Taste of Grief (Just One Bite #3)

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Once a child wants to end a thumbsucking habit, products like the Thumbuddy you describe can be a big help. I know the thumbuddy. I saw it with other stop thumb sucking product reviews at stopthumbsucking. Who knew people put so much effort into breaking this habit - and here there is a 3rd edition book.

Similar authors to follow

Which is very good book because it addresses the root of the issue, which is motivation. Kids and parents both need motivation to stop thumb sucking. Any device will help, of course some are better than others, but understanding how to get past the psychology is top importance. Good book and complementary products and proper motivation will give a very high degree of success.

I disagree, when children are born they have no habits, it's us the parents that create the habits, by placing the thumb of your baby in it's mouth, or by adding a pacifier to your baby's mouth. We are the creators of habit for our children. Then when we decide or society tells us to we work on having our child remove the thumb or pacifier and then bottle. We create the habits and then take them away. We see our parents chewing on a pencil and then our children follow suit. We watch our parents bite their nails and children follow suit, I can go on and one. Habits are a continuous cycle. Children are not blank slates or empty hard-drives, they arrive in this world with their own hard-wired, intrinsic temperament traits in the same way that they arrive in this world as male or female.

Their inborn intelligence potential, their inborn temperament, and their own unique set of experiences growing up in their native environment combine to create the individual's personality and character. Its nature AND nurture combined, not just one or just the other, that make a person who and what they are. Newborns even have some instinctive behaviors, such as the sucking reflex, a walking-motion reflex when held upright on a level surface, and they have a specific newborn reaction to being startled: they fling their arms and legs out in a specific way that older babies don't do; these behaviors are not taught to them.

Some instinctive behaviors disappear in a few weeks after birth, other instincts stay with us longer. Although children ARE naturally very imitative, which is how a child learns the language their parents are speaking, not ALL behaviors are learned. Some are instinctive and some are self-taught. By the way, neither of my parents were nail-biters, which is one reason they were appalled by my extreme nail-biting habit.

It never occurred to them that it was a desperate self-soothing technique I discovered for myself. Nobody "taught" me to masturbate, either; that was another self-soothing tactic I discovered on my own. Also, children are not shown or taught to bang their heads against the wall or floor and they are not taught to fall on the floor and scream in temper tantrums, these are inherent self-soothing behaviors or nervous-overload behaviors caused by too much stress, fear, or even terror, or by being too frustrated by an inability to achieve a desired goal like getting a cookie on request or inability to verbalize a problem, or by an immature nervous system, by over-tiredness, etc.

Children aren't shown how to do these things, they discover them on their own. Please tell me where you got this information, I would love to read it. His thumb found its own way into his mouth when he was one day old. I have an ultrasound picture that shows him sucking his thumb as well. MOST fall through the cracks as I did This was a very interesting read including everyone's comments. We as people seem to think in ways that to understand things we like to group and classify things and it puzzles us when something doesn't fit the mold.

So we classify addition and self-destructive behaviors and then we like to draw connections and make up cause-effect relationships that fit perfectly and logically. But we must be cautious about this because people, perhaps especially parents who are trying to do right by their children and ensure their best future, are prone to panic.

A mother reads something like this and thinks oh my! I sucked my thumb from infancy to I have never had any facial or dental malformation. My parents tried just about every trick in the book to make me stop and not one thing worked. Not replacing with a paci which i gagged on, not shame, not grown-up talk, not bitter things, not nail polish I don't remember any of those things particularly bothering me, and i do remember trying to please my family and stop, but it simply didn't happen.

It wasn't torture or struggle, it wasn't just too hard to quit, it just wasn't that big of a deal to me, and that's all that seemed to matter. I as I grew up I was only sucking in private, but i was not really ashamed of it. The reason I stopped at 13 was that it just didn't feel right and i had no need for it.

But now looking back it seemed to have coincided with the period when i got my first crush and first became interested in boy-girl relationships. Not saying the two are connected, or that one interest replaced the other. I think i just developed past the soothing from sucking, basically grew up. I have never smoked, did drugs, drank alcohol etc. I am actually regarded as the one with extremely good ability to cope with stress and the one sought after to help others. I have had my good share of stress in childhood and and coping came natural, i didn't run in a corner to suck my thumb when things got hard, the sucking wasn't the main or only coping mechanism.

And the stress i am referring to is one from a civil war tearing my country when I was 8, and my entire family getting chased out of our homes into perpetual refugee status around the world. We moved to 4 different countries before I was But before I was 8 and happily sucking away i had a storybook childhood some kids only dream of. So just saying stress or no stress as a kid i was sucking. It's not an impediment, or a problem parents should overly dwell on. Sure, be careful of teeth development, but I don't think that psychologically it has as big of an impact as we may think.

I believe our personality is not affected by it so much. Sorry for the long story, and thank you all for your insight, this was wonderful reading and it is very nice to see discussions about the topic. Would you be willing to share on my blog a guest blogpost about the five biggest stresses experienced by an 8 to 14 year old child who was faced with war and then with becoming a refugee? Posts are usualy under words, but this one could go longer as I'm sure that multiple key moments will come to mind.

How would you feel about writing and sharing this with your fellow PT readers? Thank you! It would be my pleasure and honor to share some of my life experiences with you and PT readers. I have never really done anything like that so let me know how to go about it. SPW, To contact me directly return to the Thumbsucking posting.

At the bottom of each of the two pages it says Email Blogger. Click there. As to how to go about it, I've actually written a blog post on a strategy for writing about life incidents that were important to you. I think that links aren't live from this Comments page. Probably you'll have to cut and past the link onto your browser.

I'm so glad this project interests you! War and the homelessness of refugees are, to our good fortune, mostly phenomena that Americans who have been here for a generation or more have never experienced. I look forward to reading what you write. This is a very emotive subject and people's ffeelings about it are usually based on whether they were happy thumbsuckers themselves and have cute kids who they like to see suck their thumbs.. Or otherwise. As a general dental practitioner I have seen the results of thumb and finger sucking , leading to bizarre smiles needing costly corretion in teenage or adults.

I was alarmed to see the child's forefinger totally deformed almost bent outwards at right angles. He would never be able to properly hold a pencil or pen. I referred him to his doctor as his finger derformity was more crucial to his well being than his teeth whcih would be corrected when he was older. I appreciate your perspective from the dental viewpoint. I very much agree with you that thumbsucking is not "cute. The saddest to me as a psychologist is that the "bizarre smiles needing costly correction in teenage or adult years" can have a long-standing impact on self-image.

Kids whose facial appearance has been made less attractive by thumb or finger sucking tend to be less "popular. I was a thumb-sucker as a child. I finally quit at age For me personally, it was used as a soothing device. In addition to thumb-sucking, until about age 4, I would also twirl my hair until it tangled and then I would pull it out. I was bald on both sides of my head due to this issue. But the reasons for my need for both of these "addictions" were a bad family situation. I was cured of the hair twirling by my grandmother who provided me with a warm, caring environment, but I kept sucking my thumb.

When I moved back in with my parents, they let it continue I'm guessing to help me adjust , but at about age 7, they sought medical advice and tried everything under the sun to get me to stop. Nothing worked for them and eventually they gave up. I stopped on my own, when I felt I was ready. But even today, at age 41, I "chew" on my fingers not the nails, but fingers. For me, the damage to my teeth was not bad.

I only have a slight overbite. As a psychologist, you probably understand that a lot of thumbsucking is in the head and until those issues are dealt with, it will continue, especially if the child is older. As opinions, the statements in this article are fine - but what is the medical and brain research. What we know suggests that a deficit in brain systems and structures, an inherited birth defect, leads to self-harming addictive behavior. The best candidates seem broken D2 dopamine receptors.

Behaviors then, it seems, are engaged in to attempt to heal the broken brain - achieve homeostasis. However, there is no external way to heal the internal diseases of the brain's basic systems. But, by definition, addiction means the brain demands more and more and there is never enough. Understanding the brain and medical science can lead to better understanding and remedial treatments.

I find Loretta Breuning's book Your Happy Chemicals an especially thought-provoking and still easy read with regard to learning more about brain perspectives on addictive processes. A useful question to ask in any discussion of any medical condition and related problem-solving is - how accurate and valuable is subjective experience and perceptions in diagnosing and treating a medical disorder?

In this case a brain disorder. Generally medical matters are handled by specialists and experts in the field and subjective experiences carry low information value. Certainly in the case of addictions, the suffering person either has little sense of what is happening and is also prone to say whatever will enable the craving. I was 5 or 6 years old before I stopped thumb sucking. I remember 'they' put horrible tasting things on my thumb for a while, but that didn't work.

What really did it for me was my Daddy had a talk and said he would buy me a new bed if I did. I was excited about that. Anthropological studies have shown two interesting facts: 1 Primates breastfeed until their first permanent molars come in, the human equivalent of 6 or 7 years old. When a child is given the freedom to extend breastfeeding that long, as in the hunter-gatherer societies, there is no shaming, and it is in no way seen as a problem or addiction, but simply natural human behavior, to want to suckle.

It is when we wean children prematurely that thumb-sucking becomes a problem, since a breastfed-on-demand child will not usually develop thumb-sucking as a frequent reflex for self-soothing the way a weaned child will. And a nipple does not deform the teeth the way a thumb or even pacifier does. I bring this up as a topic of reflection. Sucking in itself is a natural need for connection with the mother, the comfort of that connection. If we take that away from young children, long before they even finish or reach toddlerhood, we shouldn't be surprised to find that our kids have problems with self-soothing techniques that can be damaging, but that are in themselves replacements for the natural soothing solution: a mother's breast.

We don't live in a society that is conducive to extended breastfeeding, but that does not mean that our cultural norms are ideal for human development. In contrast, I have been told that in Mongolia, breastfeeding until 6 or so is the norm, not the exception, and there is no shame for doing so in public. They even tell you that if you want your child to be a strong warrior, they need to be breastfed until 6. Food for thought. I sucked my thumb until I had 4 teeth extracted aged 11 and given a brace having developed bad over bite and crooked bottom teeth too my palate had narrowed that much.

My mother told me it was a myth that thumb sucking caused buck teeth and that the reason my mouth developed that way was down to genetics. She said this was evidence of being further down the evolutionary chain. I was 2 and a half years away from puberty when my teeth were extracted and I was never told to just try to stop sucking my thumb. Was this normal practice in the Uk in the 70s and 80s? I wrote David Decides About Thumbsucking in the early 's. Here in Denver at that time our dentist told me "Don't worry about the thumbsucking. Kids stop when they are ready.

One day I finally said to myself "Wait a minute. My dentist is giving me psychological advice, not dental information. I know that appearances matter, and that thumbsucking lingers on as a detrimental habit, not because it continues to be psychologically helpful! And psychologists are supposed to know how to help people to stop detrimental habits!

So yes, at least here in Denver in the US, passive and overly accepting responses by dentists and parents to thumbsucking probably were the norm. I myself, growing up in the "s, sucked my thumb until I was well into elementary school, maybe 8 years old, so a lax attitude probably existed then as well.

Good for orthodontists but not for kids. I keep wondering if your kid will share your views or completely go the other way. It is obvious that you did not like your parent's decision on letting you suck your thumb which may or may not be the problems to your teeth. You are very articulate, and can manipulate any truth to show your point of views.

Be careful when influencing others, make sure you are not making a lot of kids miserable with simply wanting to correct your own past. With great power comes a huge responsibility. I hope you can choose wisely. And if Decisions are a bit hard just choose love. And ask yourself would love accept all things? You could try helping using a Thumbsie. There are lots of designs to choose from and five different sizes. They are very comfortable and fit easily around the wrist with velcro. They wash really easily. They act as a reminder so that eventually the thumb sucking habit is broken, you can purchase them online at www.

It can stop the thumb that covered will not feel the same as a bare thumb. Example, my mother had two kids My sister and I. We both sucked out thumbs. My sisters teeth became disoriented to the point she couldn't close her mouth so by the age of 9 my mother decided to get my sister braces but first had to get her to stop sucking her thumb. The dentist had a prize shop for kids who sucked their thumbs, the parents would track the days that their kids wouldn't suck their thumbs and each visit to the dentist he would then give them a wooden coin and they could use that coin in they prize shop or save it to accumulate more coins for a bigger prize.

This method worked great for my sister! She stopped sucking her thumb and got braces and never looked back! Me on the other hand, was a whole different story. I was caught sucking my thumb in the womb, they say I came out sucking my thumb. They tried everything to get me to stop medicine, rewards, mittens, dirty socks, slapping my hand, nothing worked! They would show me pictures of how my teeth would look, they would tell me everyone would make fun of me, I had no care in the world cause to me, my thumb was the only thing that made me feel better.

This they gave up, I grew into my teens and continued sucking my thumb but only at home until I told my very first boyfriend and he didn't care so then I started to tell more people about it and more people were surprisingly excepting of it.

Of course I didn't go around sucking my thumb every where but I wasn't afraid to do it In front of my friends. My teeth didn't gap out I have small over bite but for the most part I always get compliments on my smile. My sister who is a psychologist says she believes I never stopped cause it's an attachment o when my parents split up when I was 5. Which is possible but I know that it is a habit that calms me.

So whatever the case is for anyone it's better than doing drugs or being addicted to alcohol which is some kids case when parents split up. It's nothing to be ashamed of and is more excepting now a days. Not everyone gets the same result, like in mine or my sisters case. We are all different. When people start to realize that the world in general will be a better place. I am working on helping my 6 year old son give up thumbsucking.

I have suggested to him that he doesn't need to suck his thumb in the morning any more and he has agreed to stop sucking his thumb in the morning. So far we have done this for the last four days. My plan was to wait until he seems to be able to give up thumbsucking in the morning and then add the afternoon, then the evening and then finally at bedtime.

Do you think this will work or is it better to give it up all at one time? I don't think I could convince him to give it up all at one time but he seemed okay with giving up thumbsucking in the morning, although it was harder on the weekend when we were at home more in the morning. He also has a little blanket that he is very attached to and associates with thumbsucking.

It stays at home but when we are at home he often holds it or has it nearby. When he gets upset he wants it. What do you recommend for the blanket? Is it time to give it up? He has never slept without it except as an infant. It could provide him with comfort when he cannot suck his thumb but since he often sucks his thumb when he holds it, I think it might make it harder to stop sucking his thumb. Thank you for putting this information online. I have requested your book from the library and I can't wait to read it. I sucked my thumb until I was 8. By then my adult front teeth had come in.

My mother tried everything to get me to stop, but I didn't want to, I enjoyed it and was not at all embarrassed by it. That was a fortune to a poor kid in , so I stopped. Mom was smart, two months was enough to break the habit. But of course my teeth stuck out a lot and had a large gap.

My mom told me that every night before I went to bed I should place my thumb across my teeth and give them a little push. I did this and my teeth are now evenly spaced and perfectly straight, no braces needed folks! It worked for bail biting as well. Kids like reward, and aren't aware that to reach it they are breaking a habit. And parents may not have to spend thousands to straighten teeth my sister had a crooked tooth that was straightened through tounge pressure Sometimes when I am very stressed or sad I wish I could suck my thumb for comfort but my nice straight teeth are in the way.

Now, if only someone would offer me cash to lose 20 lbs.. I am 22 and still suck my thumb. I am lucky my teeth are fine. It is much better than most other habits and definitely better than drinking or smoking! It is a self calming thing and I'm happy my mum didn't stop me I was her first born, she stopped my other siblings or they stopped themselves. She tried stopping me for many years but eventually saw no downsides in my habit. I am not a very social person but have many close friends who aren't concerned or think I look like a baby.

I'm just an adult with an unusual habit. I instinctively don't suck in public but haven't ever really felt ashamed about what I do. Susan Heitler, Ph. Alienating individuals and groups can wreak havoc on friends, nations, and more. Amazing how four short words can cause you to come across as controlling.

Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Back Magazine. Subscribe Issue Archive. Back Today. The Fallacy in "Evidence-Based" Treatment. Unintended Consequences and the Cerebral Cortex. Susan Heitler Ph. Follow me on Twitter. Friend me on Faceook. Connect with me on LinkedIn. Lessons from Thumbsucking, the Earliest Addiction We can learn a lot from these 10 strategies that help kids stop thumbsucking.

Peer power and shame, for better and for worse Submitted by Susan Heitler Ph. Thanks for your thought-provoking observations on shame. Awww, C'mon!! Submitted by Alice Carleton on January 27, - am. Now we are regulating thumb-sucking to an "addiction"!? Poor babies and little kids. It's like everything now is considered an addiction. What converts a benign habit into an addiction? Submitted by Susan Heitler Ph. Thumbsucking is normal and even helpful for infants and toddlers. Beg to differ Submitted by Anonymous on January 28, - pm. Yes, with a question DSM not so helpful!

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Submitted by Anonymous on January 29, - am. The young child's experience of "addiction" Submitted by Susan Heitler Ph. Practically no one Submitted by Anonymous on January 31, - pm. That's probably right at the start of pre-school. Adult thumb suckers Submitted by Joanna on April 28, - pm. Case Study hahaha Submitted by anonymouse on January 27, - am. Children self-soothe to cope with stress and abuse Submitted by Annie on January 27, - pm. If that's not torture, I don't know what is. Annie Submitted by Alice Carleton on January 27, - pm.

Fortunately, I was born standin' up and talkin' back. Molested by a drunken neighbor, when "mother" left us alone a night. Sadly child abuse continues and I am doing all I can to get this into the media; 1 in 3 women are living in silence, fear and shame behind closed doors; I want to appear on National TV and make a documentary called: The Silent Scream. Late thumbsucking CAN be a sign folks need to heed.

The sad truth Submitted by Annie on January 29, - pm. Thanks again Annie for sharing with us. We're here and we matter - and I bet our numbers are much higher than you suspect. I totally agree.. Sorry, Lee, but your opinions are misinformed Submitted by Babs on August 25, - pm. And yes, some infants are born with their thumb in their mouth; its not uncommon. Please tell me where Submitted by Anonymous on January 14, - pm. Again Submitted by Alice Carleton on February 1, - am. Babies are BORN with the sucking reflex, some babies are born actually sucking their thumbs!

Teachers AND adults in society should be able to see signs of abuse in a child. Smoking Submitted by Alice Carleton on February 1, - am. Fascinating Submitted by Susan Heitler Ph. To SPW, I was very touched by your posting. Dear Dr. Heitler, Thank you! Submitted by S P W on February 2, - am. To contact me directly Submitted by Susan Heitler Ph. Lessons in thumbsucking Submitted by Anonymous on August 25, - am. Brain science definitely is adding new perspectives on addictions. Thanks for adding information about brain factors in addictions and cravings.

The same could be said of humanistic understandings. Here, the poet uses it in combination with other meters. When iamb is used in combination with spondee, as shown here, it usually slows down the momentum of a line. Flashback A flashback is a device in a narrative that enables the writer to insert an event from the past in the current action. Writers employ this technique in their narratives to provide context or background for a current event. Flashbacks are introduced in the narrative with the help of various methods which include dream sequences, memories, and sudden remembrance.

Because they convey this sort of information, the use of flashback in a story can deepen the inner conflict. A flashback creates stimulus for the conflict, allows the reader to feel sympathy even for the villain , and deepens the moving effect of the story. The purpose of a flashback in a narrative is to enhance the tension. The use of flashback makes the reader wish to know more about the secrets and the untold past, so he keeps reading on to discover what secrets lie beneath a terrible incident or moving character.

All this provides motivation for the creation of conflict. Differences between Flashback and Foreshadowing Flashbacks and foreshadowing are completely opposite from each other. Flashback takes place when the current action in a narrative is interrupted by an incident from the past in the form of a memory, dream etc.

In literature, writers use foreshadowing by hinting at elements of an incident which will happen later in the story. A flashback is completely different from foreshadowing, as in a flashback, the present action is interrupted and the reader is taken back to the past of a character.

Flashbacks and foreshadowing have completely opposite applications in literature. Common Examples of Flashbacks Take a look at the following example of a flashback from everyday life: Gazing at the school gate, I remembered how, as a child, I would enter that school rather unwillingly and leave it so excitedly. Today, I was here to collect my child who, perhaps just like me, had the same unwillingness to come to school. Example 1 In Hamlet, Shakespeare uses flashbacks quite skillfully by presenting a play within the play.

With the help of these flashbacks, the author can explain the happenings to the reader efficiently. Most of these events have taken place even before the play starts. Example 2 To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf is one of the most significant novels in English literature that uses flashbacks very often to enhance the appeal of the plot.

When after the death of Mrs. Ramsay, the whole family is going to visit the lighthouse, Woolf again uses the technique of flashback to show how the family remembers Mrs. The whole novel seems scattered with flashbacks and gets even greater attention from the reader because of the appealing use of these flashbacks. Example 3 F. Nick Carraway, the narrator of the novel, describes the story of Jay Gatsby through his own flashbacks. This novel is a prime example of the effective use of flashbacks to relate the incidents which have already taken place and their possible impact on the current action.

When the novel opens, Nick Carraway is already affected by the time he has spent in New York in the company of Jay Gatsby. Example 4 In the novel Hatchet by Gary Paulsen, the central character, year-old Brian Robeson, sees flashbacks related to his mother. In Chapter 7, when Brian is all alone on the island, he sees some of the most painful events of his life through flashbacks. The writer uses the technique of flashbacks to detail the pain and agony that this character goes through as a result of his tormented past, especially the weak character of his mother.

In many ways, the novel achieves a better level of narrative and attracts more attention from the reader because of the use of flashbacks. The inner conflict that Brian faces becomes even more evident due to the flashbacks used by the writer. Example 5 In the satirical novel Catch by the American novelist Joseph Heller, we see the writer employ flashbacks to enhance the intensity of the climax. Yossarian is given two choices, and one of these choices relies heavily on the use of flashback in the novel.

Example 6 J. In the same way, the novelist employs flashbacks to tell the details of the battle where the forces of good managed to defeat the forces of evil. The novel is a good example of a narrative which fits in flashbacks very nicely. The tool of flashbacks lets Tolkien help the reader understand the intricacies of the past of the dwarves and their sinister enemies.

Syntax Syntax is the arrangement of words into a sentence that make sense in a given language. Syntax also refers to the rules and principles that govern sentence structure in a language, i. Syntax therefore is not a strictly literary device, but instead is part of every utterance and written line, and even the majority of thoughts. Syntax varies widely in different languages. The word syntax comes from the Ancient Greek word syntaxis, which means to arrange or put in order.

Difference Between Syntax and Diction Syntax and diction are both equally integral parts of the formation of meaning into sentences. However, diction refers to the meanings of the words used while syntax refers to the arrangement of words. An author must make choices of both diction and syntax to properly convey a certain voice, and the two concepts together create a unique style for the author. Common Examples of Syntax As stated above in the definition of syntax, every proper grammatical sentence or utterance is an example of syntax.

Here are some examples of how syntax governs English. Agreement: She is a person. Case: He took me to the restaurant. Reflexive pronouns: I bought myself a new shirt. Word order: We ate fish for dinner. Note again that these are all very specific to English. Other languages may have similar syntactical phenomena, but different applications and possibilities. German also allows for many different word order possibilities than English. Poets are especially known for playing with syntax, rearranging words into unusual orders.

Love is a thing as any spirit free. Indeed, even though it is modernized it still carries hints of the Middle English syntax. He is saying that love is like a free spirit, but in a more poetic way. Of his bones are coral made. Those are pearls that were his eyes. Nothing of him that doth fade, But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange. Example 3 The woman brought two glasses of beer and two felt pads. She put the felt pads and the beer glass on the table and looked at the man and the girl. The girl was looking off at the line of hills. They were white in the sun and the country was brown and dry.

He rarely even used adjectives and almost never used adverbs. The entire story seems very straightforward, and yet there is a very serious subtext. Euphemism Euphemism means the use of indirect and polite expressions to replace impolite and harsh words and phrases. These polite words and indirect expressions can also be used to replace words that suggest something bitter or unpleasant. Euphemism can also be when an idiomatic expression is intentionally deprived of its literal meaning to refer to something else to lessen or hide bitterness and unpleasantness. Techniques Used in the Creation of Euphemism Euphemism masks an impolite or rude expression and conveys the idea politely and clearly.

Different techniques and methods are employed for the use of euphemism. Technical terms may also be employed to minimize the rudeness conveyed by direct and bitter words, and, similarly, the deliberate mispronunciation of offensive words may reduce the severity of the blunt and direct words. A writer skillfully chooses suitable words to discuss or refer to a subject in an indirect manner.

In this way, the unpleasant and embarrassing words that cannot be published because of strict social censorship, such as political theories, religious fanaticism, death, and sexuality can be incorporated into literary works. In this way, euphemism becomes a handy tool for writers to figuratively discuss concepts and ideas which have become libelous issues. The Victorian and Elizabethan Ages are among the literary ages where euphemisms were very frequent because of the strict social disapproval of direct and open words for sex, drinking, death, etc.

This is the reason we find literary pieces produced in these two ages abundantly employing euphemism. Euphemism provides writers with the opportunity to discuss concepts and notions which are otherwise virtually impossible to discuss openly. It gives writers an effective outlet to present even those concepts which may not be received without a sense of disapproval by their readers if discussed directly. Difference between Euphemism and Irony Euphemism and irony may look similar because they are both indirect expressions, but actually, the difference between the two is crystal clear. Though both of them are employed intentionally, they serve opposite purposes.

Euphemism is the intentional use of less impolite words in an attempt to reduce the bitterness of direct and impolite words. Contrary to this, irony is an indirect use of words and phrases to expose the follies of a person or institution. Irony is the use of tricky words which are indirect, but are intended to unveil some weakness, shortcoming, or vice of the targeted person or thing. Common Examples of Euphemism Euphemism is commonly used in everyday life to reduce the unpleasantness associated with certain ideas, concepts, and situations.

One of the best examples is the concept of death for the leading character, Oliver. For others, death is represented by pain, black colors, and fear, but this is not the case with Oliver. The writer employs euphemism for death and in this way effectively conveys to us the feelings of the leading character towards the undesirable and painful reality of his life. Example 2 Mark Twain employs euphemism in his novel Huckleberry Finn and impressively explains some of the most prominent taboos of contemporary society.

Different euphemisms have been employed to show the nature of the Duchess and barbarism of the command the Duke gave to kill her. He considered that the Duchess was trifling with his rank by being pleased with gifts from every other person. Subsequently, he uses another euphemism when describing her murder. Consonance Consonance is a literary device in which a consonant sound is repeated in words that are in close proximity. The repeated sound can appear anywhere in the words, unlike in alliteration where the repeated consonant sound must occur in the stressed part of the word.

Consonance is also a similar concept to assonance, which refers to the repetition of vowel sounds in quick succession. Difference Between Consonance and Assonance Consonance and assonance are related, yet opposite, poetic devices. As stated above, consonance refers to the repetition of consonant sounds in nearby words whereas assonance refers to the repetition of vowel sounds. In both cases it does not matter where in the words the repeated sounds occur.

Special Cases of Consonance Alliteration Alliteration is a well-known form of consonance. It refers to the repetition of consonant sounds, but only in the stressed part of a word. Sibilance: Sibilance is a special case of consonance because it involves the repetition of consonant sounds, but only of sibilant consonants, i. The early bird gets the worm. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Curiosity killed the cat. A blessing in disguise. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. It is especially significant in English, and has been found in works dating back to Old English epics, such as Beowulf. Consonance, therefore, is used frequently in poetry and drama as a technique to add aural harmony and rhythm.

Consonance can also be found in prose, but it is not as common or obvious of a technique as in poetry. Sibilance, the special case of consonance, produces sounds that mimic whispering and also the sense of sleepiness. Poe repeats the name of his lost lover, Annabel Lee, many times in the poem at least once in each stanza. He also uses many words with similar sounds to create unity and rhythm throughout the poem.

Example 3 I trust the sanity of my vessel; and if it sinks, it may well be in answer to the reasoning of the eternal voices, the waves which have kept me from reaching you. The consonance between the three images helps to connect them aurally. Foil In fiction, a foil is a character that possesses qualities which are in sharp contrast to those of another character. This highlights the traits of the other character. Foil is a term that is generally employed to develop a contrast, and draw a comparison to show a difference between two things.

In literature, we observe that a foil is a secondary character that contrasts with a major character and enhances the significance of the major character. Significance of Foil in Literature In literature, a foil is of integral value for the portrayal of certain traits in characters. Difference Between an Antagonist and a Foil A foil is a human character in a literary work. An antagonist is an opposing force, negative character, or destructive situation which necessarily works against the plans and schemes of the protagonist.

A foil lacks something in terms of important qualities which are possessed by the protagonist and in this way that the readers notice the significance of those qualities in the protagonist even more. It is important to note that an antagonist can also be a foil. To better understand the difference between an antagonist and a foil, take a look at the following examples of the two: I.

The sharks in the novel are antagonistic forces, as they undo all the hard work by Santiago, the protagonist of the novel. He fights against them to protect the fish that he has killed and hooked and to claim his victory fully, but to no avail. Bingley in Pride and Prejudice is a foil for Mr. The former is a rather naive character, and lacks certain positive qualities which the protagonist possesses.

Bingley is not necessarily an opponent of Darcy; rather the two are very good friends of each other. So, he is a foil for Darcy, but not an antagonist. Hetty wants to be admired and have a rich husband. She is a spoiled girl, unrealistic and proud of her beautiful looks.

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Contrary to this character, the closest girl to her, Dinah Morris, is a well-rounded character as she is realistic, sensible, and a responsible lady. The novelist presents a sharp contrast between the two with the help of these opposing traits. Due to the missing qualities in Hetty Sorrel, the reader is made to realize the significance of good qualities in and sublimity of Dinah Morris, who otherwise could have been completely overshadowed because of the awesome beauty of Hetty Sorrel. Example 2 Shakespeare employs a foil in Othello by showing a sharp contrast between Desdemona and Emilia.

Contrary to this leading character, Emilia is cunning and a worldly character, and helps her husband Iago in his evil plot against Othello. Only towards the end of the play does Emilia feel regret at having wronged Desdemona and Othello, but by that point, the reader is in a position to see the sharp contrast between the two female characters. Definition of Mood As a literary device, mood is the emotional feeling or atmosphere that a work of literature produces in a reader.

All works of literature produce some sort of emotional and psychological effect in the audience; though every reader may respond differently to the same work of literature there is often a similar type of mood produced. For example, in a thriller most readers will feel some sort of suspense, while dramatic novels may produce a sense of sentimentality.

Authors use many different factors to create mood, including setting, theme, voice, and tone. Difference Between Mood and Tone Though mood and tone are related and often confused, they are very different literary devices. Thus, the difference can be understood in this way: tone is how the author feels, while mood is how the reader feels. Politicians use their speeches to create a certain feeling in the audience, including everything from hope to anger.

Politicians try to provoke these feelings to advance their own agendas, win votes, sway opinions, and so forth. Advertisers also try to produce certain emotions such as nostalgia or fear to influence customers to buy their products. Here are examples of mood in these two cases: Political speeches In his presidency, Barack Obama has given speeches to arouse many different types of moods.

In this first example, he is trying to make his listeners feel hopeful and united: The pundits, the pundits like to slice-and-dice our country into red states and blue states; red states for Republicans, blue states for Democrats. There are patriots who opposed the war in Iraq and there are patriots who supported the war in Iraq. We are one people, all of us pledging allegiance to the stars and stripes, all of us defending the United States of America.

We do not have time for this kind of silliness. Advertisements Many advertisements, such as the following one from Listerine in the s, try to inspire fear in the consumer so they will think they need a certain product so as not to fail: Jane has a pretty face. Men notice her lovely figure but never linger long. Because Jane has one big minus on her report card — halitosis: bad breath. Other advertisements try to make customers think about how much happier they will be when they have the product. Coca Cola: Open happiness.

Holiday Inn: Pleasing people the world over. Readers often appreciate literature more when the emotional and psychological payoff is greater. However, if the book establishes good characterization and the reader feels a connection to a particular character, the reader will be much more affected emotionally if the character dies later in the book. All literature creates some sort of feeling in the reader, whether it is positive, negative, or neutral.

Even indifference is an example of mood. The mood that a work provokes often changes many times throughout the book. So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Shakespeare does this by describing his feelings of eternal passion for his beloved.

The mood that this poem provokes in the reader is generally one of sadness and nostalgia. This exchange provokes a feeling of bemusement in the reader. Epiphany Sometimes we face life-changing incidents in our lives, when we get a sudden realization or an insight into reality in a new way that alters our whole perception and mindset about that particular thing, idea or incident. Following this revelation, we change our actions. This sudden realization, thought or an insight into something or someone in literary works is known as a moment of epiphany. Epiphany as an intuitive perception awakens our consciousness about something good.

For example, for Hamlet this moment comes at the end when it dawns up him that his doubt about Claudius is true. In a narrative, this is the defining moment in the life of a character. Another important function of epiphany is to give a character a new vistas of perceptions about others, about the situation he is living in, or about the culture, he is going to live in. It could also be an indication of how the story is going to conclude and provides a rationale how a plot will twist.

Besides, it can reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the characters. Street lights winked down the street all the way to town. I had never seen our neighborhood from this angle. I could even see Mrs. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. This is an example of epiphany, where entire plot reveals awakening of her consciousness. Scout felt herself grown up, and experienced at this point in her life. How like a mirror, too, her face. Impossible; for how many people did you know who reflected your own light to you?

People were more often—he searched for a simile, found one in his work—torches, blazing away until they whiffed out. Montag, the protagonist, comes to know how dull and meaningless his life is through the conversation of a young girl, Clarisse. This makes him realize that he needs to reform his life. He seeks solace and answers through banned books. This becomes a source of his social disobedience, which leads to another epiphany for him.

And the eyes of those two Indian ponies Darken with kindness. They have come gladly out of the willows To welcome my friend and me. We step over the barbed wire into the pasture Where they have been grazing all day, alone. They ripple tensely, they can hardly contain their happiness That we have come. They bow shyly as wet swans. They love each other. There is no loneliness like theirs. At home once more, They begin munching the young tufts of spring in the darkness. I would like to hold the slenderer one in my arms, For she has walked over to me And nuzzled my left hand.

Several of his poems are merely descriptions of the speakers. In the last three lines, the poem takes an epiphanic turn. The speaker is at one with the nature and the time and it seems to him that spring will burst out of him. In this moment, he is overflowing with life. Example 4 Goodman Brown is a beautiful short story in which the protagonist takes a journey into a forest to meet the devil.

He sojourns with the devil and goes through several experiences with him. This makes Goodman Brown bitter. It is revealed to him that all his associates are bad and he reflects this bitterness onto everyone, including church authorities and his parents. She thought I knew a lot because I knew different things from her. What was the use of doing great things if I could have a better time telling her what I was going to do?

Scott Fitzgerald The readers of this story feel that the simple story of Gatsby and Daisy has suddenly become the story of American ambition throughout history. This is a true epiphanic moment for the reader. Parallelism Parallelism is the usage of repeating words and forms to give pattern and rhythm to a passage in literature.

Parallelism often either juxtaposes contrasting images or ideas so as to show their stark difference, or joins similar concepts to show their connection. Authors often create parallelism through the use of other literary devices, such as anaphora, epistrophe, antithesis, and asyndeton. Parallelism encompasses all these possibilities of repetition and contrast. Most English speakers thus use grammatical parallelism all the time without realizing it. Common Examples of Parallelism Parallelism is popular in proverbs and idioms, as the parallel structure makes the sayings easy to remember and more rhetorically powerful.

Here are some examples of parallelism in English: What you see is what you get. A penny saved is a penny earned. Easy come, easy go. If you want to be happy, practice compassion. Happiness is wanting what you get. Many different poetic traditions have examples of parallelism. Some languages from around the world use parallelism as the primary aesthetic construction for poetry, such as Nahuatl in Mexico, Navajo in the United States, Toda in India, and in parts of Indonesia, Finland, Turkey, and Mongolia.

Parallelism remains a popular technique in poetry, prose, and plays. This parallelism is therefore also an example of anaphora. He ends the monologue, however, by contrasting all these paradisiacal images with the fact that England has now tarnished its beauty by setting out to conquer other nations. The pattern set up in this paragraph is so striking that it is one of the most famous paragraphs in all of literature. Example 4 To generalize about war is like generalizing about peace. Almost everything is true. Almost nothing is true. That example of parallelism creates drama in the inanimate that begin to tell their own story.

This excerpt shows a brilliant usage of parallelism in just three short sentences. Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia refers to a word that phonetically mimics or resembles the sound of the thing it describes. Common Examples of Onomatopoeia As noted above, almost all animal noises are examples of onomatopoeia. There are hundreds of other onomatopoeia examples in the English language, however. Here are some categories of words, along with examples of each: Machine noises—honk, beep, vroom, clang, zap, boing Animal names—cuckoo, whip-poor-will, whooping crane, chickadee Impact sounds—boom, crash, whack, thump, bang Sounds of the voice—shush, giggle, growl, whine, murmur, blurt, whisper, hiss Nature sounds—splash, drip, spray, whoosh, buzz, rustle There is a tradition in comic books of using onomatopoeias during fight scenes.

Authors sometimes use combinations of words to create an onomatopoetic effect not necessarily using words that are onomatopoetic in and of themselves. The watch-dogs bark! Hark, hark! I will carry no crotchets. Do you note me? The musician to whom he is speaking picks up on the joke and uses it back at Peter. Example 3 I was just beginning to yawn with nerves thinking he was trying to make a fool of me when I knew his tattarrattat at the door. After Joyce created this word, it is now listed as the longest palindrome in the English language.

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  8. Example 4 Hear the loud alarum bells, Brazen bells! What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells! In the startled ear of night How they scream out their affright! Too much horrified to speak, They can only shriek, shriek, Out of tune… How they clang, and clash, and roar! What a horror they outpour On the bosom of the palpitating air! Finally, the loud alarum bells, as shown in this excerpt, produced such an effect on Poe that they warranted two stanzas. Irony As a literary device, irony is a contrast or incongruity between expectations for a situation and what is reality.

    This can be a difference between the surface meaning of something that is said and the underlying meaning. It can also be a difference between what might be expected to happen and what actually occurs. The definition of irony can further be divided into three main types: verbal, dramatic, and situational.

    We describe these types in detail below. Irony is sometimes confused with events that are just unfortunate coincidences. The speaker often makes a statement that seems very direct, yet indicates that the opposite is in fact true, or what the speaker really means. Unlike dramatic and situational irony, verbal irony is always intentional on the part of the speaker.

    The author Daniel Handler who writes with the pen name Lemony Snicket takes ironic similes to an extreme by qualifying them so they actually become real comparisons. This literary device originated in Greek tragedy and often leads to tragic outcomes. The audience can foresee the imminent disaster. There are three stages of dramatic irony: installation, exploitation, and resolution.

    In the case of Othello, the installation is when Iago persuades Othello to suspect that Desdemona is having an affair with a man named Cassio. Situational Irony Situational irony consists of a situation in which the outcome is very different from what was expected. There are contradictions and contrasts present in cases of situational irony. For example, in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the citizens of the Emerald City assume that Oz is great and all-powerful, yet the man behind the curtain is revealed to be an old man with no special powers. These gods, or the Fates, may play with the lives of humans for their own amusement.

    The irony lies in contrast between what the humans expect and what actually happens. Historical Irony: Historical irony relates to real events that happened that, when seen in retrospect, had vastly different outcomes than predicted at the time. For example, Chinese alchemists discovered gunpowder when looking for a way to create immortality. The result of their discovery was the opposite of what they were looking for. Socratic Irony: The philosopher Socrates would pretend to be ignorant about the topic under debate to draw out the nonsensical arguments of his opponent. This is particularly evident in the Platonic dialogues.

    This technique is an example of dramatic irony because Socrates pretended to have less information than he really did. Difference between Irony and Sarcasm Though there are many similarities between verbal irony and sarcasm, they are not equivalent. However, there are many dissenting opinions about how, exactly, they are different. For example, the Encyclopedia Britannica simply explains that sarcasm is non-literary irony. Others have argued that while someone employing verbal irony says the opposite of what that person means, sarcasm is direct speech that is aggressive humor.

    Romeo kills himself with this false knowledge. Juliet then wakes up and, finding Romeo truly dead, kills herself as well. This irony example is one of dramatic irony as the audience has more information than the characters. However, this example of irony is one of verbal irony, since Mark Antony is in fact implying that Brutus is neither ambitious nor honorable. Henry In this short story, a young, poor couple struggle with what to buy each other for Christmas. The woman cuts her hair and sells it to buy a watchband for her husband. This is an example of situational irony, since the outcome is the opposite of what both parties expect.

    Desperate to be with him, the mermaid makes a deal with a sea witch to trade her voice for human legs. This is an example of dramatic irony where the audience has more information than the prince. An author may use allegory to illustrate a moral or spiritual truth, or political or historical situation. Allegories can be understood to be a type of extended metaphor. An extended metaphor develops a certain analogy to a greater extent than a simple comparison. An allegory, meanwhile, uses a particular metaphor throughout an entire plot.

    Common Examples of Allegory There are many common stories that we tell which have allegorical meanings. These are especially popular in stories for children, as allegories often mean to teach some lesson or help the audience understand complex ideas and concepts. We also use real events that have happened to teach lessons. The story of Icarus: Icarus fashions wings for himself out of wax, but when he flies too close to the sun his wings melt. This story is a message about the dangers of reaching beyond out powers.

    Yertle the Turtle by Dr. Seuss: This story about a turtle who yearns for too much power is actually an allegory about Adolf Hitler and the evils of totalitarianism. The Hunger Games: This trilogy of Young Adult books and now blockbuster movies is an allegory for our obsession with reality television and how it numbs us to reality. An allegory is a very specific type of story, as it must stay true to the message for the entirety of the story.

    Allegories thus can be difficult to master, as they can be pedantic when done poorly. However, some works of literature that can be read allegorically gain much strength from their deeper meanings. And this they must do, even with the prospect of death. One person escapes the cave and is able to see reality for the first time.

    However, upon reentering the cave and trying to describe the outside world, the people still chained to the wall reject this other interpretation and vision. Example 2 No one believes more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal. He would be only too happy to let you make your decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the wrong decisions, comrades, and then where should we be?

    Comrade Napoleon is a symbol for Stalin, while other prominent pigs in the story represent Lenin and Trotsky. We can bide our time, we can keep our thoughts in our hearts, deploring maybe evils done by the way, but approving the high and ultimate purpose: Knowledge, Rule, Order; all the things that we have so far striven in vain to accomplish, hindered rather than helped by our weak or idle friends.

    There need not be, there would not be, any real change in our designs, only in our means. The Lord of the Rings by J. Tolkien J. Tolkien insisted that he did not write his Lord of the Rings trilogy as an allegory of good and evil, yet it is very easy to read the series that way. Tolkien also shows how evil can corrupt good. Saruman has been corrupted by power, and wants Gandalf to join his side. The news stirred up something infinitely black and evil in the town; the black distillate was like the scorpion, or like hunger in the smell of food, or like loneliness when love is withheld.

    The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it. Through the course of the story, Kino encounters greed in every direction, which forces him to flee the town with his wife and son. Kino and his wife end up throwing the pearl back in the ocean as it has only brought them misery.

    This story is an example of allegory in that it shows the corrupting effect of money and power of greed. Metonymy Metonymy is a figure of speech in which something is called by a new name that is related in meaning to the original thing or concept. However, there are many more words in common usage that are metonyms. This is a less obvious metonym because often the team name is a group of people the Cowboys, for instance , yet of course the football players who make up the Dallas Cowboys are not, in fact, cowboys.

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    The definition of metonymy is more expansive, including concepts that are merely associated in meaning and not necessarily parts of the original thing or concept. Ancient Greek and Latin scholars discussed the way in which metonymy changed words and meanings by providing new referents and connections between concepts. Authors have used metonymy for millennia for many different reasons. One primary reason is simply to address something in a more poetic and unique way.

    Sometimes metonymy is also helpful to make statements more concise. Examples of Metonymy in Literature Example 1 Their ocean-keel boarding, they drove through the deep, and Daneland left. A sea-cloth was set, a sail with ropes, firm to the mast; the flood-timbers moaned; nor did wind over billows that wave-swimmer blow across from her course. Thus metonymy creates new connections in this example. Hamlet by William Shakespeare Shakespeare used metonymy in many of his plays and poems.

    This line from Hamlet is often repeated. The rottenness is not widespread over the entire country, but instead is limited to the dealings of those in power. In this case, the character Claudius has come to power in a suspicious way, and those surrounding him feel unease at the new order.

    Example 3 The party preserved a dignified homogeneity, and assumed to itself the function of representing the staid nobility of the countryside—East Egg condescending to West Egg, and carefully on guard against its spectroscopic gayety. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald This metonymy example from F. In fact, to the outside observer there is not much different between the two places, but the inhabitants of East Egg find it very important to establish the distinctions between them. Example 4 He tried to remember in what year he had first heard mention of Big Brother. He thought it must have been at some time in the sixties, but it was impossible to be certain.

    In the Party histories, of course, Big Brother figured as the leader and guardian of the Revolution since its very earliest days. There was no knowing how much of this legend was true and how much invented. Winston could not even remember at what date the Party itself had come into existence. By using the metonymy to refer to the individuals, Orwell further separates the governing class from any sense of humanity; no one in the society seems to know the name of any actual ruling member.

    Every story has a perspective, though there can be more than one type of point of view in a work of literature. However, there are many variants on these two types of point of view, as well as other less common narrative points of view. Point of View vs. Narrator Point of view is very closely linked with the concept of a narrator.

    The narrator of a story can be a participant in the story, meaning this character is a part of the plot, or a non-participant. The point of view in a story refers to the position of the narrator in relation to the story. For example, if the narrator is a participant in the story, it is more likely that the point of view would be first person, as the narrator is witnessing and interacting with the events and other characters firsthand. If the narrator is a non-participant, it is more likely that the point of view would be in third person, as the narrator is at a remove from the events.

    These are general guidelines, of course, and there are many exceptions to these rules. Let us look more in depth at the multiple options for narrative point of view. The choice to write from an unreliable first person point of view gives the reader a chance to figure out what is reality and what is a creation on the part of the narrator.

    This implies a group of people narrating the story at once. While it is unusual now, most Greek tragedies contained a chorus that narrated the events of the play together. For example, the recent novel The Buddha in the Attic by Julie Otsuka is about a group of Japanese women who come to the United States as mail-order brides: Most of us on the boat were accomplished, and were sure we would make good wives. We knew how to cook and sew. We knew how to serve tea and arrange flowers and sit quietly on our flat wide feet for hours, saying absolutely nothing of substance at all.

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    No standardized success for you. There are two main possibilities for the third person point of view: limited and omniscient. In this way, it is similar to the first person singular point of view, since the focus stays tightly on one character. Third person omniscient point of view allows the author to delve into the thoughts of any character, making the narrator seem godlike. This was a popular point of view in 19th century novels. Alternating Person Some novels combine two or more of the above types of point of view.

    For example, some novels alternate between a first person singular point of view in some chapters and the third person point of view in other chapters. Common Examples of Point of View All of us experience life through a first person singular point of view. When we tell stories from our own lives, most of these stories are thus from that perspective. However, we also sometimes tell stories in the first person plural if a pair or group of people is involved throughout the entire story. We also tell many stories from the third person point of view when talking about events at which we were not present.

    We went to the Statue of Liberty, we walked around Central Park, and we ate fantastic food. Therefore, point of view has a great amount of significance in every piece of literature. The relative popularities of different types of point of view have changed over the centuries of novel writing. For example, epistolary novels were once quite common but have largely fallen out of favor. First person point is view, meanwhile, is quite common now whereas it was hardly used at all before the 20th century.

    And that too was interesting—I mean it is interesting to know what your thoughts would be at such a time. My first thought, conventionally enough, was for my wife. My second was a violent resentment at having to leave this world which, when all is said and done, suits me so well. I had time to feel this very vividly. Here Orwell relates the experience of getting shot and the thoughts that passed through his mind directly thereafter. Like you. No kidding. You wonder if Amanda will ever explain her desertion. She was a model and she thought you were rich. You never spotted she was an airhead.

    So what does that make you? This point of view example creates a sense of intimacy between the narrator and the reader, implicating the reader in the events of the plot and relating the powerlessness the narrator has to forestall his own self-destruction. Their estate was large, and their residence was at Norland Park, in the centre of their property, where, for many generations, they had lived in so respectable a manner as to engage the general good opinion of their surrounding acquaintance.

    Thematic Concept vs. Thematic Statement The definition of theme can be broken into two categories: the thematic concept of a work and the thematic statement. The thematic concept refers to what a reader understands the work to be about, while the thematic statement refers to what the work says about that subject in question. The thematic statement often comments on the way the human condition affects or is affected by the abstract concept of the theme.

    The thematic statement could be something about the irrationality of human decision-making in times of both war and peace, and the search for the meaning of life in the face of this irrationality. Common Examples of Theme Many politicians craft a message about their campaign around a central theme. Brands also sometimes relate their advertising campaigns around a theme. De Beers effectively created the tradition of the diamond engagement ring. In both of these cases, the thematic concepts were so strong and convincing that they overcame oppositional arguments. In the case of De Beers, men were suddenly expected to spend two months of their salary on a diamond ring, which until that time would have been considered ludicrous.

    Themes are generally universal in nature, and relate to the condition of being human. Thus the theme in a work of literature crosses boundaries and makes a story meaningful to people to any culture or age. While readers may not understand all the references and language in a book from a different time period or culture, the theme of the novel is what makes it comprehensible.

    It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock The meat it feeds on. Ironically, Iago is the one who creates this jealousy and feeds it. Example 2 In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it. It was inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: the logic of their position demanded it. Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality was tacitly denied by their philosophy.

    Orwell had been a firsthand witness to the propaganda put out during wartime in the s and s, and saw how officials in different countries manipulated stories to keep themselves in power and prove their legitimacy. Example 3 The gypsy was inclined to stay in the town. He really had been through death, but he had returned because he could not bear the solitude. However, many characters actually seek solitude in life and find that the state of being alive is inseparable from a state of solitude. The characters try to connect over love, family, and duty, yet find themselves always and inextricably alone.

    Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name! As he saw his friends and peers being labeled as communists and blacklisted, Miller turned to the Salem witch-hunt as a model to artistically address the situation. When asked why, he gives an impassioned speech about the importance of reputation, considering it even more important than life itself.

    Example 5 Do not pity the dead, Harry. Pity the living, and, above all those who live without love. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows by J. Rowling J. Even more important than this, though, is the theme of love. This love, in J. And, indeed, Lord Voldemort is evil precisely because he is both unable to feel love and unable to grasp its significance. In this quote from the final installment of the series, Dumbledore tells Harry that living without love is the greatest hardship of all. Fallacy Fallacies are incorrect reasoning based on invalid inferences, or false arguments with inaccurate facts.

    We can define fallacy as an erroneous reasoning based on unsound arguments. Simply, fallacy is making an argument by employing invalid or poor reasoning, which ostensibly looks correct, but in it is not so. Several examples of such fallacies could be found in everyday life. Types of Fallacies and Examples As fallacy is a common term used in rhetoric, it is used in everyday discourse so much abundantly that sometimes it loses its worth.

    However, in literature it is very important in that it reveals the real intention of the character, who uses one or the other type of fallacy. It shows integrity of the character and determines his worth in the literary piece. Do you think you know more about yoga then the Buddha? How can you say that comic relief is not important? This appeal takes place when someone asserts that a conviction or thought is correct or acceptable mainly because generally people accept it as correct. I have a dog that has four legs, so the dog is a cat.

    It is when an argument is based on an element inside the argument itself, rather than an outside one. His grandparents lived in Germany during the s, so they were Nazis. So, in simpler terms, a slippery slope means that if one action or step is followed, it will invariably result in the creation of more similar actions and steps, and the process will result in more and more undesirable and negative incidents. In short, a chain reaction in terms of cause and effect is considered a slippery slope.

    The object can be a real or fictional person, event, quote, or other work of artistic expression. Since the event, the suffix —gate has been added to many dozens of names to refer to scandals. Heller describes the following problematic situation with no solution: if a soldier is deemed crazy, he can be discharged from the army.

    However, if he applies to be discharged this proves he is not crazy. He was said to be invulnerable except for at his heel. Thus, when Paris shot Achilles in his heel the wound proved mortal. Therefore, allusions can be a test of a sort of cultural literacy. It is thus also much more difficult for modern readers to understand all of the allusions in older works of literature, or literature from other cultures.

    Allusions use the original reference as a point of departure, but they can also change the referent and add meaning retroactively. Allusions create intertextuality in this way. It is important to note, though, that allusions can only go in one direction. But tell me; in the time of your sweet sighs, By what, and how Love granted, that ye knew Your yet uncertain wishes? Yet so eagerly If thou art bent to know the primal root, From whence our love gat being, I will do As one, who weeps and tells his tale. Alone we were, and no Suspicion near us. But at one point Alone we fell.

    In its leaves that day We read no more. In this passage, she tells Dante that she and Paolo fell in love over the story of Lancelot, a Knight of the Round Table, whose romance with Guinevere was celebrated. Though this is clearly an allusion to the historical figure, it is also an interesting case of self-reference, as Shakespeare published his play Julius Caesar a year or two before Hamlet.

    The plot of Hamlet alludes to the historical figure Amleth. Example 3 The morning wind forever blows, the poem of creation is uninterrupted; but few are the ears that hear it. Olympus is but the outside of the earth everywhere. In Greek mythology, Mt. Olympus was where the pantheon of gods lived. By comparing the outside world to Mt. Olympus Thoreau is saying that nature holds all the wondrousness of the home of the gods.

    Example 4 The Cunninghams are country folks, farmers, and the crash hit them hardest. Without understanding this allusion, the line would be confusing as the reader would be wondering what type of crash affected the Cunninghams so extremely. Colloquialisms are generally geographic in nature, in that a colloquial expression often belongs to a regional or local dialect. They can be words, phrases, or aphorisms see below for examples.

    Native speakers of a language understand and use colloquialisms without realizing it, while non-native speakers may find colloquial expressions hard to translate. This is because many colloquialisms are not literal usages of words, but instead idiomatic or metaphorical sayings. Colloquialism is similar to slang, but the definition of colloquialism has some key differences as described below.

    Differences between Colloquialism, Slang, and Jargon Colloquialism can be confused with slang and jargon, since these are two other ways of conversing in informal ways. Colloquialisms may use slang within them, but this is not always the case. Similar to slang, jargon is used only by certain groups, but it often refers to words used in a particular profession. Examples of Colloquialism from Common Speech As stated above, there are three different types of colloquialisms that we can distinguish: words, phrases, and aphorisms. Words can be colloquialism examples if they demonstrate the regional dialect of the speaker, or it they are contractions or examples of profanity.

    Words: Regional differences: One famous colloquial difference in the United States is the way a person refers to a carbonated beverage. Profanity: Some words are considered profane in some dialects of English where they are not at all bad in other dialects. Put your money where your mouth is. When used inappropriately, colloquialisms will often stand out as jarring to the reader. However, when used well readers may feel the writing is very genuine.