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Its original aim was constitutional monarchy on the British model along with a constitutional Catholic church that would eliminate the most blatant abuse and corruption in the clerical hierarchy. It need not surprise us, then, that St. Occupied with important national affairs, we have ignored those military celebrations and processions, objects of entertainment and expense, which daily are seen to proliferate in this capital ; for if we lack bread and laws, at least splendor and devotion console us.

Today, though, one of those parades appears which draws public attention: it is the national guard citizens from neighborhoods in the Saint-Antoine suburb who have reunited, headed up by young virgins of those neighborhoods. Their numerous cortege is going to be blessed by Saint Genevieve and to place under the protection of this patron saint of the capital, a model of the Bastille. This model, four feet high, recalls the moment of the siege of this fortress…They have imitated everything, the weapons, the men, the flags, the cannons, and this model produced all the effect one might have expected.

But that is precisely what strikes the modern reader: that the Bastille, symbol of popular revolt, is not only associated with but blessed by the symbol of combined Church and monarchy, for among St. Il marcha toujours droit, sans regarder les cieux. What is new about his legendary?

A number of things, and to illustrate them I shall focus on his treatment of St. Few hagiographers have made this choice, as is understandable considering that only about a quarter of saints, and few authors, were women. In , when anti-clerical and anti-religious sentiments were not uncommon in Paris, and were spreading to the provinces, this doubtless seemed a realistic hope.

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But many rural women and men clung to their faith with its miracles, saints, and local priests. Funkenstein generalized this idea to historians and other writers whose function is polemical. Jambon ham , St. Andouille sausage , St. Greluchon betrayed lover make their appearance in mock sermons, jokes or amusing stories. We may use the story of St. Genevieve as a paradigm for several techniques in his repertory. Unlike many saints, she was unmarried, so did not abandon a husband and children to follow her vocation; though a committed virgin she did not spend her life immured in a convent.

Nor was she a martyr, so, despite ascetic practices, she cannot be blamed for extreme masochism, lack of citizenship, or compulsive anti-authoritarianism. In , when the town was threatened by the army of Attila the Hun, she persuaded the population not to abandon the city but to pray; Attila diverted his troops from the city and attacked Orleans instead.

Here is his treatment of the narrative:. Tout le monde ne prit cependant pas ces vapeurs en bonne part. Germain notices a little girl of eleven, takes her aside, has her dine with him, and at dessert makes her swear to die a virgin. Maybe it was already too late. This little girl is the blessed Genevieve. An illness of unspecified type comes over her some time after having made her vow of consecration to virginity.

She was unconscious for three days. However, not everyone took these vapors in a good way.

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The reader will observe that Genevieve lived at the time in Paris. Germain returned to Paris at this time and there is no doubt that he undertook the lively defense of her whom he had placed in the number of his virgins. They went so far that the good prelate was obliged to send her a deacon carrying a blessed candle, who pacified the complainers and rescued Genevieve. Childeric, father of Clovis, whose conditional conversion is known, besieged the capital of the Gauls and, having vanquished it, wanted to massacre all the inhabitants; to that end he had had the gates closed; they opened in the presence of Genevieve.

This other Esther exits the walls of Paris and, without being expected, offers herself, in order to disarm him, to the desires of the prince, who apparently had eyes for her as Ahasuerus did [for Esther], and the Parisians owed their salvation to the pious abandon of their patron saint.

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His concern throughout the legendary is not simply the individual saint but rather the entire institutional environment in which she lives; thus we are often told of the usually baneful role of confessors, spiritual advisors, monastic communities, preachers, nuns, missionaries, bishops, etc. For this pair of ecclesiastical travelers who in were en route to Britain to combat the Pelagian heresy there , the treatment hints at a scenario of child molestation or even seduction; at the very least, a scenario of lecherous adult men with a little girl.

The details chosen from official versions, and the details omitted, produce a particular impression. Nothing is said of a sermon entrancing the girl, or of a spontaneous vow. Instead, initiative is transferred to the bishop.

Germain notices the child why would he? Her conversion is now no product of an inspiring sermon but rather of an enticing dinner plus dessert, at the end of which the generous sugar-daddy extracts a promise. Although the lengthy trial took place in , its proceedings were printed and reprinted in French and in English; it gave rise to numerous literary treatments down the century ballads, novellas, etc. It is a tradition extending from the Middle Ages think of the fabliau priest-lover to our own day, unfortunately.

Her mentor, Germain, arrives to mount a vigorous defense.

Je vous salue Marie, Angélus

Later, Germain sends a substitute priest armed with a candle blessed by the pope and bearing the image of a lamb agnus. Another more clearly eroticized candle will appear later in the narrative, but even here we may suspect a phallic image in the large, white taper that aids in the deliverance of Genevieve from a quasi-hysterical torpor. Here, a similar tactic is attributed to Genevieve, with the added irony of a Jewish analogue for the Catholic saint. At a time when the issue of Jewish emancipation was much in the public eye through debates, treatises, newspaper articles and speeches in the National Assembly, the analogue would have had special bite.

Whether for or against emancipation, everyone accepted the concept of supersession—that Judaism had been replaced or superseded by Christianity.

50 Années de Sainteté

Figuralism, the notion that Christian events replicated Jewish ones but with different meaning e. Quand on est deux cents, on est seul. Je m'explique. Qui pourrait vous contredire! Je vous dirai simplement : ne regrettez pas l'esprit "commercial et pacifique" et les illusions de Son but est de renouveler le monde et le christianisme. J'ai souffert terriblement de cette fausse note. Son patron est saint Jean de Tobolsk. Il arrive de Chang-hai. Rien ne lui fait abandonner une action lorsqu'il juge qu'elle est voulue par Dieu. Le sacre fut comme une reconnaissance du fait charismatique.

Elle s'impose, on ne peut que s'incliner. Germain de Paris. Le canon eucharistique de l'ancien rite des Gaules. Paris, Ed. Pierre et Paul. Leur signification. Paris, Eglise Catholique Orthodoxe de France, , 91 pp. Paris, Editions Friant, , pp. Les chemins de l'homme.


Paris, Albin Michel, , pp. Le sens de l'exode. Paris, Association Eugraph Kovalevsky, , viii pp. Plan du site. Monseigneur Jean Kovalevsky. Patriarche Serge de Moscou. Patriarche Justinien de Roumanie. Le Christ. Saint Jean.