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This guide uses a simpler set of hazard distances shown in Table The table does not specify a distance for infectious substances or radioactive materials.


Radioactive materials commonly use a 0. Once you have a protective, isolation, or evacuation distance, decide how to apply that distance to determine an impact area. For initial isolation distances and for evacuations that are not focused downwind of the release, the impact area can be a circle with a radius equal to the specified distance. This is consistent with the methodology in the ERG see Figure 2. For a more conservative approach, you can use the larger of the initial isolation and protective action distances. Step 10 Determine the affected area for population impacts from a potential release for each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio.

As shown in Figure 2, the affected area is the protective action distance or hazard distance squared. Potential Consequences of Incidents Involving the Identified Hazardous Materials 31 Determining how many people might fall within that impact area can be done in several ways. If you have detailed population data in a geographic information system, you can overlay that impact area over the population data and automatically count the population inside it.

You should be aware of differences in residential nighttime and employment daytime population for the specific area. Another approach is to use average population density figures for the area determined from Census data and combine that with the area of potential exposure.

  • Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions).
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For example, if there is a population density of 1, people per square mile and the protective action area or hazard area is 0. Again, all of these people would not be killed or seriously injured, but this provides an estimate of potentially affected population. Step 11 Use population density estimates or a geographic information system with population data layers to determine the potential population exposure for a potential release for each scenario.


Counting all the potentially exposed individuals as fatalities is very con- servative, but is appropriate for this type of assessment. Estimating Environmental Consequences Environmental consequences can include property damage as well as land and aquatic contamination and remediation. For most hazmat incidents, the impact on the environment will be measurable but not excessively high. The emergency response planner or planning team may judge that many scenarios pose little environmental risk. These scenarios do not need to be assessed. As with population exposure, environmental consequences are determined through two steps: 1 determining the impact area and 2 determining the consequences within that area.

The impact area can be determined in the same manner as human-health consequences, by using the impact distances in the ERG. Appendix C provides additional approaches for obtaining more detailed estimates of environmental exposure areas. Step 12 Determine the affected area for environmental impacts from a potential release for each scenario in the hazardous materials portfolio using the same methods used to estimate the affected area for population impacts.

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  6. Environmental consequences are divided into two types: property damage and land and aquatic contamination. For most materials, one of these two will be the dominant consequence category. A fire, if not prevented from spreading, can involve nearby structures and do extensive damage. An explosion or BLEVE can do a lot of structural damage, resulting in replacement of the structure as part of the damage estimate.

    The initial isolation distance specified in the ERG would be more representative of the damage area from a fire or explosion. The circular area specified by this radius is the suggested area to be used to estimate damage to nearby structures.

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    The user only has to specify the material and the quantity present. Preventing human exposure by confiscating crops or decontaminating land or buildings would result in the greatest costs. It would be very conservative to assume that the same area used for estimating population impacts experienced some damage from the release event. The extent of land impacts is also sensitive to the type of hazard.

    Ammonia will do a lot of damage to a wetland because of its aquatic toxicity, but it is a beneficial fertilizer on farmland. To estimate the potentially affected area, the hazard distance from the NRHM Routing Guidelines could be used to determine the extent of the potentially affected zone and, within that zone, to estimate the fraction of the area where environmental damage could occur.

    Table 15 shows representative values for different types of land use. The values shown were developed initially for a security-related assessment for another project, to estimate economic losses on a per-acre basis when the structures or habitat are essentially destroyed.

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    These are place- holders, and you could develop your own set of land-use values for your region. Where structures would not be entirely destroyed, it might be appropriate to use 10 percent of the replacement value. This would represent replacement of windows and repair of minor structural damage. Similarly, a reasonable estimate for land and wetland contamination might also be 10 percent. Depending on the incident release type and the size of the potential incident, you may wish to adjust the percentage to a value other than 10 percent.


    Step 13 Use the per-acre damage estimates in Table 15 or a geographic information system with environmental data layers to determine the potential environmental consequences for each scenario. If the risk assessment tool is used, scenarios judged to present minimal risk to structures or the environment can be shown as having a zero or low impact.

    Selecting the Consequence Value Again, the mitigating effects of emergency response coverage are not considered when determining these potential consequences. Comparing the potential population exposure and the environmental costs measured in economic terms to the values in Table 13 provides the appropriate consequence value to use. Remember to take the higher of the population and environmental values.

    Step 14 For each scenario: 1 determine the consequence value in Table 13 for the potential population impacts determined in Step 11, 2 determine the consequence value in Table 13 for the potential environmental impacts determined in Step 13, and 3 record the larger value as the consequences for the scenario. If the assessment tool is being used, this step is performed automatically.

    An example of the calculation sequence that begins with Step 10 and concludes with Step 14 is shown in Appendix C. Estimated per-acre values. The report also addresses matching state, regional, and local capabilities with potential emergencies involving different types of hazardous materials, and offers an assessment on how quickly resources can be expected to be brought to bear in an emergency. The methodology described in HMCRP Report 5 is designed to be scalable, allowing the implementation results to be aggregated at the local level up through regional, state, and national levels.

    The guide includes a spreadsheet tool —available online and on CD-ROM with the print version of the report—that is designed to help lead planners through the assessment process. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    The government is trying to do more to educate the public about the consequences of drug abuse. He always makes snap decisions and never thinks about their consequences. Thesaurus: synonyms and related words Outcomes and consequences -ment aftereffect aftermath bang be a monument to sth idiom bed bite cast first fruit fruit impact knock-on effect monument more bang for your buck s idiom sequel spillover spin-off the bitter fruits of sth idiom the upshot trickle-down. These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

    The points of view of individual writers are as a consequence their own, and do not reflect the opinion of the editorial board. From Cambridge English Corpus. In practice the pace of expenditure and deficit reduction was in advance of that planned and as a consequence tax relaxation was possible. The abolitionist was, constitutionally speaking, neither officer nor prisoner and as a consequence may stand for the ordinary citizen - "society," the people at large. The unsatisfactory housing of these older people can be expected to have consequences for their physical and psychological well-being.

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    The fitness consequences of bearing domatia and having the right ant partner: experiments with protective and non-protective ants in a semi-myrmecophyte. It is, rather, a trivial consequence of the way in which the terms "distal representations" and "representations of events" are defined. Such reports highlight consequences that affect development prospects in general. Facts that have such consequences are, so to speak, ' embedded ' in the world's past, as part of the causal processes leading up to the present. As a consequence , three distinct occupational roles now exist within the profession, one integrated and two specialised.

    It stresses the need people have to learn from the consequences of their choices. As a consequence the editors did not leave much space for culture in the sense of aesthetic and symbolic representation. They are all straightforward consequences of the definitions.

    Finally, the extent of negative consequences of a disorder can vary as a function of normative developmental trajectories. As a consequence , the production of security suffered from a lack of specialization. This omission could have serious consequences for the vitality of a bill of rights. Need a translator?