Feuerbach: Grundlegung der Dialektik (German Edition)

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Text von d. Hand von Laura Marx? Von d.

References in: Marx and Singularity

Hand von Jenny Marx. Original in Archiv Jung Inv. Hand von Jenny Marx ; Original war Beil. Wolff an Marx, D ; NB. Geschrieben von Marx, unterz. Le Moussu , M. Maltman Barry. Hierbei auch S. Siehe auch A 70, A , B Im Druck unterz. Siehe auch Exzerpte B Marksa i F.

CHAPTER III. Concerning the Interpretation and Criticism of some Concepts of Marxism

Das Verzeichnis folgt der Chronologie der Abfassung. IX bis Ende; S. I, Tl. III u. Grund , Die Malerei der Griechen , Meiners , Allgemeine Kritische Geschichte der Religionen , Heinrich , Geschichte von Frankreich , Lappenberg , Geschichte von England , I, Heinrich , Geschichte von Frankreich , ; S. Ludwig , Geschichte der letzten 50 Jahre , ; S. Bailleu , Examen critique de l'ouvrage posthume de M.

Brougham , Polen , ; S. Schmidt , Geschichte von Frankreich , I, ; S. I, ff. Geijer , Geschichte Schwedens , ; S. Pfister , Geschichte der Teutschen , ; S. Jouffroy ], Das Princip der Erblichkeit , ; S. MacCulloch , Discours sur l'origine V, ; S. Daire ; S. Daire , ; S. Daire, ; S. Browning , The domestic and financial condition of Great Britain , ; S. Sadler , The law of population , 2 Bde, ; S. II, ; S. Gilbart , The history and principles of banking , ; S.

Edmonds , Practical moral and political economy , Necker , Brissot , Linguet Greg , Agriculture and the cornlaw , ; S. MacCulloch , Principles of political economy , ; S. Eden , The state of the poor , ; S. Aikin , Description of the country Daire, Bray , Labour's wrongs and labour's remedies , ; S. III, ; S. II, Seitenzahlen von Marx: S. III, London ; S. Blake , Observations Gilbart , The history and principles of banking , I u.

II rev. Attwood u. Senior , Three lectures on the cost of obtaining money Reitemeier , Geschichte des Bergbaues Stein , System der Staatswissenschaft , I, Loyd , Reflections suggested by Palmer's pamphlet , ; S.

  1. References?
  2. The Secret Life of Lady Lucinda: A Summersby Tale (Summersby Tales).
  3. Klaus Holzkamps Rezeption in Nordamerika: Eine Begegnungsgeschichte!
  4. Geschwister - Liebe und Rivalität: Die längste Beziehung unseres Lebens (German Edition).
  5. Grundbegriffe | SpringerLink.
  6. Numerical Mathematics: 37 (Texts in Applied Mathematics)?
  7. UWO Kant Research Group | Digital Archive?

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From Bauhaus to Beinhaus

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Rechts der Vernunft betrachtet Gottsched und die Schweizer J. Bodmer und J. Aus den Papieren des Marquis C. Aus den Papieren Don Juans von B. Frankfurt and Leipzig, Via ad veritatem, 3 vols. Halle, Vollstaendige Historie der Gelahrheit, 5 vols. Jahrhunderts , 2 vols. Welcher die alte Universalhistorie enhaelt , 4 vols. Looking back at these first notes concerning Holzkamp in my research, it is no longer clear to me whether some paragraphs are commentaries on Holzkamp or reflections on the ongoing work in the schools, where we were concerned with praxis and with changing praxis out of the praxis itself.

Throughout his paper, Holzkamp was arguing for a unity of praxis and learning, a form of exemplary praxis that leads to the evolution of knowledge precisely because it is real concrete praxis. Jean Lave later introduced this idea to English-speaking audiences, when she wrote that the nature of knowledge is problematical, not that of learning, which inevitably occurs in and through praxis.

When I read my first Holzkamp texts, I did not come tabula rasa. I had already conducted research for years and, among others, had developed tremendous depth in a range of theoretical approaches, including Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theory, cognitive psychology, social constructivism, cognitive phenomenology, ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, and discursive psychology. Such prior experiences, as I point out above, must be thought of as the necessary ground on which my reading occurred and the resource for evolving new understandings. As I read, I immediately realized that some of the things we find in Holzkamp could also be found in the works of others, with more or less family resemblance.

I am not a purist who feels that he has to hold up the canon. Grundlegung is not and never has been something like the Bible for orthodox Christians of all brands — the evangelical movements in the US being much more orthodox than Catholics and Russian Orthodox. What I have always been interested in is the development of ideas so that they are helpful in reflecting on and developing praxis rather than in developing an intellectual school that is more concerned with the purity of its lineage than with doing real work, for real people, assisting them in getting a better handle on their situation and, in so doing, emancipate themselves a bit from rather oppressive situations.

In the pursuit of the object that I construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct, I adapt the method to make it suitable to the object rather than the other way around — which would be the Procrustean way of persons treating the whole world as a nail because the only tool they have is a hammer. These experiments do not have what it takes to test the concepts themselves; and they have even less of what it takes to deconstruct the concepts experimentally.

In this first Holzkamp text that I read, I immediately noted the parallel in this respect with the reflexive sociology of Pierre Bourdieu , who notes that the preconstructed concepts are everywhere so that the sociologist often finds precisely what he presupposes to be the case. Already in Bourdieu, we find the assertion that if we leave our thought in a state of the unthought, as an ideology, we condemn ourselves to be nothing more than an instrument of that which we claim to think, which is, the ruling relations that Dorothy Smith writes about in all of her works. Such a science reveals something in the object that is not really objectivated since the object consists in and of the very principles of the apprehension of the object.

Such a science can only be part scholarly in that it. In short, it records itself without recognizing itself. Thus, as for Holzkamp a , real science begins with the testing of the ensemble of fundamental assumptions that are made in adopting particular theoretical concepts.

Language is a repository of naturalized, black-boxed, and calcified preconstructions that are ignored as such and that function as unconscious instruments of construction and domination; it constitutes the medium of ideology as such Bakhtine [Volochinov] Examples of instruments of construction and domination are bureaucratic conceptualizations, including all sorts of taxonomies. Among these taxonomies are those, as the Canadian feminist Marxist sociologist Dorothy E. Smith e. As an example, Smith uses the way in which self-inflicted death suicide is talked about.

By taking on and employing such concepts and discourses, those affected contribute to the reproduction of the concepts and discourses, which therefore constitute a form of ideology that any emancipatory project has to tackle through ideological critique. Smith is concerned with the way the social is actually experienced, by real people, engaged, for example, in the real work of waiting in a nursing home. She is concerned with the everyday world, the lifeworld of people, and how they use any available resources in their everyday praxis of coping.

He points out that research never can stay with a mere articulation of subjective experiences in the way he sees the phenomenological project. Rather, and consistent with Smith, he seeks to derive the concrete realization of subjective experience as mediated by societal processes, where the relationship between individual and collective is understood as one of general collective possibilities that are concretely realized and therefore singularized in concrete and founded behaviors.

In this way, both scholars allow us to understand what we have practiced in cogenerative dialoguing, acknowledging and using the different perspectives that arose from our different institutional locations without attributing primacy to any one perspective. Thus, she promotes institutional ethnography as a method that has a lot in common with Subjektwissenschaft. These intersections arise from her concerns for both the lived realities of people — such as a mother who raises her children on her own — and the institutional discourses that they come to be caught up in that they in fact contribute to reifying.

This is precisely the position of the subject that becomes the participant in the research. At the same time, as Holzkamp points out in various places, the life conditions cannot be changed from within as long as the determinations that are imported into the lifeworld, for example in the form of discourses and concepts, remain unknown. How did humankind develop to the point that it could reflexively look at itself and do anything like philosophy, psychology, or sociology? Let me articulate a few.

First, there is a critique of operating with concepts that have not themselves been questioned. Thus, Martin Heidegger himself articulated the possibilities and dangers that come with original and originary, praxis-based understanding and the existential pre-structure of Being. This method does not have an equivalent in traditional psychology, though it has equivalents in other critical sciences. I see in this attempt of grounding concepts categorically an effort similar to the one oriented toward establishing a first philosophy , that is, of establishing the grounds on which anything like discoursing, culture, reflection, philosophy, and so forth could have established itself in concrete practice.

We cannot do philosophy unless the very ground of philosophizing, the use of words, the experience of others and self, and the role of the primacy of praxis in human understanding have been established. We cannot do psychology or sociology critically unless we work with scientifically established categories rather than with concepts that constitute a form of reified common sense and ideology.

Among the notable philosophers attempting to reconstruct philosophy on categorical grounds are Emmanuel Levinas e. Thus, prior to any conceptualization, prior to any Being or beings recognized as such, there have been the utterly practical — that is, prior to all thematization — experiences of touch, proximity, sexuality, reciprocity, and with that constituted the unthematized foundation of anthropomorphosis.

As for Levinas and his attempt to establish a first philosophy, the following quote captures its essence. Levinas summarizes his project as one that attempts to. Levinas, as Holzkamp, does not want to begin theorizing without interrogating the concept of Being, simply presupposing it and its knowledge.

He wants to begin prior to and beyond Being and essences. Similarly, only a psychology that theorizes the emergence of culture and consciousness and that has the means to theorize itself and its praxis through a reflexive turn is a real science. I see the Grundlegung as an attempt to show precisely how evolution brings a species to a point that it, in a qualitative step leading to consciousness and therefore self-consciousness, becomes subject to a very different change process, one subject to the laws of culture and history.

Phenomenological philosophers only begin at that point where consciousness is or has been emerging; they do so but only in general terms rather than in the terms of a dialectical materialist science. Holzkamp wants to go further back, tracking the psyche and its predecessors back to their evolutionary beginnings. Thus, whereas in first philosophy we find the nonthematized experiences of proximity, touch, the face, the undifferentiated with, all of which we can associate with the ground upon which anthropogenesis occurred, it is Holzkamp who concretizes the means and processes by which something like a primate eventually could become human.

His five-step process — in which quantitative changes in the individual and environment lead to the emergence of new, qualitatively different functions and structures — is consistent with a catastrophe-theory-based, morphogenetic account of the evolution of structure and functions e.

Thom Nevertheless, phenomenological philosophers do attempt to wrestle with the conditions prior to Being. As the phenomenological philosophers, Holzkamp engages in the reconstruction of the human psyche that begins prior to any form of consciousness and experience.

We see here the family resemblances in the attempts emerging from phenomenological philosophy in establishing a first philosophy, on the one side, and Holzkamp in his attempt to build the true foundations of any psychology, a Grundlegung der Psychologie, on the other side. Consistent with the critical Marxist method, the specifically human end form has to be a specific realization of the possibilities embodied in the initial, originary form.

In summary, then, in my reading of the available texts these phenomenological studies pursue precisely the same agenda that I read Holzkamp as having pursued. For example, during a discussion with others concerning the function of phenomenological analyses in psychology, Holzkamp noted:. Reading Holzkamp is difficult, even, as I found out from my colleagues, for many Germans and German colleagues next to impossible. Reading Holzkamp and, more so, understanding him and his thought becomes near impossible in the few translations that I have found and read e. There is quite a bit of hubris here, one that may be characteristic of the German academic context that is very different than my North American one.

Here, too, there are parallels between Holzkamp and Heidegger: the language of both is considered to be arcane, both in their originals and in those cases where other scholars adopt the language of either for their own purposes to borrow an expression by Mikhail Bakhtin. I have repeatedly had this experience when attempting to theorize what I was doing in the terms of phenomenology or Critical Psychology.

All disciplines develop their discourses and it does not make sense to charge psychologists, sociologists, or educators for using language in the same way that it does not make sense to accuse car mechanics or electricians to use jargon.

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  • Rethinking German Idealism.
  • Enhance No. 7 (Enhance Magazine);
  • From a dialectical materialist perspective, the word addresses itself to an interlocutor and is a function of the person of the interlocutor. There word therefore changes depending on the societal, hierarchical, institutional positions and relations of the author and audience Bakhtine [Volochinov]