Report , U. Air Material Command Tech. Findeisen , W. Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. Washington Icing Research Report , U.
For the C Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologie, Federal Ministry for Research and Technology , no doubt scared by the oil crisis and encouraged by the activity. English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas. Es wurden verschiedene Hapten-Protein-Konjugate unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Kopplungsmethoden hergestellt und charakterisiert.
Diese Werte korrelieren mit den Werten der wenigen bekannten Diphenylcarbamat-spaltenden Abzyme. Dies beweist, dass die Hydrolyse in der Antigenbindungsstelle stattfindet. PhD-Thesis, Univ. LANG, M. AVN , S. Der geo- ddtische Beitrag zu dern interdisziplinlren Forschungsprojekt. Es sind dabei zwei Entwicklungslinien festzustellen. Die eine ver- sucht, die in der Statistik entwickelte Theorie auf geodaitische Hampel, F.
Von eingebetteten Systemen zu Cyber-Physical Systems. Einige Anwendungsfelder werden angesprochen. Es zeigt sich, dass dies effizienter und wesentlich kurzfristiger in unserem verteilten Vorgehen geschehen kann als in traditionellen Verfahren. The wish for annihilation in 'love-death' as collapse of the need for recognition, in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.
Wagner's Tristan und Isolde holds a central position in Western music and culture. It is shown to demonstrate consequences of interruption of developmental processes involving the need for recognition of subjectivity, resulting in the collapse of this need into the wish for annihilation of self and other through 'love-death' [Liebestod].
A close reading of the musical language of the opera reveals how this interruption is demonstrated, and the consequent location of identity outside of language, particularly suitable for expression in music. Isolde's dynamics are presented as distinct from that of Tristan, and in contrast to other interpretations of Tristan and Isolde's love as an attack on the Oedipal order, or as a regressive wish for pre-Oedipal union.
Isolde's Act I narrative locates the origin of her desire in the protagonists' mutual gaze at a traumatic moment. In this moment powerful and contrasting emotions converge, evoking thwarted developmental needs, and arousing the fantasy of redemption in love-death. By removing the magical elements, Wagner enables a deeper understanding of the characters' positions in relation to each other, each with his or her own needs for recognition and traumatic experiences. These positions invite mutual identifications resulting in rising tension between affirmation of identity and annihilation, with actual death as the only possible psychic solution.
The dynamics described in the opera demonstrate the function of music and opera in conveying meaning which is not verbally expressible. Following this Brauer, B.. Experimental Liver Injury in Dogs. Westphals U. Gedigk, und F. Meyer, Ueber eine. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit werden exemplarisch Chancen und Grenzen der Integration von Umwelt- und Naturschutz in Verfahren der ackerbaulichen Landnutzung aufgezeigt. Dieses Konzept haben Heidt et al.
Eine Auswahl der von Heidt et al. Describes the purpose, structure and application of this monolingual verb lexicon, which indicates the morphosyntactic environments of the most common German verbs. Mention is made of the forthcoming valence lexicon. The book is for teachers and textbook writers. The book laid the foundations for cell pathology as a scientific discipline and was the most important publication by Virchow, who as doctor and statesman gathered so much fame that he became almost a mythical figure in his own time. The finding that every cell originates from another cell and does not develop from amorphous interstitium is actually attributable to Robert Remak.
Konzeption, Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines Messsystems zur sortenreinen Klassifikation von fluoreszenzcodierten Kunststoffen im Rahmen des Kunststoff-Recyclings Conception, development and evaluation of a measuring system for the classification of fluorescence coded plastics within the framework of plastic recycling.
Jahrhunderts zu befassen. Supplement to: Astronomical ephemerides, navigation and war. Scans of the documents. Scans der Dokumente. In a previous paper Wielen R. We were able to use numerous archivalia which we also describe and comment in that paper. In the present paper, we publish colour scans of these archivalia.
All the documents shown here are held in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg. Frauen, Bildung und Entwicklung. The author presents first steps towards a development-based concept of women's education in the industrialized countries. Some elements of this concept are: 1 planning and action in a global context, 2 the local or regional bias given to education, 3 promotion of an intercultural perspective, 4 reducing the power of structures that encourage oppression.
This is because women are part of the overall system and contribute to its perpetuation in the measure of their own socialization. Connections are established between the destruction of the environment and the individual, as also between the victims and assailants of racism and sexism with a view to clarifying unidentified parts of the female consciousness. Beyond this, the role of European women in the context of colonialism and the present contact between European women and their counterparts from other cultures are examined with particular attention being paid to the exercise of power and force in the family and society.
The authors regret that the Acknowledgements section was incomplete in this article. The correct Acknowledgement section is presented below. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. Acknowledgements This study was funded through the project " BG - microdots", financed by the Forschungsvereinigung Feinmechanik Optik und Medizintechnik e.
Foerste, C. Global gravity field models play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to applications in geosciences, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. However, this new model presents remarkable changes and improvements compared to its precursors.
Audit of the journal "Strahlentherapie und Onkologie" Radiotherapy and Oncology ]. The statistical quality of the contributions to "Strahlentherapie und Onkologie" is assessed, aiming for improvement of the journal and consequently its impact factor. All articles published during and in the categories "review", "original contribution", and "short communication" were analyzed concerning actuarial analysis of time-failure data.
One hundred and twenty-three publications without time-failure data were excluded from analysis. Forty-five of the remaining 58 publications with time-failure data were evaluated actuarially. Complications were reported in 16 of 58 papers, but in only 3 cases actuarially. The number of patients at risk during the course of follow-up was documented adequately in 22 of the 45 publications with actuarial analysis. Authors, peer reviewers, and editors could contribute to improve the quality of the journal by setting value on acturial analysis of time-failure data. Can the description of modern alchemy in Jung's Psychologie und Alchemie be really regarded as a historical reconstruction?
In his work, Psychologie und Alchemie, published in , Jung wanted to present a reconstruction of alchemy. In order to do this he used a method of psychology, which he modified and enriched with inspirations drawn from neo-romantically-oriented German medical historiographies of the nineteen thirties. Using historical materials, he intended to demonstrate the empirical character of his Depth Psychology, a widespread concept, ingrained in our supra-personal social unconscious.
The present article questions the nature of Jung's reconstruction of alchemy as historical reconstruction. The author presents the methodological bases referred to by Jung derived from his concept of medical practice and compares them with a manner of thinking typical of contemporary historical analysis. The article also presents Jung's inspirations from the medical historiography of his time, as well as the dissimilarity of his concept with the model of historical narrative construction in force in the historiography of the thirties and forties.
At the same time, it presents the elements of the "romantic inheritance" in Jung's thought, drawn from the tradition of German non-materialistic medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century. Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe.
This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade.
Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from The profits and perils of publicity: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, the Thurn und Taxis Post, and the periodical trade at the end of the eighteenth century.
After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK.
For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system.
The analysis builds on recent work clarifying the specificity of some of these epimerases. We find three well defined clades responsible for inter-conversion of the gluco- and galacto-configuration at C4 of different N-acetylhexosamines. This work brings clarity to an area that had become quite confusing. A table of the accession numbers for the proteins used in the analysis is provided to enable the major tree to be regenerated with the inclusion of additional proteins of interest.
This and other suggestions for annotation of 4-epimerase genes will facilitate annotation. DFVLR airfoil research program. Test temperature was varied from K to K to pressures from slightly above 1 to 5. Mach number was varied from 0. This report presents the experimental aerodynamic data obtained for the airfoil and includes descriptions of the airfoil model, the 0. Crystallization, biomimetics and semiconducting polymers in confined systems. Such an effect is of great interest for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices such as light emitting diodes with nanometer size emitting points and solar cells comprising of blends of electron donating and electron accepting polymers.
Eine solche Emulsion wird Miniemulsion genannt. In der Dissertation wurden nun z. Schutzteilchen, ein Fussel etc. Wenn sich dann einmal ein Kristall gebildet hat, kann das Wasser im gesamten Eimer schnell zu Eis werden. Planungsmodelle und Planungsmethoden. Anhaltspunkte zur Strukturierung und Gestaltung von Planungsprozessen. The topic of this article ist the question, in which phases oft he political planning process planners apply their methodological set of tools. That for the results of a research-project are presented, which were gained by an examination of planning-cases in learned journals.
Firstly it is argued, which model oft he planning-process is most suitable to reflect the regarded cases and how it is positioned to models oft he political process. Thereafter it is analyzed, which types of planning methods are applied in the several stages oft he planning process. The central findings: Although complex, many planning processes can be thouroughly pictured by a linear modell with predominantly simple feedback loops. Even in times of he communicative turn, concerning their set of tools, planners should pay attention to apply not only communicative methods but as well the classical analytical-rational methods.
They are helpful especially for the understanding of the political process before and after the actual planning phase. Bioindikation im Grundwasser funktioniert - Erwiderung zum Kommentar von T. Review of German work on controlled re-entry technology. The aim was the maintenance of the technical-scientific capabilities for advanced high velocity flight systems and to qualify for international cooperation in this field.
Only a small part of this work could be completed, as the ART-program was never accepted by the German Ministry for Research and Technology. So the current work was stopped by the end of Nevertheless, as the ART-program can serve as a guide-line for possible future work a summary of this work is given.
Physik gestern und heute Spurensuche. Archaebakterien und Phylogenie der Organismen. Many biochemical and molecular biological features support this conclusion. Human hirsuteness, or pathological hair growth, can be symptomatic of various conditions, including genetic mutation or inheritance, and some cancers and hormonal disturbances. Modern investigations into hirsuteness were initiated by nineteenth-century German physicians. Most early modern European cases of hypertrichosis genetically determined all-over body and facial hair involve German-speaking parentage or patronage, and are documented in German print culture.
Through the Wild Man tradition, modern historians routinely link early modern reception of historical hypertrichosis cases to issues of ethnicity without, however, recognising early modern awareness of links between temporary hirsuteness and the pathological nexus of starvation and anorexia. Here, four cases of hirsute females are reconsidered with reference to this medical perspective, and to texts and images uncovered by my current research at the Herzog August Library and German archives.
Another focuses on Madeleine and Antonietta Gonzalez, daughters of the 'Wild Man' of Tenerife, documented at German courts in the s. Krankhafter menschlicher Hirsutismus kann aufgrund unterschiedlicher Ursachen auftreten, zu denen u. Die moderne Hirsutismus- Forschung ist im Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des Wilden.
Bei Untersuchungen des Motivs des. Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Post-war Germany, Using the Example of the "Pflege- und Beobachtungsstation" in the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau The patient admissions at the children's ward of the State Psychiatric Hospital Weissenau in the years , , and were analyzed regarding documented coercive measures. Shortage of staff, mainly inadequately skilled personnel, a mixing of age groups in the patient cohort, neurological and psychiatric disorders and of patients who were in need of nursing and of those who needed treatment constituted the general work environment.
Coercive measures against patients, mostly disproportionate isolations, were a constant part of daily life on the ward. This affected in particular patients who had to stay longer at the hospital and whose stay was financed by public authority. The uselessness of such measures was known, which can be seen e. The situation still escalated in some cases for example by transfer to an adult ward. For a long time, coercive measures against patients were part of everyday life at the children's ward of the Weissenau; the actual figures are suspected to be much higher. Fiori, W. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht.
Astronomical ephemerides, navigation and war. Edition of the documents. Edition der Dokumente. During the whole period of the Second World War, England and the USA have exchanged astronomical ephemerides with Germany, even though these data were used for the navigation of warships and aircraft and were therefore of war importance. This astonishing fact is attested by numerous documents which survived in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut ARI. In Germany, the exchange was even explicitly authorized by the ministry which supervised the ARI i. We present here examples of ephemerides for the Sun, the Moon, planets and stars, and explain the position determination by means of astronomical data.
Ephemerides were published in almanacs which were computed and issued by special ephemeris institutes. We describe the agreements on the international exchange of ephemerides which were reached in peace times, and the continuation of this exchange during the war using intermediaries in neutral countries, first in the USA U.
Involved persons were especially H. Hellweg und W. Lindblad Sweden , and A. Kopff ARI. All those relevant documents which are hold in the archives of the ARI, are described and annotated in detail. Scans of these documents are presented in a separate supplement. Wie Effektiv ist Microteaching? Argues that the use of microteaching in pre- and inservice education leads to positive and long-term effects in the acquisition of verbal and non-verbal behaviorial patterns, integration of learning into individual behavioral repertoire, and in the transfer into professional teaching practice.
Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering. Charles Darwin hat eindrucksvoll gezeigt, dass der Mensch ebenso wie alle anderen Lebewesen ein Produkt der biologischen Evolution ist. This article gives an overview of the findings presented at the workshop; complete abstracts are included in this supplement to the Journal of the International AIDS Society. Energie aus der Tiefe: Geothermische Stromerzeugung. So warme Gesteinsschichten liegen in Mitteleuropa in mindestens 4 km Tiefe. Eine zweite Bohrung soll nun eine langfristige Wasserzirkulation im Untergrund erforschen.
Funktioniert sie stabil, dann soll eine Demonstrationsanlage Strom erzeugen. The "Uniform Graduation Examination Requirements" for English are examined and, in general, approved. But the written portion needs better description; the "Translation" and "Summary and Text Discussion" portions should be changed. Distinctions between basic and honors courses are unclear. Description and rating of…. Digitalisierung - Management Zwischen 0 und 1. Digitization as a process of expressing actions and values by codes 0 and 1 has already has become part of our lives.
Digitization enables enterprises to improve production, sales and to increase volume of production. However, no standard digitization strategy has been yet developed. Even in the digitized business process management system, the most important position remains to a human being. The improvement of software products, their availability and the education system in the area of introduction and use of information technology is thus a striking feature in development of managing but also other current processes.
Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten. The Egyptian pyramid texts were first written down around B. They are based on the religious belief in a stellar hereafter and contain the astronomical knowledge of their authors. For example, the ecliptical belt was understood as a canal, on which moon and planets cruise; of the latter Mercury, Venus and Mars were identified.
On the basis of their visibility in the course of a year the fixed stars were divided into two groups; a southern group with a period of invisibility and a northern group with continual visibility. The ecliptical "canal" was correctly identified as a division line between the two groups of fixed stars.
The aim of this book is to bring these texts foreward to a better understanding of their astronomical background. Dental-Implantate und ihre Werkstoffe. Some new trends in materials for dental implants, which also effect in the operative techniques and implant design, are described. Advantages and shortcomings of the different material types are exemplified and correlated with their bioinert resp. The practical interest in metallic implants focussed in titanium resp.
This book comprises the habilitation thesis submitted by F. Due to financial support from various organizations, it was issued in a very attractive form as a special publication of the Society for the history of the city of Kiel. The nice layout, the graphical sketches of buildings, instruments, and astronomical connexions, often designed by the author, and the scientifically precise text, written with a sense of humor, make a pleasant reading, in spite of sometimes quite extensive descriptions of architectural details or 'operating instructions' for meridan circles etc.
I have rarely read such an appealing text on astronomical history. The single chapters deal with the beginnings of astronomy in Kiel , Schrader's giant telescope from the late 18th century, Altona Observatory , the first years of the Astronomische Nachrichten, the last years of Altona Observatory , Bothkamp Observatory , the genesis of Kiel Observatory , the era of Krueger , the Kiel Chronometer Observatory , the era of Harzer , the era of Rosenberg , the decline of Kiel Observatory , and the Astronomische Nachrichten under Kobold The book is concluded with a glossary of technical terms, biographical sketches of known and unknown dramatis personae, as well as a list of references.
The author outlines lively sketches of people that were astronomically active in Altona, Kiel and its surroundings over a time interval of years. He also has evaluated private documents and has interviewed surviving witnesses of the s and s. He has located remote sources: for example, the son of the founder of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Richard Schumacher, served for some years as an assistant at the Chilean National Observatory, and had married Marie Bulling, a girl of German descent.
From her "meagre diary entries" of that time published in Valparaiso in , the author suspects a "convenience marriage''. Nevertheless, unreliable sources can provide a false picture: the interviewed custodian notes that the wife of the last official observatory director, Hans Oswald Rosenberg, was "Verena Borchardt, a Jewess from St. Petersburg'' p. This is more than incorrect. The family lived for some years in Moscow not St. In , his daughter Helene was born there - who later married the Kiel astronomer Wirtz.
In , the Borchardt family moved to Berlin, where the father became a banker, and where Verena was born. On page too, Wirtz' capricious political views are quoted: "The day when the French troops entered Strasbourg was the happiest one in my life'', for which Theiss' paper of is quoted, and it is stated "source not given''. Now, Theiss uses a study of Duerbeck and Seitter , where the precise reference in the Kiel Acta is given. Another series of peculiar statements refer to the Astronomische Nachrichten p. Totally fabricated is the author's statement that the journal is now published by "the Astronomical Computing Centre [sic] in Heidelberg''.
In spite of these slightly critical notes on some irrelevant details, I can wholeheartedly recommend this book: it is an indispensable source of information for anyone who is interested in the history of astronomy in German-speaking lands in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Internationale Schulreformtendenzen und das Problem der Lehrerausbildung.
The main theme of this article is that the socio-economic and educational changes which have occurred in industrialized countries in the past 20 to 25 years necessitate a thorough reform of the present system of teacher education. The first group of such changes includes the information explosion, greater occupational mobility, the growing significance and increasing role of the sciences, the development of the mass media, higher educational aspirations, technical development, the acceleration of the psycho-physical development of children and youth, and the injurious effects of the uncontrolled development of the constantly changing civilisation deterioration of the human environment, diseases caused by the effects of civilisation, etc.
In the face of these changes, teachers must not remain indifferent and teacher education systems have to take them into account. Within the second group of changes influencing the content and methods of teacher education, the most important is the generalisation of education at the pre-school, primary and secondary school levels and also at the university level. As a result, education in many types of school and at ever higher levels has lost the elitist character it still had, not so long ago, and has become a mass activity.
This has considerably affected teachers' work and, necessarily, also the work of the teacher education systems. This must also be reflected in teacher education. In order to adapt the teacher education systems to the requirements of the changing society, a reform of the goals, contents and methods of the system will have to be prepared and implemented as a prerequisite and starting point for a global reform of the entire education system.
The factsheet describes the Uniform National Discharge Standards and explains what vessels are regulated and how the rulemaking will impact states. It details the batch and phase approach to rulemaking and lists the first batch of vessel discharges. The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices. Synonymie und Interlinguistik Synonymy and Interlinguistics.
Discusses the relationship between traditional synonym theory and two perspectives of interlinguistics: contrastive lexical analysis and languages in contact research. The goal and methods of each are described briefly, and a new synonym conceptualization is proposed that better fits synchronic dynamics than the traditional theory.
Examples from…. Verhalten und Neurobiologie von stimmbegabten Insekten. Crickets, tettigoniids bush crickets or long-horned grasshoppers and acridids short-horned grasshoppers are well-suited animals to study acoustically mediated behavior and to search for the underlying sensory, nervous, and effector mechanisms.
Several behavioral tactics are described which improve reproductive success, serve to avoid predators such as bats, or have been developed for defence against parasitic insects. Phonotactic orientation of female crickets toward the calling male was chosen, since for this behavior the underlying sensory and nervous mechanisms have been intensively studied.
Song recognition was found to be based on one critical parameter of the song, the syllable period, and the females show a bandpass behavior for which a correlate exists in local brain neurons. Sound orientation is based on a pressure gradient mechanism in each ear, and it needs a binaural intensity comparison within the central nervous system. The papers from a symposium held at the Fern Universitat included in this collection focus on distance education in theory and practice.
Contributions are written in English or in German, with summaries available for each in the language not used for the paper concerned. Contributions are: 1 "Distance Education as Communication: The…. Semantik und Semantisierung Semantics and Semanticizing. Argues against the thesis that exact translation is impossible, because languages reflect different world-views or different cognitive structures de Saussure, Humboldt, Whorf, Weisgerber.
The possibility of underlying universals Lenneberg, Heger must be considered and discussed in the field of language teacing. Renal denervation: unde venis et quo vadis? Renal denervation is a minimally invasive, catheter-based option for the treatment of refractory hypertension. Indications and contraindications for renal denervation have been defined in an interdisciplinary manner.
The efficacy and safety of the procedure were evaluated. These results were not confirmed in the first randomized controlled trial with a non-significantly superior blood pressure reduction of The efficacy and long-term effects of renal denervation need to be re-evaluated in light of the HTN3 study results. To date, renal denervation should not be performed outside of clinical trials.
Future trials should also assess if renal denervation can be performed with sufficient safety and efficacy in patients with hypertension-associated diseases. The use of renal denervation as an alternative therapy e. The indication for renal denervation should be assessed in an interdisciplinary fashion and according to current guidelines with a special focus on ruling out secondary causes for arterial hypertension.
Renal denervation leads to a significant decrease in office blood pressure; however, the impact on hour blood pressure measurements remains unclear. In the first randomized controlled trial on renal denervation with a control group undergoing a sham procedure, blood pressure reduction failed to reach the anticipated level of superiority over best medical treatment. Periprocedural complications are rare, but long-term safety can currently not be appraised due to the limited data available.
Zur Biosynthese von Phenylalanin und Tyrosin. With the discovery of arogenic acid two new pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine have been revealed. The occurrence of two, three, or four pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in microorganisms and plants may be a useful tool for taxonomic classifications. Investigations on enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonads, flavobacteria, streptomycetes, archaebacteria, and on Sphaerotilus, Trichococcus and Leptothrix species from bulking sludge are described. The possible role of arogenate in the evolution of the pathways for tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthesis is discussed.
Coulometrische titration von hypochloriten und chloraten. Hypochlorite was determined by direct coulometric titration with iron II in an acetate buffered solution. Chlorate was titrated with titanium III in 2M hydrochloric acid. Amperometric indication with one and two electrodes, respectively, was used. Mixtures of hypochlorites and chlorates, e.
Research reports Annual reports. State: end of This compilation of research reports is the third one to be published once a year in the frame of a comprehensive reporting on current investigations with regard to reactor safety. The single reports are attached to the main parts and focal points of the Research Program Reactor Safety. Numerical study of droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface. Droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface is an important process in many applications; among them are developing self-cleaning or anti-icing materials and limiting liquid film formation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid DEF in exhaust gas pipe.
In the latter field, rebound of DEF droplet from wall is desired as an effective mean for avoiding or reducing unwanted solid deposition. Our goal is to numerically study influence of surface wettability on DEF droplet impact and rebound behavior. A phase-field method is chosen, which was implemented in OpenFOAM by us and validated for wetting-related interfacial flow problems.
In the present contribution we first numerically reproduce relevant experimental studies in literature, to validate the code for droplet impact and rebound problem. Our numerical results show good agreement with experimental data. Next we investigate for DEF droplets the effects of diameter, impact velocity and surface wettability on rebound behavior and jumping height.
Based on Weber number and equilibrium contact angle, two regimes are identified. We show that surface wettability is a deciding factor for achieving rebound event. A general theory of two- and three-dimensional rotational flow in subsonic and transonic turbomachines. This report represents a general theory applicable to axial, radial, and mixed flow turbomachines operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds with a finite number of blades of finite thickness.
References reflect the evolution of computational methods used, from the inception of the theory in the 50's to the high-speed computer era of the 90's. Two kinds of relative stream surfaces, S sub 1 and S sub 2 , are introduced for the purpose of obtaining a three-dimensional flow solution through the combination of two-dimensional flow solutions.
Nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used for the governing equations. Methods of computing transonic flow along S sub 1 and S sub 2 stream surfaces are given for special cases as well as for fully three-dimensional transonic flows. Procedures pertaining to the direct solutions and inverse solutions are presented. Information on shock wave locations and shapes needed for computations are discussed. Sexuality and reproductive behaviour of Cereus pedunculatus Pennant and several forms subspecies of Actinia equina L. At the stage of 96 septae C. The latter appeared simultaneously in the gastrocoele.
Adolescent A. Following a sterile period, oocytes and young individuals of different age groups were present almost throughout the whole year in adult anemones. Samples of the larviparous A. Spontaneous longitudinal fission was occasionally observed in adult A. This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children.
Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour e. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered. Wer kann, darf und soll bleiben?. Lokale Re-Konfigurationen im Fluchtmigrations- und Integrationsdiskurs. The current discourse on a limitation of immigration is characterized by social and symbolic boundaries, that allow some statements about the un desirability of certain immigrants and asylum seekers.
The article uses the example of the city of Altena to show how, based on strategic approaches to urban development, refugee migration and its impacts are re interpreted at the local level. This book collects about 15 papers most of them by one single author on Einstein and the history of general relativity GR and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues opposing as well as supporting personalities.
As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support.
The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld and to Einstein In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society.
The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin.
Schemmel discusses Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations, and wonders why some people do immediately grasp the meaning and consequence of newly proposed doctrines, whereas the bulk of the contemporaneous scientists respond in a rather low profile. Jung reviews Einstein's contribution to cosmology, leading to the Friedmann-Einstein and Einstein-de Sitter universes with a detailed Appendix on the Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmology , and also presents the cosmological work of Selety, and his correspondence with Einstein.
In a subsequent paper, H. Schmidt comments on Einstein's criticism on de Sitter's solution of the Einstein field equations. Controversies with Einstein are elaborated by G. Singer on Friedmann and by K. Roessler on Lemaitre. Renn and T. Sauer discuss Mandl's role in the publication history of Einstein's papers, notably Einstein's short paper on gravitational lensing. Finally, the book concludes with a contribution by D.
Herrmann about the relationship between Einstein and Archenhold Observatory where Einstein gave his first Berlin popular lecture in , the transcription of H. Treder's public address at the Einstein memorial plaque, and an inventory list of about 50 Einstein memorabilia - monuments, busts, plaques - compiled by W.
This book is based on ideas approached in a historical context from the individual perspective of the authors. It is a real treasure trove of information and basic references on the history of GR, and it also covers quite some grounds with mathematical equations. The hydrogeochemistry of the Cretaceous Emscher Fm. Beneath a weathered zone, unweathered rocks containing pyrite were found. Groundwater data from the Emscher Fm. The spatial distribution depends on the presence of Quaternary cover sediments. The main mobilization mechanism of both contaminants appears to be pH-triggered desorption from mineral surfaces.
Wer kann, darf und soll bleiben? Mauder, M. Large Eddy Simulation LES models permit to resolve relevant scales of turbulent motion, so that these models can capture the inherent unsteadiness of atmospheric turbulence. However, LES models are so far hardly applied for urban air quality studies, in particular chemical transformation of pollutants.
Model Dev. For the gas phase chemistry, a fully coupled 'online' chemistry model has been implemented into PALM. Due to the high computational demands of the LES model, compromises in the description of chemical processes are required. Therefore, a reduced chemistry mechanism, which includes only major pollutants namely O3, NO, NO2, CO, a highly simplified VOC chemistry and a small number of products have been implemented. This work shows preliminary results of the advection, and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants.
Non-cyclic boundaries have been used for inflow and outflow in east-west directions while periodic boundary conditions have been implemented to the south-north lateral boundaries. For practical applications, our approach is to go beyond the simulation of single street canyons to chemical transformation, advection and deposition of air pollutants in the larger urban canopy. Tests of chemistry schemes and initial studies of chemistry-turbulence, transport and transformations are presented. The performance of the system is evaluated for different operating conditions.
The tests include steady state measurements under different electrical and thermal loads as well as an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system during load changes. First results of these steady state and dynamic operation characteristics will be presented in this paper.
The research program encompasses a coordinated group of studies of social phobia. In the central project Study A , a multi-center randomized controlled trial, refined models of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT and manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy STPP are compared in the treatment of social phobia. For quality assurance and treatment integrity, a specific project has been established Project Q.
Study A is complemented by four interrelated projects focusing on attachment style Study B1 , cost-effectiveness Study B2 , polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene Study C1 and on structural and functional deviations of hippocampus and amygdala Study C2. Urbanisation processes increase land-use conflicts and ecosystem destruction globally.
Especially in China, a country with an outstanding urbanization rate, city governments are challenged by environmental and health problems. Urban green spaces - subsequently defined as urban biodiversity and ecosystem services - can minimize numerous environmental risks and at the same time contribute to the citizens' well-being and quality of life.
In this highly relevant field of nature conservation, geographical perspectives are required - in science, politics, policy, planning and practice. Der Rohingya - Konflikt:. Genese, aktuelle Situation und geopolitische Aspekte. The Rohingya in Myanmar are often described as the most persecuted minority in the world. In the former Burma, the Rohingya are considered illegal immigrants and have been denied citizenship for decades.
Since the end of August , more than , Rohingya from Rakhine State have fled to neighboring Bangladesh. While the public usually discusses the ethnic-religious and humanitarian causes and effects of the conflict, the political, economic and geopolitical interests of directly and indirectly involved actors also play a role. The contribution at hand argues that migration, especially of refugees, has received growing recognition in public and academic debates in the past few years. It traces the reciprocal references to a highly dynamic research subject within migration scholarship, public discourse, and politics.
It thereby highlights the value and risks of a space-related perspective.
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In addition to an outline of established and newly emerging research fields within geographic migration research, the contribution opens the debate on practical implications of the addressed topical challenges within the field. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode. Cornularia cornucopiae is a colonial coral whose polyps arise singly from stolons. In contrast with other octocrallia C. Therefore, tissue preparation for electron microscopic investigations can be performed. The presence of a calyx such as the theca of hydroids, in which the polyps may be completely retracted, is conspicuous.
The calyx consists of three layers. The structure of the basal layer suggests massive collagen. The body wall is connected with the calyx by living desmocytes. The histology of the oral disc and the actinopharynx is identical. The ventral side of the polyps bears the siphonoglyph. Below the pharynx the inner edges of the mesenteries are free and form the mesenterial filaments. The two ventral mesenteries differ from the others; the one is long and exhibits a large and heavily flagellated filament, the other is short and lacks a filament. The muscular system is represented by gastrodermal circular fibres in the body wall and by radial and longitudinal fibres in the septa; a large septal retractor muscle is missing.
The sperm cells of Patella coerulea Patellacea , Monodonta turbinata, and Gibbula tumida Trochacea were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Their head contains an apical acrosome and a roundish nucleus followed by 4 or 5 mitochondria and a centriolar apparatus which consists of two centrioles, one of which bears a flagellum. The sperm cells of Monodonta and Gibbula are very similar to each other and differ mainly in size; Patella exhibits more differences very small acrosome, subacrosomal space, variable number of spherical mitochondria origin of spermic dimorphism?
The development of the sperm cells shows no peculiarities. Elastolysen und Hauterkrankungen mit Verlust der elastischen Fasern. Diese im Mittelalter neu erprobte Form basierte auf der Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufes durch William Harvey Examples for genetic engineering are the transfer of nuclei between cells of higher animals and the introduction of heterologous DNA into bacteria by means of plasmids.
The former approach will help to establish new ways in animal breeding, the latter provides bacterial cells that produce proteins of medical importance. The moral justification of related studies in man is still open, but the possible risks of gene technology can be coped with by adhering to proper safety regulations.
Rede und Gesinnung Speech and Ways of Thinking. Analyzes some of the basic ideas in Georg Franklin's book "Versuch einer neuen Lehre von den vornehmsten Gegenstanden der deutschen Sprachlehre; nach den Regeln der Vernunftlehre in sechs Abhandlungen verfasst" and compares them to those of such modern linguists and philosophers a s Searle, Austin and Wunderlich. Concludes that…. Provides the answers to common questions about the Uniform National Discharge Standards, including what they are, how discharges were evaluated, what vessels are covered by the regulations and how states have been involved.
Migration und Flucht als Forschungsthemen der Geographie. Eine Standortbestimmung. It is argued that film and representation in general does not merely reflect a preceding reality; it also actively serves to construct it. It is shown how Scott's film privileges one particular perspective on an actual event and how this point of view is objectified and installed in the memory of Western media culture.
What potential implications does an increased blurring of fact and fiction in the representation of war have? What are the consequences for political and pedagogical practice? What role can cultural studies play in these processes? Common Market assistance. At most places there is now electricty and piped water. European Common Market. In Greenland the vote was 2.
Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. For more information, visit www. Image credit: Space Exploration Technologies. For accurate planning of vertical borehole heat exchanger systems, knowledge of thermo-physical ground parameters is critical. This study reports laboratory-measured thermal conductivity and diffusivity values of Mesozoic sandstones Lower and Middle Buntsandstein from four wells.
The measurements were made on drill core using an optical scanning method. The mean thermal conductivities of the sandstones range between 2. The mean thermal diffusivity values range between 1.
Foreword by Prof. Dr. Roman Herzog, German President (Ret), DIVSI Patron
Thermal properties are closely related to the petrography and lithostratigraphy of the sandstones. Additionally, three temperature correction methods were applied for the purpose of evaluating the comparative accuracy and the correction schemes with respect to local in-situ conditions. J Geophys Res, , are most suited for the respective sandstone data set. The 36 letters edited in this contribution touch on Emil O. Some complementing passages about background subjects are incorporated, viz. Emil O. Critical Reviews in Mathematics Education. Materialien und Studien, Band 9.
Four papers are presented which view research in mathematics education from different perspectives. Reviewed dataset that also includes post-reprocessed level1 and level2 data files from November to May refer to "Additional Information". In doing so, they have not only departed from the Soviet-style education model, but also recognised that education constitutes a key issue in competition.
Despite some economic problems, the education reforms in these countries have been regarded as part of a major effort at integrating themselves into the European sphere of knowledge. Many of the efforts and measures in education policy envisaged and carried out since the systemic change occurred have led not only to revitalizing national educational heritages, but also to the independent adoption of other European and international trends and topics in educational discourse.
Thereby, these states have proved to be considerably more innovative and flexible than the "older" members of the EU. The prospect of being taken up into the EU has probably helped accelerate the entire process. The present study focuses on some key overarching developments in the educational landscape of states in Central and Eastern Europe, even as it is apparent that these are proceeding along different paths at different speeds.
Comparison of hydraulic and chemical properties of sediments from flush- and core drillings in the area of Peine Germany. Because of financial constraints, investigations of nitrate metabolism are often based on disturbed borehole samples. It is arguable, however, whether disturbed samples are suitable for these types of investigations. Disadvantages of disturbed samples in comparison to undisturbed core samples are well known and include possible contamination of the sample by mud additives, destruction of the sediment formation and the insecurity concerning the correct depth allocation.
In this study, boreholes were drilled at three locations to a maximum depth of 50 m. The extracted samples, as intact sediment cores and drill cuttings, were studied with regard to chemical and hydraulic parameters of the aquifer sediments. The results show: 1. At the beginning of the 18th century U. Junius tried unsuccessfully to collect and publish the most important manuscripts of Johannes Kepler. Hansch pursued this plan until the end of his life. The result was only one volume with unpublished letters which appeared in The mystery of the thymus gland.
The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago Miller , Tissue Antigens Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike.
Adare, A. A non-vacuum deposition of transparent conductive oxide TCO relying on simpler equipment with lower investment costs will be more economically attractive, and could increase competitiveness of CIGS-based modules with the mainstream silicon-based technologies. In the frame of Novazolar project, we have developed a low-cost aqueous solution photo assisted electrodeposition process of the ZnO-based window layer for high efficiency CIGS-based solar cells.
The the optimized ZnO doped layer has been adapted to cadmium free devices where the CdS is replaced by chemical bath deposited zinc oxysulfide Zn S,O buffer layer. German cardiological research is confronted with increasing difficulties. Clinical research is restricted by regulations, such as the working hours protecting law, the revised version of the legal articles against corruption and acceptance of advantage as well as by many parts of law for the general frame of the university structures. In addition more and more administrative duties are tranferred to doctors engaged in research.
Furthermore cardiology is at a disadvantage as only part of the net profits for cardiological services are tranferred to the responsible clinic. Likewise the facilities for cooperation are increasingly restricted, as basic science institutions originally allocated to cardiological research, are now devoted to other subjects and as many pharmaceutical firms have left the country. Cardiology in our country is practically not supported by private research organizations. The financial resources for research in our country are declining and much smaller compared, e. As a consequence of the shortage of resources not only are the weak projects turned down; it is feared that also the very innovative projects are likewise excluded for entering unknown territory.
In periods of financial restrictions the central office and the experts evaluating the projects have a special responsibility, which cannot be met by technical objections, such as e. In order to improve the conditions for cardiological research the net profits for cardiological services should be transferred unrestricted to the responsible clinic. The acceptance rate of cardiologcal projects may be increased by more intensive cooperation.
At the end, the principle of help by self-help also applies to cardiological research; the British Heart Foundation has developed into an. They are firmly established within epidemiology to assess the course of diseases and risk factors. Yet, standards to describe and evaluate quality characteristics of cohort studies need further development.
It is structured into ten sections: 1. Study documentation; 2. Selection of instruments; 3. Study implementation, 4. He points out that if Christians had been included in this definition, then Jews would not be allowed to do business with them and could not even have Christians pass through their streets, which is, however, not the case This discussion serves to legitimize Jewish law as reasonable, not super- stitious, and refutes the commonly held belief that Jews see Christians as idol- aters.
Such, he remarks, will also occur for the Jews when they recognize the Messiah. This exchange portrays Jews as tolerant and implies that Christians should be just as generous as Jews and adopt a more tolerant stance. The rabbi responds that both Jews and Christians believe in a Messiah, but that Christians believe he has already come, while Jews still await his return. He remarks that it is difficult to know who is right. The theology student responds that it is difficult to know such things through reason alone: One must search in the prophetic books of the Bible to see whether or not Old Testament prophecies have been fulfilled by the Christian Messiah.
In doing so, he says, one must pray to God for illumination. The young man thus recommends a particular Pietist hermeneutic. Pietists believed that only an inspired reading of the Bible could lead to correct interpretations, regardless of theological training. He does not see how the Christian Messiah fits into this chronology.
The Pietist answers that such calculations belong to tradition and are nowhere to be found in the Bible. It is a position that emphasizes commonalities, not differences, and urges tolerance, if not of the religious position, at least of the person. The young man concedes that miracles alone cannot prove divinity, but asks the rabbi if he believes that the Christian Messiah was a holy man. The rabbi agrees that he must have been. The young man then con- cludes that if one accepts him as holy, then one must also believe him when he claims to be the Messiah.
Throughout, the young man praises the Jew for his openness and his willingness to seek after truth. The author thus models how missionaries should praise their conversational partners, but also instills in readers the notion that Jews are seekers after truth Indeed, their will- ingness to learn and to engage in dialogue implicitly argues that Christians must tolerate them. The student objects that it is foolish to think that writing certain letters or speaking certain words can effect magic, but Rabbi N.
The student objects that such enactments are nothing more than tricks performed by charlatans. The two argue at length without reaching any conclusion — The discussion about magical religion would likely be of little use to a potential missionary, but it did serve other purposes, namely to distance Halle Pietists from their own enthusiastic past as well as from more radical Pietists. Kabbalistic ideas about language permeated Pietism. Finally the rabbi asks about the Trinity: How can it not amount to poly- theism? This was a common Jewish criticism of Christianity and perhaps the one that Christians had the most difficulty explaining, since few of them understood the metaphysics behind the concept themselves.
The student explains the three persons of the Trinity by claiming that this structure in the godhead had already been anticipated by the Jewish Kabbala. Just as the sun is at once a body, light, and warmth, so too, he asserts, can God be father, son, and holy ghost. Never mind that the student had just moments before labelled Kabbala as superstition and trickery. Instead, he now sees in Kabbala a com- mon religious heritage for Christians and Jews. On 30 July , Rabbi N. This discussion typifies a rhetorical strategy throughout the article. Given the political situation, the author dares not criticize this practice of intolerance in general, but he feels safe in criticizing it as a Catholic practice.
In the end, the young man offers to teach the rabbi Latin himself — According to the rabbi, any Jew who did learn Latin was forcibly baptized. The student is horrified and quickly affirms that Protestants condemn coercion in religion. They offer teaching, he stresses, but leave decisions to the free will of the individual. Thus, the most important difference between Protestants and Catholics turns out to be that Protestants tolerate those with other beliefs, while Catholics do not. Again, this criticism would resonate with readers beyond the Catholic- Protestant situation.
In general then, Pietists favoured confessional freedom. The author thus dis- courages persecution of Jews and pleads the cause of religious freedom. Yet he does so by replacing the vilification of Jews with that of Catholics. In the Pietist scheme of things, Jews were mistaken, but Catholics were sinister.
Rabbi N. Indeed, throughout the text, the author finds Hebrew names for Christian concepts, but for his lay readers he also gives German equivalents. Clearly the author was seeking a mode of expression that would foster dialogue, yet the implication is that Jews and Pietists simply had different names for the same things. He reduces the problem to a linguistic divide brought about by a third party — the corrupt Catholic church. Interestingly, here the rabbi speaks of the Catholic persecution of Protestants.
The young man goes on to explain the history of the problem: As he tells it, the bishops of Rome wanted riches and powers not consistent with the teachings of the Messiah. They thus falsified Christianity and distorted it to serve their own ends. According to the student, the Protestant Reformation had revived early Christianity and Pietists were still seeking to put things right by restoring the primitive church He emphasizes that proper Christians teach the Gospel, but do not force a confession on anyone.
This comment spurs Rabbi N. The student answers that the rabbis may be good people, but they, like all humans, are affected by original sin. This is why, he says, individuals must always search the Scrip- tures, not dogma or tradition, for truth. Since Pietists believed in an inner, personal conversion experience, intolerance of such seeking was, from a Pietist point of view, a grave sin. The rabbi relates that he studied the Talmud at the university in Prague, but that in his opinion these studies taught Jews only to argue with one another.
The young man, himself a theology student, surely did not intend his criticisms for theologians in general, and while he ostensibly targets Catholicism, he likely has other opponents in mind as well. The most common criticism that Pietists directed at the orthodox Lutheran church was that it neglected its parishioners and instead engaged in dry scholastic argumentation.
Criticizing the official Lutheran state church outright might have led to censorship or other legal consequences. Here, the Pietist authors of Bau des Reichs Gottes pick on an easy target, Catholics, in order to criticize their orthodox opponents. As Rabbi N. The rabbi expresses regret that the two had not met earlier, so that he could teach the young man Hebrew. Yet, lest the reader get the impression that the Pietist and the Jew were equal partners in this exchange, the author makes clear that the Christian was the moral superior.
The message is that the Pietist has sparked a change in the Jew, one that is already leading to moral improvement, since, readers can deduce, the Jew did not previously earn his living honestly He promised to write the young man a letter in Hebrew upon arrival. The Pietist student pre- sented the rabbi with a gift of a Hebrew translation of the Book of Mark. The text makes clear that the conversational partners have gained something and that both want to continue the dialogue.
Yet it is clear that the Pietist has not lost sight of his ultimate goal — the conversion of the Jew. Pietist interest in learning Hebrew and in converting Jews led to increased contact between Pietists and Jews, and these personal encounters in turn helped to dispel negative stereotypes. Furthermore, Enlightenment impulses toward toleration and Pietist efforts toward Christianization mixed in strange but productive ways, as in the case of Halle, where Pietist missionary needs and the development of the university were closely intertwined.
Yet the rapid and tur- bulent economic, cultural, and social shifts of the era surely played their role as well, and the respective contributions of all these influences are questions that scholars should address Parker —11, —79; Parker and Smith. In doing so, they should keep in mind that such changes in thinking are rarely the result of altruism alone. Works Cited Arnoldi, Udo. Pro Iudaeis: Die Gutachten der hallischen Theologen im Jahrhundert zu Fragen der Judentoleranz.
Schiffbek bei Hamburg: Hermann Heinrich Hoffe, Blastenbrei, Peter. Johann Christoph Wagenseil und seine Stellung zum Judentum. Erlangen: Fischer, Geschichte des Pietismus. Schwabach: Christian Hannibal Steinmarck, Gierl, Martin. Greschat, Martin. Witten: Luther-Verlag, Berleburg: n. Hochenau, Ernst Christoph Hochmann von. Hsia, R. Kinzig, Wolfram. Jansenismus, Quiet- ismus, Pietismus.
Martin, Lucinda. April Parker, Geoffrey, ed. London: Routledge, Parker, Geoffrey, and Lesley M. The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. Petersen, Johanna Eleonora. Raupp, Werner. Mission in Quellentexten: Geschichte der deutschen evangelischen Mission von der Reformation bis zur Weltmissionskonferenz Edinburg Erlangen: Verlag der Evang. Mission, Rengstorf, Karl Heinrich, and Siegfried von Kortzfleisch, eds. Klett-Cotta-Verlag, Stuttgart, Rymatzki, Christoph. Der VIII. Frank- furt and Leipzig: Samuel Benjamin Walther, [periodical under changing titles —]. Schmidt, Martin.
Schneider, Hans. Klaus Deppermann and Martin Brecht. Jahresausstellung der Franckeschen Stiftungen Halle an der Saale: Verlag der Franckeschen Stiftungen, — Wolfgang Martens. Jahrhundert bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Spener, Philipp Jakob. Philipp Jacob Speners [ Reprint in Vogt, ed. Tennhardt, Johann. Leipzig: Jacob Andreas Bock, [under changing titles from —]. Vogt, Peter, ed.
Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Wagenseil, Johann Christoph. Walker, Mack. Wallmann, Johannes. Vol 4. Hartmut Lehmann. Ward, William R. The Protestant Evangelical Awakening. Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf von. Die rechtliche Judenemanzipation ging im besetzten Deutschland mit dem Code Napoleon einher. Unter den Biographen betrachtet Paul R. Jacob Katz z. Es wird weitgehend darauf verzichtet, Humboldts Judenpolitik durch sein Privatleben und insbesondere seine Jugendbiographie zu deuten. Humboldts Beitrag zur Emanzipationsdiskussion spiegelt seinen Versuch wider, zwischen den konkurrierenden Interessen des Staates und denen des Individuums eine Balance zu finden Sorkin 66— Geb- hardt Humboldt verstand das Judentum nicht als moderne Religion.
Juni Erst das Edikt vom Die drei christlichen Konfessionen waren die katholische, evangelische und reformierte. Dadurch ver- besserte sich die rechtliche Lage der Juden in den meisten Bundesstaaten nicht weiter, wie Bruer in seiner Studie feststellt — In den von den Franzosen besetzten Staaten, wo die Juden schon emanzipiert worden waren, verschlechterte sich ihre Lage sogar. Auch in der Wiener Schlussakte vom Diese Vielfalt sollte jedoch nicht mit dem modernen Konzept einer multikulturellen Gesellschaft gleichgesetzt werden. Vielmehr passte es in das Nationsideal des In einem Brief an Wilhelm vom Es ist der einzige Fehler, den ich an Dir kenne.
Sie sind Dir zu einerlei. Allein das Einerleisein ist nicht die Natur der Juden. April ; vgl. Grossmann Schon am 2. Humboldt schrieb an Brinckmann am Gentz, der selbst mit Rahel Varnhagen geb. Levin befreundet war, warf Humboldt in einem Brief vom June ; vgl. Drewitz 24; Tewarson Sweet 2: Durch seine Behauptungen in der Zeit des Wiener Kongresses implizierte er z. Er schrieb am Bereits Der Weg zu deren Realisierung wurde jedoch von Humboldt und anderen gebahnt. Literaturverzeichnis Baumgart, Peter. Marianne Awerbuch und Stefi Jersch- Wenzel. Berlin: Colloquium, Borsche, Tilman.
Wilhelm von Humboldt. Bruer, Albert A.. Dohm, Christian Wilhelm. Berlin: Nicolai, Drewitz, Ingeborg. Fichte, Johann Gottlieb. Hamburg: Felix Meiner, Gebhardt, Bruno. Wilhelm von Humboldt als Staatsmann. Aalen: Scientia Wilhelm von Humboldt und die Judenemanzipation Gentz, Friedrich von. Briefe von und an Friedrich von Gentz. Friedrich Carl Witt- chen. Grau, Wilhelm. Wilhelm von Humboldt und das Problem des Juden. Hamburg: Han- seatische Verlagsanstalt, Grossmann, Jeffrey. Hammacher, Klaus. Haym, Rudolf.
Wilhelm von Humboldt: Lebensbild und Charakteristik. Hobsbawm, Eric J. Nations and Nationalism since Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Canto, Honigmann, Peter. Humboldt, Wilhelm von. Briefe an eine Freundin. Gesammelte Schriften. Albert Leitzmann. Berlin: Behr Humboldts Briefe an Karl Gustav von Brinckmann.
Leipzig: Hiersemann, Andreas Flitner und Klaus Giel. Darmstadt: Wissen- schaftliche Buchgesellschaft, — Humboldt, Wilhelm von, und Caroline von Humboldt. Wilhelm und Caroline von Hum- boldt in ihren Briefen. Anna von Sydow. Katz, Jacob. Kessel, Eberhard. Wilhelm v. Humboldt: Idee und Wirklichkeit. Stuttgart: Koehler, Kimminich, Otto. Deutschland und Europa: Historische Grundlagen. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, Menze, Clemens. Detroit: Wayne State UP, Sauter, Christina M. Schaffstein, Friedrich.
Wilhelm von Humboldt: Ein Lebensbild. Sorkin, David. Spiel, Hilde. Spranger, Eduard. Sweet, Paul R. Wilhelm von Humboldt: A Biography. Columbus: Ohio State UP, Tewarson, Heidi Thomann. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, Timms, Edward. Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August. Konrad Feilchenfeldt 1—4 und Ursula Wiedenmann 5. Varnhagen von Ense, Rahel. Mai Es eifre jeder seiner unbestochnen Von Vorurteilen freien Liebe nach! The answer lies in the love for which the sons should now compete.
Certainly this critique of truth can be extended to the concept of love expressed in the fable of the rings: Love is not a given, received truth but rather something to be redefined and rediscovered in the future as the evidence of ethical action. Of course, it might be argued that this passionate love and its recognition in marriage have little to do with the other kinds of love — of human friendship, of brotherhood in the fable of the rings, and of familial affection — that one finds in the play.
Out of this prohibition, the play constructs a notion of love that carefully identifies and proscribes the passions grounded in a love of the same. And as Benjamin Kaplan has shown, the issue of interfaith marriage between Christians was one of the driving forces behind the history of toleration in early modern Europe — With the sudden appearance of incest between brother and sister, however, Nathan der Weise sidesteps this entire discourse. The recognition of romantic love in marriage and the pro- hibition of incest thus correspond in the play as two limits to tolerance, one that develops as a challenge to these limits and one that causes this challenge to disappear.
Helmut Schneider offers particularly insightful readings of the importance of incest in Nathan der Weise, but his focus on mechanisms of symbolic or aesthetic universalization within the play are also representative of several problems char- acterizing many interpretations. When Saladin speaks this phrase, he is referring to differences in religious belief and custom that are acquired through the community into which one is born.
For Schneider, the motif of incest con- versely forestalls the threat that sexual reproduction poses to spiritual birth. This interpretation faces significant problems. Yet Nathan himself has a more complex understanding of his Jewish identity Lorey —59 and For an overview of this footnote, including an engagement with analyses by Goetschel and Susan Shapiro, cf.
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Koschorke et at. Moreover, gender matters here in ways that go beyond the female body defined as the body capable of giving birth. Gender difference has been emphatically reconfirmed in the final tableau of brothers and sisters, adoptive fathers and daughters — and this difference per- sists as a threat of marriage explicitly countered by the prohibition of incest. This prohibition has not eliminated or excluded the procreative female body in a strict sense: That is what happens in bourgeois tragedies when the heroines are murdered. The immediate effect of this prohibition is rather to make a specific marriage intolerable.
This is a retrospective view that does not address the con- struction of these exclusionary categories in the play itself. The prohibition of incest makes it impossible for Nathan and the Templar to enter into an exchange that would engender dis- tinctions between friends and enemies, and it may thus be read a mechanism symbolically defining and establishing a universal human brotherhood as a brotherhood of friends.
What remains, succinctly expressed in the fable of the rings, is a symbolic system expressing the lack of authority that has come to attach to the signifier of the father 44— In a universal human family all marriage is incestuous, and paternity cannot be recognized except in a singular spiritual sense — as the symbolic foundation of cultural order in which authority cannot be challenged or assumed by any one brother. Yet this line of interpretation also faces difficulties. The prohibition of incest also produces gender difference as a natural category of human difference upon which its own mechanisms of regulating cultural difference depend, defining female bodies as those capable of circulating in such an exchange.
The hotheaded knight now assumes that Nathan is not quite so open-minded as he has put on. Das nicht! It refers of course to his ardent desire for Recha and to the fire from which he saved her. Though utterly different in most ways, they are alike in the fact that both are transformed, if not extinguished, in the course of its events. By contrast, the prohibition of incest does function as the unchanging symbolic foundation of the dramatic action and its transformation of passions.
Sohn nicht? Yet the irony extends further. The Templar thinks that a universal human similarity between himself and Nathan, which has led to their friendship, will now motivate Nathan to accept him as a son. But if the prohibition of incest is taken as the symbolic foundation for universal human brotherhood, it pre- vents friendship from becoming the kinship of father and son. Conversely, it is only this marriage that is made intolerable by the prohibition of incest. The Templar will get his wish to live with Recha, but as a sister instead of a wife.
As Claudia Jarzebowski has shown, the Protestant rejection of Catholic definitions of incest had the effect of more sharply distinguishing absolutely prohibited relations of blood kinship, which were considered a matter of divine law, from those of affinity, which were considered a matter of changing human law 54—56 ; nevertheless, the notions of blood kinship underlying this process remained social rather than biological These ambiguities reflect a history in which incest offered a flashpoint for broad debates across England, France, and Germany about the supposedly natural or divine foundations of social mores and prohibitions.
Nonnenmacher — The play thus also sidesteps questions at the centre of this tradition about whether the unusually strong affections between siblings that led to this incest were a product of birth or upbringing. Titzmann contrasts the function of incest in literature to what he identifies as an embarrassing cultural silence about the prohibition. Formulating a rational justification for the prohibition in terms of either natural or positive human law proved difficult; when arguments about incest did get underway, its detractors usually lost the debate.
Literature, Titzmann argues, offered in place of this silence a functional justification: The theme of incest came to structure a discourse of Bildung in which it represented the failure of subjects to emancipate themselves from their family of origin — Its romantic narrative stages a return and rediscovery of familial origins together with the reconstruction of those origins in relationships of love.
In the eighteenth century, German possessed a word to denote the origin- ation or descent of one person from another, namely Geschlecht. In einem weitern Sinn sind alle und jede Menschen ein Geschlecht, weil sie alle von einem abstammen. Lessing did use the word Geschlecht in a universal sense in Die Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts, his defence of natural religion published in Nathan der Weise leaves behind any such a concern with historical origins and replaces it with an imagination of human futures.
The prohibition of incest precisely identifies and counters ties of gene- alogy and alliance, which stand in for the origination or descent of one person from another, and hence for the threat that sexual passions, sexual origins, and historical generations pose to familial ties refounded in love. As a limit to love that is also a limit to enmity, the prohibition of incest demands that the Templar reconstruct both these passions.
The play can thus be said to neuter Geschlecht in a double sense. It neuters Geschlecht as a principle of social reproduction along lines of genealogy and generation. But it also neuters the socially productive potential of gender difference. This prohibition thus also displaces the question of human difference from historically cultural prin- ciples of Geschlecht to ostensibly natural forms of Geschlechterdifferenz and the passions they might engender. Yet for the Templar and other figures in the play, it is also the site in which passions produced by differences of Geschlecht flame up again.
These flare-ups serve as the dramatic device for a neutering of Geschlecht that is visibly carried out on stage and secured in the prohibition of incest. Nathan stands outside this process of transformation, just as he occupies a centrifugal position in the final tableau, neither part of the genealogical family that has been refounded in love nor excluded as a merely adoptive father.
The plot begins, in other words, with the conflict between father and suitors that an unwed daughter posed. Moreover, this wedding foregrounds several senses of Geschlecht. As if in response, these coup- lings and revelations coincide with a blush of passion that Sittah instinctively veils, anticipating the veiling propriety of marriage and closing a curtain on this theatrical display.
Goetschel and Schneider have shown, for instance, how the play develops around an economy of miraculous, selfless giving and receiving that finds its highest expression in the spontaneous rescue of a life cf. But they have not addressed the foundational role that the prohibition of incest plays in these trans- formations. And yet genealogically speaking, Nathan cannot rightfully dispose of Recha — exchange her in marriage — at all. Once her brother has been found, Nathan leaves no doubt that this relative must also be consulted before a decision about her marriage can be made.
Because of the prohibition of incest, Recha functions as an absolute standard of value, a value that cannot be determined by any form of exchange and indeed makes exchange as a matter of particular interests impossible. Die Wendung zum Bessern 70— Certainly, the tussle over Recha and the homosocial triangle that results provides an explicitly erotic frame to the dialogue.
Yet the crucial irony of this scene remains the fact that the prohibition of incest will demand that this man redirect his passions into a love for humanity. Ah, verzeiht! Er hat der Tropfen mehr. But Nathan communicates this truth to the Templar through a passionate arousal of affections that is much more immediate.
This danger can be called the danger of Geschlechterdifferenz: the danger of a familiarity that is threatening in the several meanings of Geschlecht. It threatens with the danger that sexual reproduction and genealogy pose to a human fraternity and with the potential of difference between two men as enemies or as generational rivals. But more essentially, made manifest in the displacement that Nathan performs, it threatens the integrity and autonomy of human identity as the basis for a shared community of affection. In the place of the passions produced by those forms of Geschlechterdifferenz that historically constituted the house, it substitutes a passion that has been recast in much more fundamental terms, as the fundamental difference that can arise in a recognition of human identity.
The natural gender difference underlying the logic of Geschlecht thus reemerges within the play on the level of human identity itself. The final irony of the prohibition of incest, and its transformation of Geschlecht, is therefore both to invoke, and to forestall, the norms that link passion, sexual reproduction, and identity. The play identifies the female body as the procreative body but then denies that body any social significance.
The dilemma that results, articulated in the passionate friendship that erupts between Nathan and the Templar, is how to recognize the socially productive potential of passions that are not determined by a norm that identifies the body with the origin of birth, or by a temporality that is not the temporality of procreation. One significant consequence of this irony, analogous to the anachronistic misreading of Nathan as an emancipated nineteenth-century Jew, is that the play does not recognize women as a Geschlecht in the sense of a class of bodies sub- jugated, in the sexual contract presupposed by the marriage contract, to men as a fraternity Pateman 3.
Instead, the play reflects a more fundamental reckoning with the mechanisms for determining human identity and difference that will be employed to both the racial body of the Jew and sexual difference in their nineteenth-century significance. The elimination of sex from love in the play makes love instead radically gleichgeschlechtlich, meaning classes of human similarity that the play finds threatened by Geschlechterdifferenz in all the senses outlined above.
Nowhere in eighteenth-century letters are the matrices of cultural reproduction that threatened ideals of humanity more precisely outlined; nowhere are the limits of a love based upon these ideals more radically exposed. Lessing employs the discourse of sentimental friendship among men as a contrast to the forms of Geschlechterdifferenz that had historically defined the house.
Emlékezés a nemzetiszocialista bűntettekre a Német Szövetségi Köztársaságban és Nyugat-Európában
But the prohibition of incest that neuters these differences forces a new engagement with the con- struction of human identity and difference created through the passions that arise from the recognition of human familiarity. The prohibition of incest forestalls threats to the passionate love among friends threatened by the exchange of women; but it thereby also forecloses any recognition of love as a recognition of human difference.
Love becomes the desire for desire — the desire to be loved and for love to be recognized. But it results in a more fundamental ambiguity: a concern with the culturally pro- ductive potential of familiar affections, and with love as necessarily particular, indeed historically contingent attachments and bonds.
On the level of pragmatic truth identified by Goetschel, the play anticipates a modern conception of human identity as bound up with a recognition of difference. But it manifests a stark aversion or anxiety toward the possibility that this recognition might also entail passionate affections, a threat precisely identified and forestalled by the prohibition of incest.
The play thus delineates but does not enter the conceptual territory of modern paradigms of tolerance as embracing and valuing cultural difference. But a focus on the structural function of Geschlecht in the play also reveals something else about this unstable mediation of difference. In Nathan der Weise, the cultural hegemony of the incest prohibition makes love so familiar that it threatens to become unrecognizable. Works Cited Arendt, Hannah.
Clara and Richard Winston. Men in Dark Times. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World: Brown, Wendy. Prince- ton: Princeton UP, Garloff, Katja. Goetschel, Willi. Barbara Fischer. Rochester: Camden House, Madison: U of Wis- consin P, Gutjahr, Ortrud. Jarzebowski, Claudia. Kaplan, Benjamin K. Kittler, Friedrich A. Dichter Mutter Kind. Munich: Fink, Vor der Familie: Grenzbedingungen einer modernen Institution. Konstanz: Konstanz UP, Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim. Wilfried Barner.
The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston: Beacon Press, Lorey, Christoph. Lessings Familienbild im Wechselbereich von Gesellschaft und Indi- viduum. Bonn: Bouvier, Meyer-Krentler, Eckardt. Wolfram Mauser and Barbara Becker-Cantarino. Eva J. Engel and Claus Ritterhoff. Nonnenmacher, Hartmut.
Pateman, Carole. The Sexual Contract. Robertson, Ritchie. Schneider, Helmut J. Stuttgart: Reclam, Titzmann, Michael. Wellbery, David E. Christian L. Hart Nibbrig. Wild, Christopher. Freiburg: Rombach, Wilson, W. Zedler, J. Halle: Verlag Johann Heinrich Zedlers, — North American and International Colleagues! Recent German Film. Ute —Seminar Hanson Ed. Michael Boehringer —Seminar Lou —Seminar Raleigh Poland in Postwar German Literature.
Whitinger Ed. Petra Fachinger and Werner Nell —Seminar Literature —Seminar Beyond Early German Cinema. Questioning Culture. Niven Karin Bauer —Seminar The Literature: Texts and Contexts. Power of Song. Marianne Henn the New Economy. Coury —Seminar Between —Seminar Helmut Schmitz Diana Spokiene —Seminar Image, Body, Text. Ich will I , Den Nationalsozialismus betrachtet Klemperer dementsprechend als ideologisches Paradebeispiel eines animalischen Verhaltens vgl. Curriculum Vitae I II , 2. Die Besternten? Ich setze mich auf seinen Platz. Man kann nichts wissen, Gott wird richten! Ein innerlicher, moralischer Widerstand gegen die Verfolgung stand dabei nicht automatisch in Widerspruch zu deren Nutzbarmachung.
Ein ganz gutartiger Mensch, hilft uns mit Kunsthonig usw. I , Wut empfindet Klemperer angesichts der erfahrenen und sorgsam dokumentierten antisemitischen Beleidigungen und Verbalangriffe kaum. LTI — Notizbuch Juni ; Hervorhebung im Original; vgl. Juli ; , Juli ; II 84, Klemperer behandelt vor diesem Hintergrund in seinen Notizen die Kardi- nalfragen der Geschichte des Dritten Reiches: Wie antisemitisch waren die Deutschen?
In diesem Zusammenhang sei unter Verweis auf Neil H. Laut Bankier waren die Motive und Ver- haltensweisen der Gesellschaft komplex und sowohl von praktischen als auch ideologischen Faktoren beeinflusst. Mai ; , Juli ; , 2. Mai basiert dabei auf Klemperers Selbstauffassung ein gebildetes, kritisches Individuum zu sein. Arpil Die konkrete Praxis der Toleranz jedoch ist immer situationsgebunden.
Sie ist stets eine Parteinahme, die in unterschiedlichen Graden als Darstellung von Erlaubnis, Koexistenz, Respekt bzw. Juli ; II 68, April ; 73, April ; , Kommt aber mit offenbar herzlicher Freude heran. Wie es mir gehe [ Mitglied der Partei! Juni ; vgl. Juli ; II , Ich will II , Aber gestern trug er das Par- teiabzeichen. Es gibt sicher Millionen solcher Parteimitglieder. Juli Die Hunde! Ich will II —42, Die augenscheinliche Zuvorkommenheit von Beamten, Polizisten, Partei- mitgliedern, offiziellen Mitarbeitern im Rahmen des Arisierungs- und Ver- folgungsprozesses interpretiert Klemperer als impliziten innerlichen Widerstand gegen das Regime und seinen krankhaften Antisemitismus.
Frei Das Tagebuch ist eine historische, und vielleicht mehr noch psycho- logische, Erkenntnisquelle, aber keine Wahrheitsinstanz. Ich will II 47, Auf der anderen Seite erkennt Klemperer trotz der relativen Genauigkeit der Informationen, dass seine eigenen Tagebuchaufzeichnungen allerdings nicht die Schrecken der Massenvernichtung in Konzentrations- oder Vernichtungslagern wie Buchenwald bzw. In Arendts am Dies ist aber nicht geschehen. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, Arendt, Hannah.
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Leip- zig: Reclam, Menschen in finsteren Zeiten. Bajohr, Frank, und Dieter Pohl. Bankier, David. Oxford: Blackwell, Hamburg: Christians, Donahue, Neil H. Keith Bullivant und Bernhard Spies. Frei, Norbert. Julius H. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, Zu Historisierung und Historikerstreit.
Dan Diner. Fries, Fritz Rudolf. Lesarten zu Klemperer. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, Gellately, Robert. Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Klaus Kochmann. Berlin: Siedler, Gutman, Israel, Hrsg. B I: A—G. Heim, Susanne. David Bankier. New York: Berghahn Books, Kershaw, Ian. Reinbek: Rowohlt, Klemperer, Victor. Curriculum Vitae: Erinnerungen — Walter Nowojski. LTI — Notizbuch eines Philologen. Leipzig: Reclam, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, Nerlich, Michael. Hannes Heer.
Steinbach, Peter, und Johannes Tuchel. Steinbach und Tuchel. Traverso, Paola. Walser, Martin. Rainer Weiss. Is Normal Neutral? Beyond the Reichstagskuppel, this normalization of German political culture was both performed and contested in multiple venues in the restored capital. This article examines how a literary event staged in Berlin in February both articulated and revealed the limitations of tolerant normality as a national ideal.
As Buch explained in a personal interview conducted on 10 April , he thought these meetings were an important way to bring together writers with politicians who had just moved to Berlin from Bonn. At all these meetings, readings from recently published works were the basis for dialogue between authors and politicians. At that last meeting, Schneider read seminar Two familiar Enlightenment themes ran throughout the discourse of the event: the notion of the liberal individual who can freely determine what his or her actions will be and that of a freely accessible public venue within which individuals can conduct civil debate.
Here, Schneider foregrounds individuals who were apparently free to choose how to act despite the great risks posed by the Nazi political context. Taken together, the disparate elements that made up the event expressed a consensus on the foundations of tolerant behaviour in a normal, democratic state: the autonomy of citizens who can act on their convictions and a public venue in which they can gather and exchange views.
Fraser, for example, points out that a defining characteristic of the public sphere, namely its function as a freely accessible space in which all who participate are seen as equals, is undermined by the fact that the arguments that individuals make within the public sphere are not all necessarily afforded the same value. What Schneider does not state, but nevertheless suggests, is that the example of Latte, who refused the identity foisted on him by the Nazis and chose to live underground, also challenges any easy categorization of Jews as victims.
Performing Tolerance in the Berlin Republic In this way, Schneider claims civil courage — a choice to act appropriately available to all — as a German legacy that can guide contemporary German civic life. Yet the assertion of this model depends on both clearing Germans of an a priori anti-Semitism and freeing the persecuted from a passive stance.
In other words, shaping a vision of Germans as freely acting subjects goes hand in hand with the separation of subjectivity from a sociopolitical framework. Under the nose of his Nazi superiors, Poelchau dispensed money and food-ration cards, as well as names of contacts who could provide work to those like Latte who were living underground 80, Von Einem, who was part of a social milieu that included high-ranking Nazi officials, was a composer who had joined an oppositional group affiliated with the Berlin opera In this position, von Einem aided communists, those hunted by the Gestapo, and Latte, for whom he secured work as a rehearsal accompanist for the opera as well as conducting lessons with the famous conductor and resistance activist Leo Borchard This is his inheritance from his parents.
Schneider demonstrates this in his description of the way that Latte refuses to accept being marked as a Jew. He ignores the order to sew a Jewish star onto his jacket Instead, he uses a safety pin so that he can take it on or off at will Ultimately, Latte decides that evading deportation and going underground by fleeing his hometown of Breslau for Berlin will be better than admitting defeat to the Nazis, even if it gains him only an hour of freedom from a seemingly inevitable fate in the camps Despite the extreme difficulties of life in hiding, Latte is determined to become a professional conductor and not let the Nazis derail him from this goal He proposes that a positive political heritage that can encompass Jewish and German experience is not a utopian dream but a lived reality to which Latte can attest.
As he explains, Latte and his wife struggled with whether or not to remain in Germany. This depiction of German-Jewish equivalence implies potential coexistence through the transcendence of difference. Thus Schneider steers away from major West German as well as postunification state-sanctioned frameworks for representing German-Jewish relationships. Performing Tolerance in the Berlin Republic They are, however, read by Jews as potentially anti-Semitic efforts to normalize German-Jewish relationships and, therefore, interpreted as acts of forgetting Bashaw