Literary translation and terminological precision: Chekhov and his short stories

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Criticism that Latin America is the birthplace and cornerstone of all things magic realist is quite common. The Hispanic Origin Theory: If considering all citations given in this article, there are issues with Guenther's and other critic's "Hispanic origin theory" and conclusion. By admission of this article, the term "magical realism" first came into artistic usage in by German critic Franz Roh after the publication of Franz Kafka's novella " The Metamorphosis ", both visual and literary representations and uses of magic realism, regardless of suffix nitpicking.

All this further called into question by Borges' critical standing as a true magical realist versus a predecessor to magic realism and how the dates of publications between Hispanic and European works compare. Magic realism has certainly enjoyed a "golden era" in the Hispanic communities. It cannot be denied that Hispanic communities, Argentina in particular, have supported great movements and talents in magic realism. One could validly suggest that the height of magic realism has been seen in Latin American countries, though, feminist readers might disagree.

Virginia Woolf, Angela Carter, Toni Morrison and Charlotte Perkins Gilman being excellent critical challenges to this notion of Hispanic magic realism as a full and diversely aware aesthetic. Allende being a later contribution to this gender aware discourse. Frida Kahlo, of course, being important to this as well but also at a later date than Woolf and Gilman. This feminist mapping, however, is unnecessary in identifying a basic truth. Kafka and Gogol predate Borges.

They may each have their own forms of magic realism, but they are each by the broader definition solidly within this article's given identification: "a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe This issue of feminist study in magic realism and its origination is an important discourse, as well.

It should not be ignored. Given that magic realism, by nature of its craft, allows underrepresented and minority voices to be heard in more subtle and representational contexts, magic realism may be one of the better forms available to authors and artists who are expressing unpopular scenarios in socio-political contexts. Again, Woolf, Allende, Kahlo, Carter, Morrison and Gilman being excellent examples of diversity in gender and ethnicity in magic realism.

To this end, Hispanic origin theory does not hold. Gender diversity aside, magic realism's foundational beginnings are much more diverse and intricate than what the Hispanic origin theory would suggest as defined in this article. Early in the article, we read a broader definition: "[magic realism is] what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe Woolf's, Kafka's and Gogol's work.

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Later, we read another definition and seeming precedent to the Hispanic origin theory: "Magical realism is a continuation of the romantic realist tradition of Spanish language literature. The Hispanic "continuation" and "romantic realist tradition of Spanish language" subset certainly identifies why magic realism took root and further developed in Hispanic communities, but it does not set a precedent for ground zero origination or ownership purely in Hispanic cultures. Magic realism originated in Germany as much as it did in Latin American countries. Both can claim their more specific aesthetics, but to identify the broader term of magic realism as being Hispanic is merely a theory unsupported by the citations within this article.

Perhaps it is time to identify each as its own as part of a broader and less biased umbrella. Magic realism is a continued craft in the many countries that have contributed to it in its earliest stages. Germany being first and Latin American countries being a close second. There are certainly differences in aesthetics between European and Hispanic magic realists, but they are both equally magic realists. For this reason, the Hispanic magic realists should really have proper designation as such but not the overarching umbrella of the broader term as this article suggests.

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Taking into account that, theoretically, magical realism was born in the 20th century, some have argued that connecting it to postmodernism is a logical next step. To further connect the two concepts, there are descriptive commonalities between the two that Belgian critic Theo D'haen addresses in his essay, "Magical Realism and Postmodernism".

Concerning attitude toward audience, the two have, some argue, a lot in common. Magical realist works do not seek to primarily satisfy a popular audience, but instead, a sophisticated audience that must be attuned to noticing textual "subtleties".

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There are two modes in postmodern literature : one, commercially successful pop fiction, and the other, philosophy, better suited to intellectuals. A singular reading of the first mode will render a distorted or reductive understanding of the text. The fictitious reader—such as Aureliano from Years of Solitude —is the hostage used to express the writer's anxiety on this issue of who is reading the work and to what ends, and of how the writer is forever reliant upon the needs and desires of readers the market.

Wendy Faris, talking about magic realism as a contemporary phenomenon that leaves modernism for postmodernism, says, "Magic realist fictions do seem more youthful and popular than their modernist predecessors, in that they often though not always cater with unidirectional story lines to our basic desire to hear what happens next. Thus they may be more clearly designed for the entertainment of readers. When attempting to define what something is , it is often helpful to define what something is not.

Many literary critics attempt to classify novels and literary works in only one genre, such as "romantic" or "naturalist", not always taking into account that many works fall into multiple categories. Realism is an attempt to create a depiction of actual life; a novel does not simply rely on what it presents but how it presents it. In this way, a realist narrative acts as framework by which the reader constructs a world using the raw materials of life.

Understanding both realism and magical realism within the realm of a narrative mode is key to understanding both terms. Magical realism "relies upon the presentation of real, imagined or magical elements as if they were real. It relies upon realism, but only so that it can stretch what is acceptable as real to its limits". As a simple point of comparison, Roh's differentiation between expressionism and post-expressionism as described in German Art in the 20th Century, may be applied to magic realism and realism.

Surrealism is often confused with magical realism as they both explore illogical or non-realist aspects of humanity and existence. There is a strong historical connection between Franz Roh's concept of magic realism and surrealism, as well as the resulting influence on Carpentier's marvelous reality; however, important differences remain. Surrealism "is most distanced from magical realism [in that] the aspects that it explores are associated not with material reality but with the imagination and the mind, and in particular it attempts to express the 'inner life' and psychology of humans through art".

It seeks to express the sub-conscious, unconscious, the repressed and inexpressible. Magical realism, on the other hand, rarely presents the extraordinary in the form of a dream or a psychological experience. The ordinariness of magical realism's magic relies on its accepted and unquestioned position in tangible and material reality. Where magic realism uses fantastical and unreal elements, imaginary realism strictly uses realistic elements in an imagined scene. As such, the classic painters with their biblical and mythological scenes, can be qualified as 'imaginary realists'.

With the increasing availability of photo editing software, also art photographers like Karl Hammer and others create artistic works in this genre. Fabulism traditionally refers to fables, parables, and myths, and is sometimes used in contemporary contexts for authors whose work falls within or relates to magical realism.

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Though often used to refer to works of magical realism, fabulism incorporates fantasy elements into reality, using myths and fables to critique the exterior world and offer direct allegorical interpretations. Austrian-American child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim suggested that fairy tales have psychological merit. They are used to translate trauma into a context that people can more easily understand and help to process difficult truths. Bettelheim posited that the darkness and morality of traditional fairy tales allowed children to grapple with questions of fear through symbolism.

Fabulism helped to work through these complexities and, in the words of Bettelheim, "make physical what is otherwise ephemeral or ineffable in an attempt Author Amber Sparks described fabulism as blending fantastical elements into a realistic setting. Crucial to the genre, said Sparks, is that the elements are often borrowed from specific myths, fairy tales, and folktales. Unlike magical realism, it does not just use general magical elements, but directly incorporates details from well known stories. While magical realism is traditionally used to refer to works that are Latin American in origin, fabulism is not tied to any specific culture.

Rather than focusing on political realities, fabulism tends to focus on the entirety of the human experience through the mechanization of fairy tales and myths. Lewis , who was once referred to as the greatest fabulist of the 20th century. His novel Till We Have Faces has been referenced as a fabulist retelling. This re-imagining of the story of Cupid and Psyche uses an age-old myth to impart moralistic knowledge on the reader.

A Washington Post review of a Lewis biography discusses how his work creates "a fiction" in order to deliver a lesson. Says the Post of Lewis, "The fabulist Italo Calvino is an example of a writer in the genre who uses the term fabulist. Calvino is best known for his book trilogy, Our Ancestors , a collection of moral tales told through surrealist fantasy. Like many fabulist collections, his work is often classified as allegories for children.

Calvino wanted fiction, like folk tales, to act as a teaching device. Gussow defined "The New Fabulism" as "taking ancient myths and turn ing them into morality tales. He wrote that the Fabulist style allowed Serban to neatly combine technical form and his own imagination. Through directing fabulist works, Serban can inspire an audience with innate goodness and romanticism through the magic of theatre.

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Prominent English-language fantasy writers have said that "magic realism" is only another name for fantasy fiction. Gene Wolfe said, "magic realism is fantasy written by people who speak Spanish", [55] and Terry Pratchett said magic realism "is like a polite way of saying you write fantasy". However, Amaryll Beatrice Chanady distinguishes magical realist literature from fantasy literature "the fantastic" based on differences between three shared dimensions: the use of antinomy the simultaneous presence of two conflicting codes , the inclusion of events that cannot be integrated into a logical framework, and the use of authorial reticence.

In fantasy, the presence of the supernatural code is perceived as problematic, something that draws special attention—where in magical realism, the presence of the supernatural is accepted. In fantasy, while authorial reticence creates a disturbing effect on the reader, it works to integrate the supernatural into the natural framework in magical realism. This integration is made possible in magical realism as the author presents the supernatural as being equally valid to the natural.

There is no hierarchy between the two codes. To Clark Zlotchew, the differentiating factor between the fantastic and magical realism is that in fantastic literature, such as Kafka's The Metamorphosis , there is a hesitation experienced by the protagonist, implied author or reader in deciding whether to attribute natural or supernatural causes to an unsettling event, or between rational or irrational explanations.

In Leal's view, writers of fantasy literature, such as Borges , can create "new worlds, perhaps new planets. This twofold world of magical realism differs from the onefold world that can be found in fairy-tale and fantasy literature. The term was used by Pepetela [60] and Harry Garuba [61] to be a new conception of magic realism in African literature.

While science fiction and magical realism both bend the notion of what is real, toy with human imagination, and are forms of often fantastical fiction, they differ greatly. Bower's cites Aldous Huxley 's Brave New World as a novel that exemplifies the science fiction novel's requirement of a "rational, physical explanation for any unusual occurrences". Huxley portrays a world where the population is highly controlled with mood enhancing drugs, which are controlled by the government. In this world, there is no link between copulation and reproduction. Humans are produced in giant test tubes, where chemical alterations during gestation determine their fates.

Bowers argues that, "The science fiction narrative's distinct difference from magical realism is that it is set in a world different from any known reality and its realism resides in the fact that we can recognize it as a possibility for our future. Unlike magical realism, it does not have a realistic setting that is recognizable in relation to any past or present reality. Although critics and writers debate which authors or works fall within the magical realism genre, the following authors represent the narrative mode.

The novel's protagonist, Tita, is kept from happiness and marriage by her mother. In turn, people who eat her food enact her emotions for her. For example, after eating a wedding cake Tita made while suffering from a forbidden love, the guests all suffer from a wave of longing. Perhaps the best known is Rushdie, whose "language form of magical realism straddles both the surrealist tradition of magic realism as it developed in Europe and the mythic tradition of magical realism as it developed in Latin America".

Dimitris Lyacos 's Poena Damni trilogy, originally written in Greek, is also seen as displaying characteristics of magic realism in its simultaneous fusion of real and unreal situations in the same narrative context.

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The painterly style began evolving as early as the first decade of the 20th century, [66] but was when Magischer Realismus and Neue Sachlichkeit were officially recognized as major trends. Eventually under Massimo Bontempelli guidance, the term magic realism was fully embraced by the German as well as in Italian practicing communities. New Objectivity saw an utter rejection of the preceding impressionist and expressionist movements, and Hartlaub curated his exhibition under the guideline: only those, "who have remained true or have returned to a positive, palpable reality," [67] in order to reveal the truth of the times," [68] would be included.

The style was roughly divided into two subcategories: conservative, neo- classicist painting, and generally left-wing, politically motivated Verists. One, conservative towards Classicism, taking roots in timelessness, wanting to sanctify again the healthy, physically plastic in pure drawing after nature The other, the left, glaringly contemporary, far less artistically faithful, rather born of the negation of art, seeking to expose the chaos, the true face of our time, with an addiction to primitive fact-finding and nervous baring of the self There is nothing left but to affirm it [the new art], especially since it seems strong enough to raise new artistic willpower.

Both sides were seen all over Europe during the s and s, ranging from the Netherlands to Austria, France to Russia, with Germany and Italy as centers of growth. Further afield, American painters were later in the s and s, mostly coined magical realists; a link between these artists and the Neue Sachlichkeit of the s was explicitly made in the New York Museum of Modern Art exhibition, tellingly titled "American Realists and Magic Realists. When art critic Franz Roh applied the term magic realism to visual art in , he was designating a style of visual art that brings extreme realism to the depiction of mundane subject matter, revealing an "interior" mystery, rather than imposing external, overtly magical features onto this everyday reality.

Roh explains,. We are offered a new style that is thoroughly of this world that celebrates the mundane. This new world of objects is still alien to the current idea of Realism.

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  4. It employs various techniques that endow all things with a deeper meaning and reveal mysteries that always threaten the secure tranquility of simple and ingenuous things Lois Parkinson Zamora of the University of Houston writes, "Roh, in his essay, described a group of painters whom we now categorize generally as Post-Expressionists. Roh used this term to describe painting that signaled a return to realism after expressionism 's extravagances, which sought to redesign objects to reveal the spirits of those objects.

    Magical realism, according to Roh, instead faithfully portrays the exterior of an object, and in doing so the spirit, or magic, of the object reveals itself. One could relate this exterior magic all the way back to the 15th century. Flemish painter Van Eyck — highlights the complexity of a natural landscape by creating illusions of continuous and unseen areas that recede into the background, leaving it to the viewer's imagination to fill in those gaps in the image: for instance, in a rolling landscape with river and hills. The magic is contained in the viewer's interpretation of those mysterious unseen or hidden parts of the image.

    The pictorial ideals of Roh's original magic realism attracted new generations of artists through the latter years of the 20th century and beyond. The whole idea is to take something that's given and explore that reality as intensely as I can. While Ingle represents a "magic realism" that harks back to Roh's ideas, the term "magic realism" in midth century visual art tends to refer to work that incorporates overtly fantastic elements, somewhat in the manner of its literary counterpart.

    Occupying an intermediate place in this line of development, the work of several European and American painters whose most important work dates from the s through to the s, including Bettina Shaw-Lawrence , Paul Cadmus , Ivan Albright , Philip Evergood , George Tooker , Ricco , even Andrew Wyeth , such as in his well-known work Christina's World , [81] is designated as "magic realist".

    This work departs sharply from Roh's definition, in that it according to artcyclopedia. Recent "magic realism" has gone beyond mere "overtones" of the fantastic or surreal to depict a frankly magical reality, with an increasingly tenuous anchoring in "everyday reality". Artists associated with this kind of magic realism include Marcela Donoso [83] [84] [ verification needed ] [85] [86] [87] and Gregory Gillespie. Artists such as Peter Doig , Richard T. Scott and Will Teather have become associated with the term in the early 21st century.

    Magical realism is not an officially recognized film genre , but characteristics of magic realism present in literature can also be found in many moving pictures with fantasy elements. These characteristics may be presented matter-of-factly and occur without explanation. Many films have magical realist narrative and events that contrast between real and magical elements, or different modes of production.

    This device explores the reality of what exists. Telling a story from a child's point of view, the historical gaps and holes perspective, and with cinematic color heightening the presence, are magical realist tools in films. Additionally, most of the films directed by Terry Gilliam are strongly influenced by magic realism, [95] the animated films of Hayao Miyazaki often utilize magic realism, [96] and some of the films of Emir Kusturica contain elements of magical realism, the most famous of which is Time of the Gypsies Magical realism is referred to in the Netflix series Narcos , which opens with a title card, from which the narrator reads: "Magical realism is defined as what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe.

    There is a reason magical realism was born in Colombia". Early video games such as the text adventure Trinity combined elements of science fiction, fantasy and magic realism. In electronic literature, early author Michael Joyce 's Afternoon, a story deploys the ambiguity and dubious narrator characteristic of high modernism, along with some suspense and romance elements, in a story whose meaning could change dramatically depending on the path taken through its lexias on each reading.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with science fantasy. Main article: Metafiction. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Category:Magic realism novels. Novels portal Fantasy portal. Magic al Realism.

    New York: Routledge. Faris eds. Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community. Duke University Press. Magic realism as post-colonial discourse Archived at the Wayback Machine. In: Canadian Literature Spring ,pp. Magischer Realismus. Varieties of Magical Realism.

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    New York: Garland Publishing Inc. Magic al Realism , pp. New York: Routledge, Archived from the original on June 20, The translation process is often described with metaphors relating to space and movement. To some extent, it seems that translation were a sort of transportation of something apparently words from one place to another. But even though it is true that translation has a spatial dimension, it also has a temporal and cultural one, all three made up of a number of other interrelated elements. Unfortunately, his ideas spread to the Western countries only after he had prematurely died.

    The first definition that comes to mind when speaking of a text is a consistent group of written words with a unified structure that makes it a whole. Already in the French churchman and scholar Pierre-Daniel Huet wrote in his De interpretatione:. In the previous table, each row contains a communicative act which belongs to the translation process. Let us see some examples of translation processes.

    The first row shows the standard interlingual translation process. The prototext is expressed in a natural code i. The second row shows paraphrase: the process is the same as interlingual translation, but paraphrase usually occurs within the same language, as the content of the message is simply re-expressed with other words. The Internet and all the other telecommunication media are exponentially increasing intertextuality in our every-day communication practice. Among the different types of intersemiotic translation there are also reading and writing, all the stages of dream elaboration as both intra- and interpersonal phenomena i.

    With a scientific explanation for the translation process as its goal, contemporary translation science does not only deal with interlingual translation. The present course on the fundamentals of translation does not aim at teaching how to translate — the translation practice represents a subsequent phase in the education of translators —, but at shading light on an often taken for granted and unconsciously practiced activity, as well as at paving the way for the interlingual translation practice. The previously mentioned terms, notions and ideas are supported by some of the theories developed since the s by linguists, semioticians, translators and scholars of several other disciplines, which shows how translation is an inter-disciplinary field.

    Here is a short summary of the most influential — and still valid — theories that marked the history of the translation science.