As the planet heats up, the water on the surface of our planet will begin to evaporate. This change is a sufficient increase in energy to change the location of the habitable zone around our star. The habitable zone is defined as the range of distances away from any given star where liquid water can be stable on the surface of a planet. This will mark the beginning of the evaporation of our oceans. By the time the sun stops burning hydrogen in its core, Mars will be in the habitable zone , and the Earth will be much too hot to maintain water on its surface. Predictions of exactly how rapidly this process will unfold depend on who you talk to.
Most models suggest that as the oceans evaporate, more and more water will be present in the atmosphere instead of on the surface. This will act as a greenhouse gas , trapping even more heat and causing more and more of the oceans to evaporate, until the ground is mostly dry and the atmosphere holds the water, but at an extremely high temperature.
As the atmosphere saturates with water, the water held in the highest parts of our atmosphere will be bombarded by high energy light from the sun, which will split apart the molecules and allow the water to escape as hydrogen and oxygen, eventually bleeding the Earth dry of water. Where the models differ is on the speed with which the earth reaches this point of no return. Some suggest that the Earth will become inhospitable before the 1 billion year mark, since the interactions between the heating planet and the rocks, oceans, and plate tectonics will dry out the planet even faster.
Others suggest that life may be able to hold on a little longer than 1 billion years, due to the different requirements of different life forms and periodic releases of critical chemicals by plate tectonics. The Earth is a complex system — and no model is perfect.
However, it seems likely that we have no more than a billion years left for life to thrive on our planet. A contemporary Robinsonade — York, York. The polar oceans and global climate — Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom.
Jillian Scudder , University of Sussex. As the Sun matures into a Red Giant, the oceans will boil and Earth will become uninhabitable. Magnificent coronal mass eruption. Astronomy Solar system. You might also like The low solar corona as viewed in extreme ultraviolet light. There have also been new therapies developed to help treat the disease. Some of the topics of intense research include:. What are the genetic factors that predispose people to develop rheumatoid arthritis?
Some white blood cells, commonly known as T cells, are important in maintaining a healthy and properly functioning immune system. However, scientists have discovered a variation—called single nucleotide polymorphism SNP —in a gene that controls T cells. When the SNP gene variation is present, T cells attempt to correct abnormalities in joints too quickly, causing the inflammation and tissue damage associated with RA.
At conception, twins have an identical set of genes. So why would only one twin develop RA?
What is juvenile idiopathic arthritis?
Twins only have identical genomes at conception. After birth, developmental and environmental factors experienced through the stages of growth differentiate the genomes. By studying the differences in the lives of twins then, scientists can better determine where and why rheumatoid arthritis begins to develop. A technique called microarray is used to examine a large number of genes at once and find differences that may develop in cases such as those involving twins.
Thanks to these types of studies, researchers have been able to identify several genes that may be associated with inflammation and bone erosion seen in people with RA. Rheumatoid arthritis is a joint inflammation disease which begins slowly and progresses over time. Unfortunately, it can sometimes be difficult to detect and diagnose RA because early symptoms are often subtle and nonspecific.
A couple of these early symptoms of the disease include fatigue, stiffness, and tenderness in the joints, which can be symptoms of other, less severe conditions as well.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)
Furthermore, symptoms appear differently in most patients and many may have periods of time where they experience no symptoms at all. There are many other symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis that stem from inflamed tissue in the joints. Some of the most common symptoms reported by people with rheumatoid arthritis are:.
The degeneration caused by RA tends to affect the smaller joints in the body first, namely the joints in the fingers, hands, and feet. The damage then spreads to other major joints in the body. Heavy inflammation of the joints is known as a flare, and flares are common in RA sufferers, sometimes lasting for months at a time. Additionally, RA usually affects the body symmetrically, which means the same joints on both sides of the body will show symptoms at the same time. For instance, if one wrist begins showing symptoms, the other will likely show symptoms within the near future.
RA is most common in the hands, but can happen in any joint, including knees, wrists, neck, shoulders, elbows, feet, hips, and even the jaw. Physical symptoms are the direct result of the high levels of inflammation that come with RA. These can affect the entire body and sometimes resemble the flu, but are chronic or longer lasting in nature.
While physical symptoms differ in severity and frequency, sometimes the person with rheumatoid arthritis feels it in other ways. In other words, RA may also cause emotional and psychological symptoms as it affects every person differently. For example, the symptoms of RA can leave a person unable to function for long periods of time without pain.
This means that jobs which involve a large amount of moving around or a large amount of time sitting still can be difficult for a person with RA. This type of work-based limitation can lead to mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and feelings of helplessness. All of these psychological struggles can be fairly common among RA sufferers. Diagnosing RA early is necessary due to how quickly bone and cartilage damage can occur. Click here to learn more about rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. Rheumatoid arthritis is subtle and often presents itself similarly to other arthritis diseases.
Early symptoms include minor joint pain, stiffness, and fatigue, but these are often attributed to other, less problematic causes. For instance, sometimes symptoms will resemble the flu, making RA more difficult to detect. However, people will typically feel the effects of RA in their smallest joints first, such as the fingers and toes. The earliest signs of the disease are:. If a doctor suspects that a patient has RA, they will refer the patient to a rheumatologist for further testing. A rheumatologist is a medical professional who specializes in musculoskeletal and autoimmune diseases and is specially trained to handle the diagnosis and treatment of RA and other arthritis diseases such as psoriatic arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, and Felty syndrome.
No single test can determine if a person has rheumatoid arthritis. Rather, rheumatologists use a combination of tests to make an accurate diagnosis. If a diagnosis is made, the patient will work with a rheumatologist to create a treatment plan that fits his or her needs and current stage of RA. Click here to learn more about diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis most often develops as a progressive disease, meaning that it will become more aggressive over time. Monocyclic progression sometimes called remissive is an episode of RA with symptoms that last only years.
Monocyclic progression is usually the result of an early diagnosis and immediate aggressive treatment to ensure that the symptoms do not return.
Let’s Dig Into Everything about RA - ynykyvykeb.tk
Polycyclic progression sometimes called intermittent is the constant recurrence of RA symptoms and flares, but in fluctuating stages. With polycyclic progression, patients can go long periods of time without experiencing any symptoms at all, but flares usually return. Many people confuse rheumatoid arthritis with osteoarthritis OA due to their similar symptoms, but the two diseases are caused by different factors. Whereas rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes joint malfunction due to inflammation, osteoarthritis is a mechanical disease brought on by the destruction of joints through wear and tear.
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Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, with approximately 27 million Americans over the age of 25 having been diagnosed with it. Osteoarthritis is also most commonly seen in people middle-aged to elderly and is the top cause of disability in those age groups, though it can also appear in younger people who have sustained joint injuries.
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With osteoarthritis, the cartilage, joint lining, ligaments, and bone are all affected by deterioration and inflammation. When the cartilage begins to break down due to stress or changes in the body, the surrounding bones slowly get bigger and begin to fail. Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressing disease and occurs in the joints of the hand, spine, hips, knees, and toes. Furthermore, risk factors of this disease most often stem from lifestyle or biological causes, such as:. Symptoms of the breakdown of joints and the weakness of bones associated with osteoarthritis include:.
While rheumatoid arthritis occurs symmetrically in the body—meaning that when a joint on one side is affected, the joint on the other side will likely be affected as well—osteoarthritis does not occur symmetrically in the body.
Let’s Dig Into Everything about RA
It affects a single joint or a joint on one side of the body more severely. It also progresses slowly over the years and can worsen with sudden injuries or increased risk factors. Physical exams, x-rays, and other imaging tests are used to determine whether a patient has osteoarthritis, as well as to determine the severity of the disease if it exists.
Like rheumatoid arthritis and other similar diseases of the joints, damage from OA cannot be reversed. However, there are treatment options and lifestyle changes that can reduce pain and improve the function of the affected joints:. Osteoarthritis is treated with many of the same medications as rheumatoid arthritis.