The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Chordate A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord , a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle , a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum.
Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla : Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65, living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes.
Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion , million years ago. Cladistically , vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata , which consists of chordates with a skull. The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body.
Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth.
In fish, the slits are modified to form gills , but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus. It stores iodine , may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means.
All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm ; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae.
However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma. Animal Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen , are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula , during embryonic development.
Over 1. Animals range in length from 8. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria , a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes , containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around million years ago. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in with his Systema Naturae , which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by In , Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa , single-celled organisms no longer considered animals.
In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism , the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria , which are prokaryotic , unlike protists , which are eukaryotic but unicellular.
Unlike plants and algae , which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic , feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges , corals and barnacles become sessile ; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs. All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.
During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified , forming structures such as shells and spicules.
In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes.
With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings.
Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis. These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs.
Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results.
Oreophrynella Oreophrynella is a genus of true toads native to the tepuis of southern Venezuela and adjacent Guyana. The distribution of some species is restricted to a couple of tepuis or a single tepui, as in the case of Oreophrynella weiassipuensis , which occurs on Wei-Assipu-tepui. Oreophrynella are less than 26 mm in snout -- vent length, they are characterized by opposable digits of the foot, dorsal skin that bears tubercules , direct development. There are nine species. Wikispecies Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation.
Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently. They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus , a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable.
To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names.
In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc. In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym.
In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl , the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym.
One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon.
However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th.
George Albert Boulenger George Albert Boulenger was a Belgian-British zoologist who described and gave scientific names to over 2, new animal species, chiefly fish and amphibians. Boulenger was an active botanist during the last 30 years of his life in the study of roses. Albert C. In , he became a first-class assistant in the Department of Zoology and remained in that position until his retirement in After his retirement from the British Museum, Boulenger studied roses and published 34 papers on botanical subjects and two volumes on the roses of Europe , he died in France.
According to biographical accounts, he was methodical and had an amazing memory that enabled him to remember every specimen and scientific name he saw, he had extraordinary powers of writing made a second draft of anything he wrote, his manuscripts showed but few corrections before going to the publisher. Boulenger played the violin , could speak French and English apart from reading Spanish, Italian and a bit of Russian; as a zoologist, he had a working knowledge of both Greek and Latin.
By , Boulenger had published papers totaling more than 5, pages, as well as 19 monographs on fishes and reptiles; the list of his publications and its index of species covers 77 printed pages. He described 1, species of fish, species of amphibians, species of reptiles. He was famous for his monographs on amphibians and other reptiles, fishes for example his monographs on the fishes of Africa.
He was a member of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists and was elected its first honorary member in In , Belgium conferred on him the Order of the highest honor awarded to a civilian, his son, Edward George Boulenger , was a zoologist. Boulenger was named chairman for this commission, his main discovery in was a strange fish from the Congo.
It lacked pigmentation, he recognized it as unrelated to any extant epigean species of Africa. Geerts, who provided him with the specimen. Today, it is known as the African blind barb. Boulenger described hundreds of reptile taxa. The water cobra genus Boulengerina was named for G. Boulenger , but it is now treated as a subgenus of Naja containing four species: Naja annulata, Naja christyi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja multifasciatus. Frog A frog is any member of a diverse and carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura.
The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar , but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian , million years ago. Frogs are distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history. An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, no tail.
Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators. Adult frogs live on dry land. Frogs lay their eggs in water; the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous , omnivorous or planktivorous diets; the life cycle is completed.
A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates , but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frog skin has a rich microbiome , important to their health. Frogs are efficient at converting what they eat into body mass, they are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration , so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats.
Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations in their breeding season, exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to survive. Frogs are valued as food by humans and have many cultural roles in literature and religion. Frog populations have declined since the s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over are believed to have become extinct since the s; the number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, has spread around the world.
Conservation biologists are working to resolve them; the use of the common names "frog" and " toad " has no taxonomic justification. From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads"; the use of the term "frog" in common names refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic and have smooth, moist skins. There are numerous exceptions to this rule; the European fire-bellied toad has a warty skin and prefers a watery habitat whereas the Panamanian golden frog is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin.
It refers to the tailless character of these amphibians; the origins of the word frog are debated. The word is first attested in Old English as frogga, but the usual Old English word for the frog was frosc, it is agreed that the word frog is somehow related to this. How Old English frosc gave rise to frogga is, uncertain, as the development does not involve a regular sound-change. Instead, it seems that there was a trend in Old English to coin nicknames for animals ending in -g, with examples—themselves all of uncertain etymology—including dog, pig and wig.
Frog appears to have been adapted from frosc as part of this trend. The Anura include any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition; the characteristics of anuran adults include: 9 or fewer presacral vertebrae , the presence of a urostyle formed of fused vertebrae, no tail, a long and forward-sloping ilium , shorter fore limbs than hind limbs and ulna fused and fibula fused, elongated an.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Version 6. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 8 November AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 9 November Hidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats. Related Images. YouTube Videos. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development.
Over 1. Sexual reproduction is nearly universal in animals, such as these dragonflies. Predator s, such as this ultramarine flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris , feed on other organisms. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum.
A skeleton of the blue whale , the world's largest animal, outside the Long Marine Laboratory at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A peregrine falcon , the world's fastest animal. Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems.
Triadobatrachus massinoti , a proto-frog from the Early Triassic of Madagascar. Top: Restoration of Eusthenopteron , a fully aquatic lobe-finned fish. The temnospondyl Eryops had sturdy limbs to support its body on land. Altiphrynoides malcolmi Grandison, -- valid. Altiphrynoides osgoodi Loveridge, -- valid. Altirana Stejneger, -- invalid. Alytes Wagler, -- valid. Alytes maurus Pasteur and Bons, -- valid. Alytes obstetricans Laurenti, -- valid.
Alytidae Fitzinger, -- valid. Amblyphrynus Cochran and Goin, -- invalid. Amblyphrynus ingeri Cochran and Goin, -- invalid. Amblystoma annulatum Cope, -- invalid. Amblystoma cingulatum Cope, -- invalid. Amblystoma krausei Peters, -- invalid. Amblystoma tenebrosum Baird and Girard, -- invalid. Ambystoma Tschudi, -- valid -- Mole Salamanders. Ambystoma amblycephalum Taylor, -- valid -- Salamandra cabeza chata. Ambystoma andersoni Krebs and Brandon, -- valid -- Salamandra de Anderson.
Ambystoma annulatum Cope, -- valid -- Ringed Salamander.
eastern spadefoot toads: Topics by ynykyvykeb.tk
Ambystoma barbouri Kraus and Petranka, -- valid -- Streamside Salamander. Ambystoma bishopi Goin, -- valid -- Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander. Ambystoma bombypellum Taylor, -- valid -- Salamandra piel fina. Ambystoma californiense Gray, -- valid -- California Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma cingulatum bishopi Goin, -- invalid. Ambystoma flavipiperatum Dixon, -- valid -- Salamandra de Chapala. Ambystoma gracile Baird, -- valid -- Northwestern Salamander.
Ambystoma granulosum Taylor, -- valid -- Salamandra granulada. Ambystoma jeffersonianum Green, -- valid -- Jefferson Salamander. Ambystoma leorae Taylor, -- valid. Ambystoma lermaense Taylor, -- valid -- Lake Lerma Salamander. Ambystoma mabeei Bishop, -- valid -- Mabee's Salamander. Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, -- valid -- Long-toed Salamander. Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum Ferguson, -- valid -- Eastern Long-toed Salamander.
Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei Peters, -- valid -- Northern Long-toed Salamander. Ambystoma macrodactylum macrodactylum Baird, -- valid -- Western Long-toed Salamander. Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum Ferguson, -- valid -- Southern Long-toed Salamander. Ambystoma mavortia Baird, -- invalid. Ambystoma mavortium diaboli Dunn, -- valid -- Gray Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma mavortium mavortium Baird, -- valid -- Barred Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum Hallowell, -- valid -- Arizona Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi Lowe, -- valid -- Sonoran Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw and Nodder, -- valid -- Axolotl, Salamandra ajolote.
Ambystoma nebulosum Hallowell, -- invalid. Ambystoma nothagenes Kraus, -- invalid -- Kelley's Island Salamander. Ambystoma opacum Gravenhorst, -- valid -- Marbled Salamander. Ambystoma ordinarium Taylor, -- valid -- Salamandra michoacana. Ambystoma platineum Cope, -- invalid -- Silvery Salamander. Ambystoma rivulare Taylor, -- valid. Ambystoma rivularis Taylor, -- invalid. Ambystoma rosaceum Taylor, -- valid -- Salamandra tarahumara. Ambystoma silvense Webb, -- valid.
Ambystoma subsalsum Taylor, -- valid. Ambystoma talpoideum Holbrook, -- valid -- Mole Salamander. Ambystoma tenebrosum Baird and Girard, -- invalid. Ambystoma texanum Matthes, -- valid -- Small-mouthed Salamander. Ambystoma tigrinum californiense Gray, -- invalid. Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli Dunn, -- invalid -- Gray Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium Baird, -- invalid -- Barred Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum Hallowell, -- invalid -- Arizona Tiger Salamander.
Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi Lowe, -- invalid -- Sonoran Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum Green, -- invalid -- Eastern Tiger Salamander. Ambystoma tremblayi Comeau, -- invalid -- Tremblay's Salamander. Ambystoma vehiculum Cooper, -- invalid. Ambystomatidae Gray, -- valid -- Mole Salamanders. Ameerega Bauer, -- valid. Ameerega altamazonica Twomey and Brown, -- valid. Ameerega andina Myers and Burrowes, -- valid. Ameerega bassleri Melin, -- valid.
Ameerega bilinguis Jungfer, -- valid. Ameerega boliviana Boulenger, -- valid. Ameerega braccata Steindachner, -- valid. Ameerega cainarachi Schulte, -- valid. Ameerega erythromos Vigle and Miyata, -- valid. Ameerega flavopicta Lutz, -- valid. Ameerega hahneli Boulenger, -- valid. Ameerega ingeri Cochran and Goin, -- valid. Ameerega labialis Cope, -- valid. Ameerega macero Rodriguez and Myers, -- valid. Ameerega maculata Peters, -- valid. Ameerega parvula Boulenger, -- valid. Ameerega peruviridis Bauer, -- valid.
Ameerega petersi Silverstone, -- valid. Ameerega picta Bibron in Tschudi, -- valid. Ameerega planipaleae Morales and Velazco, -- valid. Ameerega pongoensis Schulte, -- valid. Ameerega pulchripecta Silverstone, -- valid. Ameerega silverstonei Myers and Daly, -- valid. Ameerega simulans Myers, Rodriguez and Icochea, -- valid. Ameerega smaragdina Silverstone, -- valid. Ameerega trivittata Spix, -- valid. Amietia Dubois, -- valid. Amietia amieti Laurent, -- valid. Amietia angolensis Bocage, -- valid. Amietia desaegeri Laurent, -- valid.
Amietia dracomontana Channing, -- valid. Amietia inyangae Poynton, -- valid. Amietia lubrica Pickersgill, -- valid.
Amietia ruwenzorica Laurent, -- valid. Amietia tenuoplicata Pickersgill, -- valid. Amietia umbraculata Bush, -- valid. Amietia vandijki Visser and Channing, -- valid. Amietia vertebralis Hewitt, -- valid. Amietia viridireticulata Pickersgill, -- valid. Amietia wittei Angel, -- valid. Amietophrynus asmarae Tandy, Bogart, Largen and Feener, -- valid. Amietophrynus blanfordii Boulenger, -- valid. Amietophrynus brauni Nieden, -- valid. Amietophrynus buchneri Peters, -- valid.
Amietophrynus camerunensis Parker, -- valid. Amietophrynus chudeaui Chabanaud, -- valid. Amietophrynus cristiglans Inger and Menzies, -- valid. Amietophrynus danielae Perret, -- valid. Amietophrynus djohongensis Hulselmans, -- valid. Amietophrynus fuliginatus De Witte, -- valid. Amietophrynus funereus Bocage, -- valid. Amietophrynus garmani Meek, -- valid.
Amietophrynus gracilipes Boulenger, -- valid. Amietophrynus gutturalis Power, -- valid. Amietophrynus kassasii Baha El Din, -- valid. Amietophrynus kerinyagae Keith, -- valid. Amietophrynus kisoloensis Loveridge, -- valid. Amietophrynus langanoensis Largen, Tandy and Tandy, -- valid. Amietophrynus latifrons Boulenger, -- valid. Amietophrynus lemairii Boulenger, -- valid.
Amietophrynus maculatus Hallowell, -- valid. Amietophrynus pantherinus Smith, -- valid. Amietophrynus pardalis Hewitt, -- valid. Amietophrynus poweri Hewitt, -- valid. Amietophrynus rangeri Hewitt, -- valid. Amietophrynus reesi Poynton, -- valid. Amietophrynus regularis Reuss, -- valid. Amietophrynus steindachneri Pfeffer, -- valid. Amietophrynus superciliaris Boulenger, -- valid. Amietophrynus togoensis Ahl, -- valid. Amietophrynus turkanae Tandy and Feener, -- valid.
Amietophrynus urunguensis Loveridge, -- valid. Amietophrynus villiersi Angel, -- valid. Amietophrynus vittatus Boulenger, -- valid. Amnirana Dubois, -- invalid. Amnirana albolabris Hallowell, -- invalid. Amnirana amnicola Perret, -- invalid. Amnirana asperrima Perret, -- invalid. Amnirana darlingi Boulenger, -- invalid. Amnirana lemairei De Witte, -- invalid.
Amnirana lemairii De Witte, -- invalid. Amnirana lepus Andersson, -- invalid. Amnirana longipes Perret, -- invalid. Amnirana occidentalis Perret, -- invalid.
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Amnirana parkeriana Mertens, -- invalid. Amolops Cope, -- valid. Amolops archotaphus Inger and Chan-ard, -- valid. Amolops bellulus Liu, Yang, Ferraris and Matsui, -- valid. Amolops caelumnoctis Rao and Wilkinson, -- valid. Amolops chakrataensis Ray, -- valid. Amolops chapaensis Bourret, -- invalid. Amolops chunganensis Pope, -- valid. Amolops compotrix Bain, Stuart and Orlov, -- valid. Amolops cremnobatus Inger and Kottelat, -- valid. Amolops cucae Bain, Stuart and Orlov, -- valid. Amolops daiyunensis Liu and Hu, -- valid. Amolops gerbillus Annandale, -- valid. Amolops granulosus Liu and Hu, -- valid.
Amolops hainanensis Boulenger, -- valid. Amolops himalayanus Boulenger, -- valid. Amolops hongkongensis Pope and Romer, -- valid. Amolops iriodes Bain and Nguyen, -- valid. Amolops jaunsari Ray, -- valid. Amolops jinjiangensis Su, Yang and Li, -- valid. Amolops kangtingensis Liu, -- valid. Amolops kaulbacki Smith, -- valid. Amolops larutensis Boulenger, -- valid. Amolops liangshanensis Wu and Zhao, -- valid. Amolops lifanensis Liu, -- valid. Amolops loloensis Liu, -- valid.
Amolops longimanus Andersson, -- valid. Amolops mantzorum David, -- valid. Amolops marmoratus Blyth, -- valid. Amolops mengyangensis Wu and Tian, -- valid. Amolops minutus Orlov and Ho, -- valid. Amolops monticola Anderson, -- valid. Amolops nepalicus Yang, -- invalid.
Amolops panhai Matsui and Nabhitabhata, -- valid. Amolops ricketti Boulenger, -- valid. Amolops spinapectoralis Inger, Orlov and Darevsky, -- valid. Amolops splendissimus Orlov and Ho, -- valid. Amolops taiwanianus Otsu, -- invalid. Amolops tormotus Wu, -- invalid. Amolops torrentis Smith, -- valid. Amolops tuberodepressus Liu and Yang, -- valid. Amolops viridimaculatus Jiang, -- valid. Amolops vitreus Bain, Stuart and Orlov, -- valid. Amolops wuyiensis Liu and Hu, -- valid. Amphignathodon Boulenger, -- invalid. Amphignathodon guentheri Boulenger, -- invalid. Amphiuma Garden in Smith, -- valid -- Amphiumas.
Amphiuma means Garden in Smith, -- valid -- Two-toed Amphiuma. Amphiuma means means Garden in Smith, -- invalid. Amphiuma means tridactylum Cuvier, -- invalid. Amphiuma pholeter Neill, -- valid -- One-toed Amphiuma. Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, -- valid -- Three-toed Amphiuma.
Amphiumidae Gray, -- valid -- Amphiumas, Congo Eels. Amphodus Peters, -- invalid. Amphodus auratus Boulenger, -- invalid. Amphodus piperatus Miranda-Ribeiro, -- invalid. Amphodus wuchereri Peters, -- invalid. Anaides ferreus Cope, -- invalid. Anaxyrus Tschudi, -- valid -- North American Toads. Anaxyrus americanus Holbrook, -- valid -- American Toad. Anaxyrus americanus americanus Holbrook, -- valid -- Eastern American Toad. Anaxyrus americanus charlesmithi Bragg, -- valid -- Dwarf American Toad.
Anaxyrus baxteri Porter, -- valid -- Wyoming Toad. Anaxyrus boreas Baird and Girard, -- valid -- Western Toad. Anaxyrus boreas boreas Baird and Girard, -- valid -- Boreal Toad. Anaxyrus californicus Camp, -- valid -- Arroyo Toad. Anaxyrus canorus Camp, -- valid -- Yosemite Toad. Anaxyrus compactilis Wiegmann, -- valid. Anaxyrus debilis Girard, -- valid -- Green Toad. Anaxyrus debilis debilis Girard, -- valid -- Eastern Green Toad. Anaxyrus debilis insidior Girard, -- valid -- Western Green Toad.
Anaxyrus exsul Myers, -- valid -- Black Toad. Anaxyrus fowleri Hinckley, -- valid -- Fowler's Toad. Anaxyrus hemiophrys Cope, -- valid -- Canadian Toad. Anaxyrus houstonensis Sanders, -- valid -- Houston Toad. Anaxyrus kelloggi Taylor, -- valid. Anaxyrus mexicanus Brocchi, -- valid. Anaxyrus microscaphus Cope, -- valid -- Arizona Toad. Anaxyrus nelsoni Stejneger, -- valid -- Amargosa Toad. Anaxyrus punctatus Baird and Girard, -- valid -- Red-spotted Toad.
Anaxyrus quercicus Holbrook, -- valid -- Oak Toad. Anaxyrus speciosus Girard, -- valid -- Texas Toad. Anaxyrus terrestris Bonnaterre, -- valid -- Southern Toad. Anaxyrus woodhousii Girard, -- valid -- Woodhouse's Toad. Anaxyrus woodhousii woodhousii Girard, -- valid -- Rocky Mountain Toad. Andinophryne Hoogmoed, -- valid. Andinophryne atelopoides Lynch and Ruiz-Carranza, -- valid. Andinophryne colomai Hoogmoed, -- valid.
Andinophryne olallai Hoogmoed, -- valid. Andrias Tschudi, -- valid -- giant salamanders. Andrias davidianus Blanchard, -- valid -- Chinese Giant Salamander. Andrias japonicus Temminck, -- valid -- Japanese Giant Salamander. Aneides Baird, -- valid -- Climbing Salamanders. Aneides aeneus Cope and Packard, -- valid -- Green Salamander. Aneides ferreus Cope, -- valid -- Clouded Salamander.
Aneides flavipunctatus Strauch, -- valid -- Black Salamander. Aneides flavipunctatus flavipunctatus Strauch, -- valid -- Speckled Black Salamander. Aneides hardyi Taylor, -- invalid. Aneides lugubris farallonensis Van Denburgh, -- invalid. Aneides lugubris lugubris Hallowell, -- invalid. Aneides vagrans Wake and Jackman, -- valid -- Wandering Salamander. Anhydrophryne Hewitt, -- valid. Anhydrophryne hewitti FitzSimons, -- valid. Anhydrophryne rattrayi Hewitt, -- valid.
Annandia delacouri Angel, -- invalid. Anodonthyla montana Angel, -- valid. Anodonthyla moramora Glaw and Vences, -- valid. Anodonthyla nigrigularis Glaw and Vences, -- valid. Anomaloglossus atopoglossus Grant, Humphrey and Myers, -- valid. Anomaloglossus ayarzaguenai La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus baeobatrachus Boistel and Massary, -- valid. Anomaloglossus beebei Noble, -- valid. Anomaloglossus degranvillei Lescure, -- valid.
Anomaloglossus guanayensis La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus lacrimosus Myers, -- valid. Anomaloglossus moffetti Barrio-Amoros and Brewer-Carias, -- valid. Anomaloglossus murisipanensis La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus parimae La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus parkerae Meinhardt and Parmalee, -- valid.
Anomaloglossus praderioi La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus roraima La Marca, -- valid. Anomaloglossus shrevei Rivero, -- valid. Anomaloglossus stepheni Martins, -- valid. Anomaloglossus tamacuarensis Myers and Donnelly, -- valid. Anomaloglossus tepuyensis La Marca, -- valid. Anotheca Smith, -- valid. Ansonia Stoliczka, -- valid.
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Ansonia albomaculata Inger, -- valid. Ansonia altitudinis Smith, -- invalid. Ansonia anotis Inger, Tan and Yambun, -- invalid. Ansonia endauensis Grismer, -- valid. Ansonia fuliginea Mocquard, -- valid. Ansonia glandulosa Iskandar and Mumpuni, -- valid. Ansonia guibei Inger, -- valid. Ansonia hanitschi Inger, -- valid.
Ansonia inthanon Matsui, Nabhitabhata and Panha, -- valid. Ansonia jeetsukumarani Wood, Grismer, Ahmad and Senawi, -- valid. Ansonia kraensis Matsui, Khonsue and Nabhitabhata, -- valid. Ansonia latidisca Inger, -- valid. Ansonia latiffi Wood, Grismer, Ahmad and Senawi, -- valid. Ansonia latirostra Grismer, -- valid. Ansonia longidigita Inger, -- valid.
Ansonia malayana Inger, -- valid. Ansonia mcgregori Taylor, -- valid. Ansonia minuta Inger, -- valid. Ansonia muelleri Boulenger, -- valid. Ansonia penangensis Stoliczka, -- valid. Ansonia platysoma Inger, -- valid. Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, -- valid. Ansonia siamensis Kiew, -- valid. Ansonia spinulifer Mocquard, -- valid. Ansonia tiomanica Hendrickson, -- valid.
Ansonia torrentis Dring, -- valid. Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro, -- valid. Aparasphenodon bokermanni Pombal, -- valid. Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, -- valid. Aparasphenodon venezolanus Mertens, -- valid. Aphantophryne Fry, -- valid. Aphantophryne minuta Zweifel and Parker, -- valid. Aphantophryne pansa Fry, -- valid. Aphantophryne sabini Zweifel and Parker, -- valid. Aplastodiscus Lutz in Lutz, -- valid. Aplastodiscus albofrenatus Lutz, -- valid. Aplastodiscus albosignatus Lutz and Lutz, -- valid. Aplastodiscus arildae Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid. Aplastodiscus callipygius Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid.
Aplastodiscus cavicola Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid. Aplastodiscus cochranae Mertens, -- valid. Aplastodiscus eugenioi Carvalho e Silva and Carvalho e Silva, -- valid. Aplastodiscus flumineus Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid. Aplastodiscus ibirapitanga Cruz, Pimenta and Silvano, -- valid. Aplastodiscus leucopygius Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid. Aplastodiscus musicus Lutz, -- valid.
Aplastodiscus perviridis Lutz in Lutz, -- valid. Aplastodiscus sibilatus Cruz, Pimenta and Silvano, -- valid. Aplastodiscus weygoldti Cruz and Peixoto, -- valid. Arcovomer Carvalho, -- valid. Arcovomer passarellii Carvalho, -- valid. Arenophryne Tyler, -- valid. Arenophryne rotunda Tyler, -- valid. Arenophryne xiphorhyncha Doughty and Edwards, -- valid. Argenteohyla Trueb, -- valid.
Venezuelan tepuis: their caves and biota
Argenteohyla altamazonica Henle, -- invalid. Argenteohyla siemersi Mertens, -- valid. Arlequinus Perret, -- valid. Arlequinus krebsi Mertens, -- valid. Aromobates Myers, Paolillo O.