla, -ath; amer- b'oul, pl.
Carroniser se , our'al tsirguin. Carder, mechedh ; qerdech, h. Cardeur, amchadhi, i-iin ; ouin imchedhen. Cardinal, kardinal, -ath. Cardon, lhar'diouth, pl.
Caressant, seloufoun. Caresse, asiaf ; asloufou. Caresser, selef, h. Caricature, tcouira oukelakh. Carie, des dents, Ifoula. Carier se , pour les dents, therouz, pl. Carillonner, st'eiit'en, h. Carnage, thimenr'ioath. Carotte, zerodga. CAS Caroubier , coll. Carrosse, thafearosth, pl. Cartilage, aguerguis, i-en. Partouche, ah'arbi, i-iin ; tha- qardasth, pl. I — en cas que, ma idhra, ma illa. Cascade, acherchour, i-en. ICaser, sers g oumkan. Casque, thacbachilh, pl. Casquette, thaberret', pl. Casse-cou, ifri, pl. Cassement, lharoud, pl. Casserole , thaqaddoh'th , pl. Cassette , thasendouqth , pl.
Castagnettes, thitchentchounin. Castration, thoudezza; aselah'. Castrer, dezz, h. Catalogue, Idjerida, -ath. Cataplasme, lesqa, -ath. Cataracte, des yeux, ithri, pl. Catarrhe, boungaf. Catholicisme, eddin iroumien, enni incah'en i Sidna Aisa. Cauchemar, bouberrafc. Cause, sebba, pl. Causeur, imqeser, i-en. Caution, l'amen, pl. Cautionner, dhemen, h. GEL Cavale, thagmarlh, pl. Etre bon cavalier, theferres. Cave, thasrafth, pl. Caverne, Ir'ar, pl. Ces hommes, irgazen agui. Ceci, ouigui. Cela, ouagui. Ceindre, ebgues, h. Ceinture, aggous,pL aggousen. Ceinturon, thar'ouggouaf, pl.
Celer, effer, h. Celle, celle qui, thin, thinna. Cellier, Imekhzen, pl. Imekha- zen. Cellule, thakhamth, pl. Celui-ci, ouagui, pL ouigui. Cendre, ir'ed'. Censurer, loumm, h. Cent, miia; deux cents, mithain. Centaine une , miia. Centenaire, ibbodh miia iseg- gouasen ; iah'oul Iqorn. Centime, asantim, i-en. GER 45 Central, d'alemmas. Centre, alemmas ; thalemmasth.