Report on Human Rights Practices for 2011 Country of Nigeria

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He requests the authorities to respond to all the concerns raised in the joint allegation letters sent on 13 January and 13 June without further delay. He considers responses to his communications as an important part of the cooperation of Governments with his mandate.

He is concerned that this Act -which bans gay marriage and makes it an offence to register, operate, participate in or support gay clubs, societies, organizations, processions or meetings, or to make a public display of a same-sex amorous relationship, directly or indirectly- discriminate against the right to peacefully assemble and associate on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. The Special Rapporteur reminds the Government that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights acceded by Nigeria on 29 July , guarantees the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association.

The Special Rapporteur calls upon the Government to put in place an enabling and safe environment allowing individuals to exercise their legitimate freedoms of peaceful assembly and association without undue hindrances. The Special Rapporteur reminds the Government of Nigeria of his country visit requests sent in October He regrets to not have received a response to date. He recalls that responses to his communications are an important part of the cooperation of the Government of Nigeria with his mandate, and urges the authorities to comply with Human Rights Council resolutions on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association.

Proposed Bill to regulate voluntary organizations The Special Rapporteur reiterates his preoccupation that the prohibition of voluntary organizations to receive foreign funds without registration, under sections 2 and 3 of the proposed Bill, is not in compliance with the right to freedom of association, which denotes restrictions to the right only under very specific circumstances. He also expresses dismay at the inability of voluntary associations to appeal restrictive decisions that prevent them from receiving funds from international donors.

Concerning the clause stipulating that all voluntary organizations can receive foreign funds only if they agree to receive such contribution through State channels, he is of the opinion that this may result in discretionary and arbitrary enforcement. While noting that the aforementioned proposed Bill provides for criminal sanctions against individuals contravening its provisions, including section 11, he cautions against measures that aim to deter people from exercising their fundamental right to freedom of association.

Country visit The Special Rapporteur reminds the Government of his willingness to undertake a country visit to Nigeria, as indicated by his October letter to the Government.

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He trusts that such a visit would allow him to examine issues relating to his mandate, identify good practices and formulate pertinent recommendations to relevant stakeholders. For the full reports, containing communications, replies and observations for all countries, see the following links:. Former UN Special Rapporteur. On the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association. Communications report.

February Nigeria communications: May 1, to February 28, This page summarizes cases raised with Nigeria by the Special Rapporteur between May 1, , when the Special Rapporteur took up his functions and February 28, the date of the last public release of communications. Case no. State Reply : None to date. Minority ethnic groups have been fighting for equal rights since Nigeria's independence in They believe that the federation is not inclusive of minorities, which leads to marginalized ethnic groups.

Since Nigeria's independence, minorities have joined together to demand the formation of new states, increasing the number of states from 12 in to the current number of 36, in the attempts to reduce the regional power of dominant ethnic groups. However, this only led to the further marginalization of smaller ethnic minorities by more powerful ethnic minorities within the state. Also, the limited presence of power-sharing mechanisms means that the national leadership of Nigeria has remained in the power of the majority ethnic groups. According to its constitution, Nigeria is a secular country.

Nigeria has a population roughly split in half, between Christians predominantly in the South and Muslims in the North, and with a minority population of traditional religion worshippers. The government subsidizes only Christian and Muslim pilgrimages and allows Christian and Muslim religious education in schools. Since January , several Northern states have institutionalized a version of Sharia law. This enactment of Sharia law has caused controversy over its violation of fundamental rights, such as the right for minorities in those states to practice their religion, the right to life, and freedom from cruel and unusual punishment.

Historically, the Nigerian Constitution has allowed Sharia courts jurisdiction over certain cases, but their jurisdiction is limited to matters of Islamic personal or family law. Several state governments in the North have extended Sharia law to criminal offenses, thereby violating the Constitution's prohibition of an official religion. These states have relied on a constitutional provision that allows the Sharia Court to exercise other jurisdiction given to it by the state in introducing Sharia penal codes.

The imposition of Sharia law in certain states in Nigeria infringes on the rights of Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Muslims who would prefer to be judged under the Constitution are not able to do so, and non-Muslims are denied the right to practice their religions freely. The severe penalties given to lesser offenses under Sharia penal laws have raised concern about their violation of rights that are protected by international human rights treaties. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR , of which Nigeria is a party, allows the death penalty if it is carried out in a way that causes the least suffering and only in the cases of serious crimes that intentionally cause lethal consequences.

In southern Nigeria, especially in areas with Christian majorities, many rights are denied to Muslims as well as other religious minorities. Some educational institutions have banned the use of the hijab , which violates the right of Muslim women to practice their religion. Some state governments in the South have also denied many requests for land grants to build mosques or Islamic schools. Throughout Nigeria, religious minorities are systematically restricted from building places of worship and schools through the denial of land grants. Members of minority religious groups are often attacked during riots and religious conflicts.

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The most serious human rights problems during Other serious human rights problems included sporadic abridgement of citizens' right to change their government, due to some election fraud and other irregularities; politically motivated and extrajudicial killings by security forces, including summary executions; security force torture, rape, and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees, and criminal suspects; harsh and life-threatening prison and detention center conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; prolonged pretrial detention; denial of fair public trial; executive influence on the judiciary and judicial corruption; infringements on citizens' privacy rights; restrictions on freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, and movement; official corruption; violence and discrimination against women; child abuse; female genital mutilation The Shari'a criminal laws apply to those who voluntarily consent to the jurisdiction of the Shari'a courts and to all Muslims.

Some Christian pastors in Nigeria were reported in of being involved in the torturing and killing of children accused of witchcraft. Nigerian Center for Human Rights and Development - founded in to promote democracy and enforcement of rights. The following chart shows Nigeria's ratings since in the Freedom in the World reports, published annually by Freedom House. A rating of 1 is "most free" and 7 is "least free".

Nigeria's stances on international human rights treaties are as follows:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.


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    Main article: Women in Nigeria. Main articles: Child marriage in Nigeria and Girl child labour in Nigeria. Human rights portal Nigeria portal. Human Rights Practices for Human Rights Watch. Journal of African Law. Department of State. Amnesty International. Retrieved 5 May The Rainbow. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 6 May USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 15 April The Telegraph.

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    Global Journal of Human Social Science. African Human Rights Law. Retrieved 2 September Journal of Politics and Law. Third World Quarterly, Vol. The Guardian. An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria. Human Rights Brief. African Affairs.

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    Archived from the original PDF on 21 November Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 22 August Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Paris, 9 December ". Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 16 November New York, 7 March ". Archived from the original on 11 February New York, 16 December ".

    Archived from the original on 17 September International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Archived from the original on 1 September Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity. New York, 26 November ". New York, 30 November ". Archived from the original on 18 July New York, 18 December ". Archived from the original on 23 August New York, 10 December ". Archived from the original on 8 November Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York, 20 November ". New York, 15 December ".

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    Archived from the original on 25 August New York, 6 October ". Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. New York, 25 May ". Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

    Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, 13 December ". Archived from the original on 19 August Archived from the original on 13 January New York, 20 December ". Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure.


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