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Thread Tools Show Printable Version. Join Date Aug Rep Power 0. Total thanks received 2, Book Description [EN] The book clearly explains the physiological processes associated with the reproduction of cattle work. There are in addition to practical information on conservation of fertility also notes the creation of optimal breeding conditions of the cows during the matings, pregnancy and birth up to care for the newborn.
Last edited by Motoko; 13th November at PM. Join Date Jan Rep Power Total thanks received , Fruchtbarkeitsmanagement beim Rind Bookmarks Bookmarks Digg del. The time now is PM. Strategies for reduction in AMU in dairy production can therefore target either the decrease in disease incidence new infection control or the reduction in antibiotic therapy in sick animals omission or substitution.
Thus, to reduce AMU in dairy cows, it is essential to maximize avoidance of udder diseases. Primarily, clinical mastitis CM in lactating cows is most commonly treated by intramammary administration of antibiotic ointments to the mammary gland cavity local treatment.
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Bovine mastitis is characterized by a multifactorial disease process, which is influenced by host, pathogen, as well as environmental factors DVG, ; IDF, Thus, potential prophylactic measures comprise reduction in new infections NI and transmission of pathogens by optimization of management standards, segregation and culling decisions, and reduction in exacerbation of subclinical to CM via consistent feeding.
Udder health management has considerably advanced over the past years and can be easily quantified by data analysis using test results provided by regular dairy herd improvement DHI tests. The overriding objective of all measures is the reduction in the new infection rates NIR during the lactation and in the dry period. As the clinical outcome of mastitis partly depends on the immunological status of the individual cow, increase in immunocompetence is an option in the reduction in mastitis, although currently merely theoretical.
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For decades, researchers have been working on effective vaccines for the prevention of bovine mastitis, but developed vaccines, for example, against Staphylococcus S. However, further research in this area has promise. The objective of antibiotic mastitis therapy is to eliminate the MCP from the cow or at least from the udder quarter. Treatment success can be quantified by the determination of different cure rates such as clinical, bacteriological or overall cure rate.
A substantial percentage of all mastitis cases are recurrences. The mentioned cows will not benefit from local antibiotic administration, so that antibiotic treatment is not recommended, unless animal welfare issues require systemic antibiotic therapy.
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- Mastitis treatment—Reduction in antibiotic usage in dairy cows?
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Recent studies have shown that mastitis caused by coliform bacteria such as E. The respective animals will not benefit from antibiotic treatment, thus representing a strong potential for reducing AMU. Intramammary infections IMI can present itself in different clinical grades, requiring adjusted therapeutic measures. Mild cases with exclusive changes in the appearance of milk are categorized as CM of grade 1. Moderate cases include changes in appearance of milk as well as udder inflammation symptoms grade 2. Both grades do not necessarily require systemic antibiotic treatment, and local antimicrobial therapy is recommended depending on the MCP.
Agar diffusion test results are employed to evaluate the probability of BC after treatment with the antibiotics tested in vitro.
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A more accurate assessment is achieved by the investigation of minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC. However, the actual healing depends on further determinants and is not guaranteed Barlow, Previous studies showed that the differences between spontaneous BC and antibiotic treatment cure rates are biggest for streptococci and medium for staphylococci, particularly S. MIC of MCP for penicillin are low, but clinical breakpoints for mastitis, defining the respective concentrations of the antimicrobial at the site of infection, do not exist for most older substances.
Currently, antibiotic sensitivity testing mainly serves as therapy confirmation or as indicator for required therapy adjustment. The fact remains that the antibiotic of first choice possesses a small spectrum of activity, is classified as a substance without critical importance for human medicine and is proven effective against the MCP present. In exceptional cases, an extended duration of intramammary antimicrobial treatment increases the probability of BC. Some field studies showed that CM cases caused by S.
Absence of CC after regular treatment duration was not related to eventual BC. Another approach to reduce AMU in general and in dairy production in particular is the development of alternative treatment methods. Several substances or biological agents have been described as successful in prohibiting the growth of MCP in vitro. However, reliable studies about the treatment success of the listed approaches or substances need yet to be provided. Thus, prospective substitution or supplementation of AMU seems realistic, but would not likely happen in the near future.
The dry period between two lactations of dairy cows is a crucial time for udder health. It provides a promising opportunity to cure existing udder infections, but the udder is also at high risk to develop a new IMI. CM or elevated somatic cell counts in early lactation are often due to infections resulting from the dry period.
Udder health management in the dry period is important to enable a good start into the lactation period.
A high percentage of IMI cure without intervention, by mere regeneration and phagocytosis of pathogens, and antibiotic DCT is highly efficient, so that most IMI heal up. A key component of dry cow mastitis management is the use of antibiotic DCT. DCT has been shown to achieve a 1.
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Besides the use of antibiotic DCT, the overall udder health status can be improved by reducing the NIR during the dry period by using less controversial and less restricted methods like internal teat sealants ITS and improvement of housing conditions. Therefore, prevention of NI is of particular importance. Established tools, which do not excessively delay the onset of therapy, are just being developed and are not yet available i. Progress in the development of therapeutic alternatives and further investigations e. Volume 52 , Issue S3.
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