In the amillennial and postmillennial views there are no distinctions in the timing of the rapture. These views regard the rapture, as it is described in 1 Thessalonians would be identical to the second coming of Jesus as described in Matthew after a symbolic millennium. In the premillennial view, the rapture would be before a literal millennium.
Within the premillennialism the pre-tribulation position is the predominant view that distinguishes between the rapture and second coming as two different events.
What Does the Bible Say About the Rapture?
There are also other positions within premillennialism that differ with regard to the timing of the rapture. Though the Catholic Church does not generally regard biblical prophecy in texts such as Daniel and Revelation as strictly future-based when viewed from the standpoint of our present time , in Francisco Ribera , a Catholic Jesuit, taught " futurism "—the idea that most of Revelation is about the imminent future rather than containing certain prophecies that were already fulfilled in the early years of the church.
He also taught that a gathering-of-the-elect event similar to what is now called the rapture would happen 45 days before the end of a 3. The concept of the rapture, in connection with premillennialism , was expressed by the 17th-century American Puritans Increase and Cotton Mather.
They held to the idea that believers would be caught up in the air, followed by judgments on earth, and then the millennium. Samuel Prideaux Tregelles , a prominent English theologian and biblical scholar, wrote a pamphlet in tracing the concept of the rapture through the works of John Darby back to Edward Irving.
Although not using the term "rapture", the idea was more fully developed by Edward Irving — In ,  Irving directed his attention to the study of prophecy and eventually accepted the one-man Antichrist idea of James Henthorn Todd , Samuel Roffey Maitland , Robert Bellarmine , and Francisco Ribera , yet he went a step further. Irving began to teach the idea of a two-phase return of Christ, the first phase being a secret rapture prior to the rise of the Antichrist. The pre-tribulation position advocates that the rapture will occur before the beginning of a seven-year tribulation period, while the second coming will occur at the end of it.
Pre-tribulationists often describe the rapture as Jesus coming for the church and the second coming as Jesus coming with the church. Pre-tribulation educators and preachers include Jimmy Swaggart , J. MacArthur , and John Hagee. John Nelson Darby first proposed and popularized the pre-tribulation rapture in Darby and other prominent Brethren were part of the Brethren movement which impacted American Christianity, especially with movements and teachings associated with Christian eschatology and fundamentalism , primarily through their writings. These conferences, which were initially inclusive of historicist and futurist premillennialism, led to an increasing acceptance of futurist premillennial views and the pre-tribulation rapture especially among Presbyterian, Baptist, and Congregational members.
Blackstone 's book Jesus is Coming , published in ,  which sold more than 1. Some pre-tribulation proponents, such as Grant Jeffrey,  maintain that the earliest known extra-Biblical reference to the pre-tribulation rapture is from a 7th-century tract known as the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Ephraem the Syrian. Different authors have proposed several different versions of the Ephraem text as authentic and there are differing opinions as to whether it supports belief in a pre-tribulation rapture.
There exists at least one 18th-century and two 19th-century pre-tribulation references: in an essay published in in Philadelphia by the Baptist Morgan Edwards which articulated the concept of a pre-tribulation rapture,  in the writings of Catholic priest Manuel Lacunza in ,  and by John Nelson Darby in The book appeared first in , 10 years after his death.
In , it was translated into English by the Scottish minister Edward Irving. The rise in belief in the pre-tribulation rapture is often wrongly attributed to a year-old Scottish-Irish girl named Margaret McDonald who was of the first to receive a spiritual baptism under a Pentecostal awakening in Scotland. In , she supposedly had a vision of the end times which describes a post-tribulation view of the rapture that was first published in It was published again in , but two important passages demonstrating a post-tribulation view were removed to encourage confusion concerning the timing of the rapture.
The two removed segments were, "This is the fiery trial which is to try us. It is by being filled with the Spirit that we shall be kept". During the s, belief in the rapture became popular in wider circles, in part because of the books of Hal Lindsey , including The Late Great Planet Earth , which has reportedly sold between 15 million and 35 million copies, and the movie A Thief in the Night , which based its title on the scriptural reference 1 Thessalonians Lindsey proclaimed that the rapture was imminent, based on world conditions at the time.
In , the doctrine of the pre-tribulation rapture was further popularized by Tim LaHaye 's Left Behind series of books, which sold tens of millions of copies  and was made into several movies and four real-time strategy video games. The mid-tribulation position espouses that the rapture will occur at some point in the middle of what is popularly called the tribulation period, or during Daniel's 70th Week.
The tribulation is typically divided into two periods of 3. Mid-tribulationists hold that the saints will go through the first period Beginning of Travail , but will be raptured into Heaven before the severe outpouring of God's wrath in the second half of what is popularly called the great tribulation. Mid-tribulationists appeal to Daniel which says the saints will be given over to tribulation for "time, times, and half a time," - interpreted to mean 3.
At the halfway point of the tribulation, the Antichrist will commit the "abomination of desolation" by desecrating the Jerusalem temple. Mid-tribulationist teachers include Harold Ockenga , James O. Buswell a reformed, Calvinistic Presbyterian , and Norman Harrison. The prewrath rapture view also places the rapture at some point during the tribulation period before the second coming.
This view holds that the tribulation of the church begins toward the latter part of a seven-year period, being Daniel's 70th week, when the Antichrist is revealed in the temple. This latter half of a seven-year period [i. References from Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 are used as evidence that this tribulation will be cut short by the coming of Christ to deliver the righteous by means of the rapture, which will occur after specific events in Revelation, in particular after the sixth seal is opened and the sun is darkened and the moon is turned to blood.
After the rapture will come God's seventh-seal wrath of trumpets and bowls a. The Day of the Lord's wrath against the ungodly will follow for the remainder of seven years. The partial, conditional or selective rapture theory holds that all obedient Christians will be raptured before the great tribulation depending on ones personal fellowship or closeness between she or he and God, which is not to be confused with the relationship between the same and God which is believer, regardless of fellowship.
Other proponents of this theory hold that only those who are faithful in their relationship with God having true fellowship with Him will be raptured, and the rest resurrected during the great tribulation, between the 5th and 6th seals of Revelation, having lost their lives during. Lang , Robert Chapman , G. Pember , Robert Govett , D.
Panton , Watchman Nee , Ira E. David, J. Campbell Morgan , Otto Stockmayer and Rev. Chip White, Jr. In the post-tribulation premillennial position, the rapture would be identical to the second coming of Jesus or as a meeting in the air with Jesus that immediately precedes his return to the Earth before a literal millennium. The post-tribulation position places the rapture at the end of the tribulation period.
Read More From TIME
Post-tribulation writers define the tribulation period in a generic sense as the entire present age, or in a specific sense of a period of time preceding the second coming of Christ. Post-tribulationists perceive the rapture as occurring simultaneously with the second coming of Christ. Upon Jesus' return, believers will meet him in the air and will then accompany him in his return to the Earth. In the Epistles of Paul , most notably in 1 Thessalonians "the dead in Christ shall rise first" and 1 Corinthians , a trumpet is described as blowing at the end of the tribulation to herald the return of Christ; Revelation further supports this view.
Moreover, after chapters 6—19, and after when Satan is bound, Revelation says, "and they lived, and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection. Authors and teachers who support the post-tribulational view include Pat Robertson , Walter R.
Martin , John Piper , George E. Ladd ,  Robert H. Gundry ,  and Douglas Moo. In the postmillennialist view the millennium is seen as an indefinitely long time thus precluding literal interpretation of a thousand-year period. According to Loraine Boettner "the world will be Christianized, and the return of Christ will occur at the close of a long period of righteousness and peace, commonly called the millennium.
According to them the great tribulation was already fulfilled in the Jewish-Roman War of 66—73 AD that involved the destruction of Jerusalem. Amillennialists view the millennial rule of Christ as the current, but indefinite period that began with the foundation of the church and that will end with the Second Coming—a period where Christ already reigns with his saints through the Eucharist and his church. They view the life of the church as Christ's kingdom already established inaugurated on the day of the Pentecost described in the first chapter of Acts , but not to be made complete until his second coming.
This framework precludes a literal interpretation of the thousand-year period mentioned in chapter twenty of Revelation, viewing the number "thousand" as numerologically symbolic and pertaining to the current age of the church. Amillennialists generally do not use "rapture" as a theological term, but they do view the event as coinciding with the second coming—primarily as a mystical gathering with Christ. To amillennialists the final days already began on the day of the Pentecost, but that the great tribulation will occur during the final phase or conclusion of the millennium, with Christ then returning as the alpha and omega at the end of time.
Unlike premillennialists who predict the millennium as a literal thousand-year reign by Christ after his return, amillennialists emphasize the continuity and permanency of his reign throughout all periods of the New Covenant, past, present and future.
- Assemblies of God (USA) Official Web Site | The Rapture of the Church.
- Produktivität und Konjunkturzyklus (German Edition).
- A Collection of Stories;
They do not regard mentions of Jerusalem in the chapter twenty-one of Revelation as pertaining to the present geographical city, but to a future new Jerusalem or "new heaven and new earth", for which the church through the twelve apostles representing of the twelve tribes of Israel currently lays the foundation in the messianic kingdom already present. Unlike certain premillennial dispensationalists, they do not view the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem as necessary, because it has already been established in the life of the church through Christ's ultimate sacrifice on the cross.
Authors who have expressed support for this view include St. Since the origin of the concept, many believers in the rapture have made predictions regarding the date of the event. The primary Biblical reference cited against this position is Matthew , where Jesus is quoted as saying about his Parousia; "But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only. But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming Parousia of the Son of man be. Any individual or religious group that has dogmatically predicted the day of the rapture, a practise referred to as "date setting", has been thoroughly embarrassed and discredited, as the predicted date of fulfillment has invariably come and gone without event.
Conversely, many of those who believe that the precise date of the rapture cannot be known, do affirm that the specific time frame that immediately precedes the rapture event can be known. This time frame is often referred to as "the season". The primary section of scripture cited for this position is Matthew —35; where Jesus is quoted teaching the parable of the fig tree , which is proposed as the key that unlocks the understanding of the general timing of the rapture, as well as the surrounding prophecies listed in the sections of scripture that precede and follow this parable.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An eschatological concept of certain Christians. For other uses, see Rapture disambiguation. Jan Luyken 's three-part illustration of the rapture described in Matthew 24 , verse 40, from the Bowyer Bible. Contrasting beliefs. The Millennium. Biblical texts. Key terms. Main article: Prewrath. Main article: Post-tribulation rapture. Main article: Postmillennialism. Main article: Amillennialism.
This article contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. April Christianity portal. Presbyterian Publishing Corporation.
Retrieved 26 December Encyclopaedic dictionary of religion: Q-Z. Delhi: Isha Books. Retrieved 6 April Daniel; Duvall, J. Scott; Pate, C. Marvin Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. Michael D. Guinan, "Raptured or Not? However, for many American fundamentalist Christians, "the Rapture forms part of the scenario of events that will happen at the end of the world Drawing on all my years of Catholic education kindergarten through the seminary and doctoral studies , I replied, 'The what? Retrieved Schwertley, "Is the Pretribulation Rapture Biblical?
Ian S. Vague notions had been considered by the Puritan preachers Increase and Cotton Mather , and the late 18th-century Baptist minister Morgan Edwards, but it was John Nelson Darby who solidified the belief in the s and placed it into a larger theological framework.
November Progressive Dispensationalism. Wheaton, IL: Bridgepoint Books. Pages , Originally of women and cognate with rape. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology 2nd ed. Nor on May 21, , or October 21 of that same year, though Harold Camping had said in each case that it would. As I sit typing in the year , the world is still rotating on its axis, spinning 19 miles per second around the sun.
Like so many Christians who came before him, Camping was possessed by the idea of predicting the end of the world, and talked ceaselessly about it on his radio show at Family Radio Network, of which he was president. Like many would-be prophets, Camping moved the target each time he was wrong. After the October date passed, he just let it go. Even prophets can get confused.
Why are Christians so obsessed with the end of the world? Some Christian denominations are more likely than others to be interested in eschatology. Judgmental Christians are easy targets for ridicule and disdain, and, to be sure, Christians have perpetuated some of the worst and silliest ideas about the end of the world. For many Christians, spreading the word about the Rapture is an act born of genuine concern.
Rapture - Wikipedia
In the film, young Patty Jo Myers wakes up one day to find her family gone along with millions of other people, and has to live through the Tribulation, a time period referred to in Daniel 7, during which war, famine, and other plagues ravage the Earth and kill most of those who remain. Run by Thomas Ice and Tim LaHaye the latter of Left Behindfame , the Pre-Trib Research Center acts as a clearinghouse for Biblical prophecy scholars to share their work on the Rapture and their interpretation that the church will be raptured before the Tribulation.
Hundreds of Christian groups have tried to use the Bible to predict when the world will end, using a hardly clear-cut combination of events mentioned in the apocalyptic Book of Revelation. The early church believed that Jesus would return very soon, even during their lifetimes, and Christians have been revising that prediction ever since. Cotton Mather, a Puritan minister who was influential in the construction of the Salem Witch Trials, announced that the world would end in Just kidding!