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Quickening the pace for essential HIV combination prevention and treatment approaches will limit the epidemic to more manageable levels and enable countries to move towards eliminating HIV as a public health threat. Yet HIV prevention coverage remains fragmented. The scale-up of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has not been matched in other key prevention areas, especially when it comes to financing and implementing programmes for key affected populations, leaving sizeable gaps in services.
Individual countries have shown that prevention programmes can be brought to scale within a few years. Similarly, Mozambique has increased the number of VMMCs performed from just in to almost , in , and India has shown how approaches that engage beneficiaries in their design and implementation can result in a marked decrease in new infections. If the response is too slow, the annual rate of new HIV infections will remain static, or worse, begin to increase and the epidemic will continue to grow.
If this happens, the world faces a heavy human and financial toll. IPPF ' Putting sexuality back into Comprehensive Sexuality Education - tips for delivering sex-positive workshops for young people '[pdf]. Please let us know any comments you have about the content on this page. Please note that we are unable to respond to any questions, or offer advice or information in relation to personal matters.
Prevention programming. HIV prevention programmes overview. HIV prevention programmes usually focus on preventing the transmission of HIV through a complementary combination of behavioural, biomedical and structural strategies. Despite the progress made by prevention programmes across the globe, the decline in new HIV infections among adults has slowed in the past decade which indicates the need for increased funding and scale up of services. For maximum impact, HIV preventions programmes need to be targeted at high prevalence regions or 'hot spots', and also meet the needs of high-risk groups.
Even in countries that are still predominantly rural, cities are often home to disproportionate numbers of people living with HIV. An estimated 45 million HIV infections have been averted through condom use globally between and Through the app, patients then received automated, coded medication and appointment reminders on their mobile phones at their preferred time and frequency. Village health workers also supported treatment if required. Between April and August , this system successfully delivered 39, messages to individuals, including patients and treatment supporters.
UNESCO HIV and Health Education Clearinghouse
Uptake of the SMS intervention was high, with The intervention improved the quality of health communication between patients, treatment supporters, and providers and it was found to be a low-tech, user-friendly intervention, which was acceptable to patients and healthcare providers. However, HIV-related stigma and technical challenges were still identified as potential barriers to adherence. Tools and resources:. Last full review:. Next full review:.
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Behaviour change communication in action : a study of Uganda's 'ABC' AIDS communication model
Email address. Leave this field blank. A religious education teacher said that he emphasized abstinence and the Bible when discussing sex and HIV. He taught children to fear God and to avoid sex in order to remain safe. HIV was presented as a curse on immoral people who engage in sex.
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An official in the office of the president told Human Rights Watch that as of November , seven rallies had been held throughout the country and eight more were planned. Rallies are held at schools that can accommodate large numbers of participants during school holidays. Youth leaders, out-of-school youth and students aged fifteen to thirty are invited to attend. Roughly one thousand participants are invited, but as many as youth have attended.
Speakers at the rallies have included officials from relevant ministries, politicians, military officers, health care officials, religious leaders, and the president of Uganda. In interviews with Human Rights Watch, long-time AIDS activists supported the targeting of out-of-school children and youth leaders in rural districts as a way of further educating young people on HIV prevention. They equally raised concerns about the apparent blending of politics and HIV prevention in a way that may alienate those who do not support the president.
The attendees and participants are clearly those interested in promoting a third term, not really youth leaders from the full spectrum of society. The problem is that it tends to be associated with the personality of the president. When this happens, it fails to be educational materials, but increasingly, [is] perceived as a political tool.
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This sentiment was echoed by numerous others. We talk about the political transition, what is the process. Young people have grown up in the movement system. As with other PIASCY programs, providing misleading information on the efficacy of condoms, promoting marriage as a foolproof HIV prevention strategy, and proving false information on maternal mortality denies young Ugandans their human right to accurate health information.
The use of U.
Aside from programs provided under PIASCY, a number of nongovernmental and faith-based organizations in Uganda are increasingly receiving support from the U. Many of these faith-based organizations are represented by individuals or churches linked to fundamentalism, a rapidly growing brand of Christianity in Uganda particularly attractive among young people.
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Approximately 60 percent of Ugandans are Christian; while the Catholic church the largest denomination, it has been estimated that 25 percent of Ugandans identify with fundamentalist churches. President George W. Perhaps the best known abstinence advocate in Uganda is Janet Museveni, the wife of President Museveni. Museveni has been an outspoken advocate for virginity for many years and has described abstinence as the perfect blending of Christian teachings and traditional African values. In Mrs. According to the Youth Forum, more than 70, youth have signed these cards since Coupled with Mrs.
On numerous occasions, the first lady has publicly lashed out against organizations that support condom use for young people, arguing that these organizations promote sex among children. She has claimed that condoms are not safe in preventing HIV and STIs and that she supports an exclusive message of abstinence and faithfulness for Ugandans. Uganda already collects national data on sexual behavior through its periodic U.
From a human rights point of view, virginity testing constitutes an infringement of the right to privacy, a form of gender discrimination when practiced predominantly among girls, and a violation of the right to bodily integrity. A young woman who had attended a National Youth Forum event in the mids told Human Rights Watch that some of her peers who signed commitment cards were already sexually active.
As she put it:. There is real difference between the aims of the organizers [of the Youth Forum] and the aims of the youth who attend. We would go to meet boys there. Our parents were strict.
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This [the Youth Forum] was a legitimate excuse to get out of the house and socialize with members of the opposite sex. While there are some who remain virgins until they are married, I did not and neither did my friends. Further, U. Museveni had received U.
Human Rights Watch researchers made repeated requests to meet with Pastor Ssempa to discuss his HIV prevention programs for youth, but he said he was not available to meet with us. The mission of the church, they said, was to train youth at elite universities today to replace leaders in secular governments with Christian fundamentalists.
Global information and education on HIV and AIDS
Staff members said that Ssempa received considerable financial support from U. In the week preceding the U. Staff members told Human Rights Watch that this was because Bush had a similar philosophy to their church and, more importantly, because they had been told by a prominent U. Since the network began working in secondary schools in , 72, students have signed these cards. People who know hard work, people who plan. People who are going to make good marriages and good families.
Human Rights Watch asked Langa if he was aware of studies showing that students who pledged abstinence-until-marriage often broke their pledges and, in so doing, were often less likely to use condoms to prevent STDs. His main point was that abstinence is the only percent effective method against HIV. The Family Life Network is funded by both local and foreign donors, as well as individuals.
According to Langa, the Network received 76 million Ugandan shillings U. Kyomuhendo et al. Copies on file at Human Rights Watch. Gardner, R. Blackburn, and U. Carey et al. As an elective, children should be free to choose CRE and follow their religious beliefs. Messages on HIV prevention for secondary school students, however, should not be associated with judgment, stigma, or religion but presented in a way that it applicable to all Ugandans.