Pierce: "our beliefs are really rules for action. All realities influence our practice and that influence is their meaning for us. In what respects would the world be different if this alternative or that were true? If I can find nothing that would become different, then the alternative has no sense" The pragmatist "turns away from abstraction and insufficiency, from verbal solutions, from bad a priori reasons, from fixed principles, closed systems, and pretended absolutes and origins. He turns towards concreteness and adequacy, towards facts, towards action and towards power.
The process here is always the same. The individual has a stock of old opinions already, but he meets a new experience that puts them to a strain. Somebody contradicts them; or in a reflective moment he discovers they contradict each other; or he hears of facts with which they are incompatible; or desires arise in him which they cease to satisfy.
The result is an inward trouble. He saves as much of it as he can, for in this matter of belief we are all extreme conservatives" If theological ideas prove to have a value for concrete life, they will be true, for pragmatism" Ought we ever not to believe what it is better for us to believe?
And can we then keep the notion of what is better for us, and what is true for us, permanently apart? Thus if no future detail of experience or conduct is to be deduced from our hypothesis, the debate between materialism and theism becomes quite idle and insignificant. Theism and materialism, so indifferent when taken retrospectively, point, when we take them prospectively, to wholly different outlooks of experience" 47, 48, Laws of mechanical evolution are "fatally certain to undo their work again, and to redissolve everything that they have once evolved.
You all know the last state of the universe, which evolutionary science foresees. I cannot state it better than in Mr. Man will go down into the pit and all his thoughts will perish. The uneasy consciousness which in this obscure corner has for a brief space broken the contented silence of the universe, will b at rest. Matter will know itself no longer. Nor will anything that is, be better or worse for all that labor, genius, devotion, and suffering of man have striven through countless ages to effect.
This utter final wreck and tragedy is of the essence of scientific materialism as at present understood" We make complaint of it. Theism "guarantees an ideal order that shall be permanently preserved. The need of an eternal moral order is one of the deepest needs of our breast" Materialism means simply the denial that the moral order is eternal, and the cutting off of ultimate hopes; spiritualism means the affirmation of an eternal moral order and the letting loose of hope.
Surely here is an issue genuine enough, for any one who feels it; and, as long as men are men, it will yield matter for a serious philosophical debate" If you argue that the difference is so remote as to mean nothing for a sane mind, "you do injustice to human nature. Religious melancholy is not disposed of by a simple flourish of the word insanity.
If the past and present were purely good, who could wish that the future might possibly not resemble them? Free will thus has no meaning unless it be as a doctrine of relief" The peace and rest, the security desiderated at such moments is security against the bewildering accidents of so much finite experience. Nirvana means safety from this everlasting round of adventures of which the world of sense consists. The hindoo and the buddhist, for this essentially their attitude, are simply afraid, afraid of more experience, afraid of life. The way of escape from evil.
Paralysis of their native capacity for faith and timorous abulia in the religious field are their special forms of mental weakness, brought about by the notion, carefully instilled, that there is something called scientific evidence by waiting upon which they shall escape all danger of shipwreck in regard to truth. But there is really no scientific or other method by which men can steer safely between the opposite dangers of believing too little or of believing too much. To face such dangers is apparently our duty, and to hit the right channel between them is the measure of our wisdom as men.
It does not follow, because recklessness may be a vice in soldiers, that courage ought never to be preached to them. I do not think anyone can accuse me of preaching reckless faith. I have preached the right of the individual to indulge his personal faith at his personal risk. I have discussed the kinds of risk; I have contended that none of us escape all of them; and I have only pleaded that it is better to face them open-eyed than to act as if we did not know them to be there" x-xi.
It is sinful because it is stolen in defiance of our duty to mankind. That duty is to guard ourselves from beliefs as from a pestilence which may shortly master our own body and then spread to the rest of the town. It is wrong always, everywhere, and for every one, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence" 8.
Our beliefs are mostly determined by the "intellectual climate" and the prestige offered for sharing its opinions. It is like a general informing his soldiers that it is better to keep out of battle forever than to risk a single wound" It is only truth as technically verified that interests her" Yet such is the logic by which our scientific absolutes pretend to regulate our lives! It is as if a man should hesitate to ask a certain woman to marry him because he was not perfectly sure that she would prove an angel after he brought her home.
Would he not cut himself off from that particular angel-possibility as decisively as decisively as if he went and married someone else? Skepticism, then, is not avoidance of the option; it is the option of a certain particular kind of risk. He is actively playing his stake as much as the believer is; he is backing the field against the religious hypothesis, just as the believer is backing the religious hypothesis against the field" The Will to Believe It is not intellect against all passions, then; it is only intellect with one passion laying down its law.
If religion be true and the evidence for it still insufficient, I do not wish, by putting your extinguisher upon my nature. This feeling, forced on us we know not whence, that by obstinately feeling there are gods although not to do so would be so easy both for our logic and our life we are doing the universe the deepest service we can, seems part of the living essence of the religious hypothesis. If the hypothesis were true in all its parts, including this one, then pure intellectualism, with its veto on our making willing advances, would be an absurdity; and some participation of our sympathetic nature would be logically required.
I therefore, for one, cannot see my way to accepting the agnostic rules for truth-seeking, or willfully agree to keep my willing nature out of the game. I cannot do so for this plain reason, that a rule of thinking which would absolutely prevent me from acknowledging certain kinds of truth if those kinds of truth were really true, would be an irrational rule" Since belief is measured by action, he who forbids us to believe religion to be true, necessarily also forbids us to act as we should if we did believe it to be true. There whole defense of religious faith hinges upon action.
If the action required or inspired by the religious hypothesis is in no way different from that dictated by the naturalistic hypothesis, then religious faith is a pure superfluity, better pruned away, and controversy about its legitimacy is a piece of idle trifling, unworthy of serious minds. I myself believe, of course, that the religious hypothesis give to the world an expression which specifically determines our actions, and makes them in a large part unlike what they might be on a purely naturalistic scheme of belief" The Will to Believe Fitz James Stephen: religious questions "in some way or other we must deal with them.
In all important transactions in life we have to take a leap in the dark. If we decide to leave the riddles unanswered, this is a choice; if we waver in our answer, that, too, is a choice: but whatever choice we make, we make it at our peril. We stand on a mountain pass in the midst of whirling snow and blinding mist, through which we get glimpses now and then of paths which may be deceptive.
If we stand still we shall be frozen to death. We take the wrong road we shall be dashed to pieces. We do not certainly know whether there is any right one. What must we so? If death ends all, we cannot meet death better" Intellect stands baffled before the essence of God: it is quite inept to pursue him along that path. If he in his kindness did not step nearer to us, our distance from him could only increase. We see the wise succomb just like the ignorant: what difference, then between wisdom and ignorance?
So it is better for us simply to be involved in love; for without that we are nothing, absolutely nothing" Jami. Life does not come again for anyone; so go in search of indispensable knowledge. And once you have obtained it, strive to put it into practice; for theory without practice is a prison without an antidote" Jami.
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It will no longer be myself that you see occupying my body: the soul animating that body will be yours. All idea of personality will be put aside; and when I look for myself, it is you that I shall find. Rise above time and space, and build your nest in the palace of Reality. Reality is one: appearances thousandfold. Enter the domain of non-existence. Formerly you did not exist and no harm ever befell you because of that. Likewise today it is in ceasing to be that your advantage lies. Renounce all desire and lose yourself in that splendor like a mote in a sunbeam: thus lost you will be released at last.
What is the mark of perfect maturity? If I do not do whatever I can to prevent them, I am an accomplice in them. If I have not risked my life in order to prevent the murder of other men, if I have stood silent, I feel guilty in a sense that cannot in any adequate fashion be understood juridicially, or politically, or morally" Cone Experience during the war proved this; as I think every man will admit that under the privations it obliged him to submit to during that period he slept sounder and waked happier than he can do now.
Desperate of finding relief from a free course of justice, I look forward to the abolition of all credit as the only other remedy which can take place. A man who qualifies himself well for his calling, never fails of employment in it. There is a peace more destructive of the manhood of living man than war is destructive of his material body. Chains are worse than bayonets. And they make this suggestion, because they cannot help themselves.
Granted then the necessity under which we all labor of making judgments of moral and aesthetic import, I do not see with what logic we can avoid the implications of our necessity by seeking to deny the existence in the universe of certain absolute standards and values in terms which alone our moral and aesthetic judgments have meaning and content. These standards and values cannot, as I have tried to show, be a part of the process which they are invoked to measure" Joad, God and Evil, It is because, as I said above, the religious view of reality seems to me to cover more of the facts of experience than any other that I have been gradually led to embrace it.
I propose to argue that the religious hypothesis is the one that covers more of the facts of experience tan any other, among which must be included the fact of the desire to believe and the fact of moral conflict" Joad , 16, If the purpose of your existence is not to win personal happiness but to improve your character much that you would have light-heartedly done on the former assumption will be forbidden to you on the latter.
We cannot, then, expect to be very happy here on earth, and we cannot expect to be very good" Of what value, then to be praised or loved by such as these? And what joy or merit can there be in loving them in return, even if it were possible to do so? Now if they are free to choose wrongly, it will follow that some wrong choices will almost certainly be made. The evil in the universe is the consequence of wrong choices or, alternatively, we may say that evil must already be present in the universe in order that it may be chosen" Plausible, perhaps, during the first fourteen years of this century when.
To me, at any rate, the view of evil implied by Marxism, expressed by Shaw and maintained by modern psychotherapy, a view which regards evil as the by-product of circumstances, which circumstances can, therefore, alter and even eliminate, has come to seem intolerably shallow and the contrary view of it as endemic in man, more particularly in the Christian form, the doctrine of original sin, to express a deep and essential insight into human nature" Joad Far from it; merely that all of us are wicked in some degree, all of us wicked on occasion, and that we are so because strands of evil are inextricably woven into our fundamental make-up" Joad Nor, indeed, could they do so, for the notion of a goal implies a standard by reference to which the goal is assessed and seen to be desirable.
But what sot of ethical criterion could the process of evolution itself provide? The so-called science of evolution records a number of successive changes. It tells us, in fact, what has occurred but it does not tell us, nor could it do so, what ought to have occurred. In informing us that certain events have taken place, it does not assure us that it is desirable that they should have taken place. Science, in a word, is concerned with facts, not with their valuation. Of Natural Selection, we are entitled to say no more than that it serves as the sieve through which those forms of life, which happen to be adjusted to their environment, pass.
Hence, the types which survive are deemed to be valuable by no other criterion than that of the fact of their survival" Joad Thoughts are movements of and events in mind. Thoughts, then, are determined by natural law. How, then, can thoughts be false" Joad Hence those human activities which consist in or which arise out of the pursuit of Truth, the cultivation of moral Goodness or the creation and enjoyment of Beauty, are such that we cannot help but value and revere them" Joad Heaven: the "mode of existence in which what in these experiences is precarious is made secure, what is obscure is made clear, and what is fleeting becomes eternal" Joad Great is their blessedness, which from their direct contemplation of the glory of God" Divine Ascent If God does exist, and if in consequence we are called to another life when this one ends, a momentous set of consequences follows, which should affect every day, every moment almost, of our earthly existence.
Our life then becomes a mere preparation for eternity and must be conducted throughout with our future in view. If, on the other hand, God does not exist, another momentous set of consequences follows. This life then becomes the only one we have, we have no duties or obligations except to ourselves, and we need weigh no considerations except our own interests and pleasures.
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There are no commands to follow except what society imposes upon us, and even these we may evade if we can get away with it. In a Godless world, there is no obvious basis for altruism of any kind, moral anarchy takes over and the rule of the self prevails" Johnson Quest 1.
But a convert from popery to Protestantism gives up as much of what he has held sacred as anything that he retains. A man will turn over half a library to make one book. If a book we are reading does not rouse us with a blow to the head, then why read it? What we need are books that affect us like some really grievous misfortune, like the death of one whom we loved more than ourselves, as if we were banished to distant forests, away from everybody, like a suicide; a book must be the ax for the frozen sea within us.
Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! VIII, It is so easy not to be of age. If I have a book which understands for me, a pastor who has a conscience for me, a physician who decides my diet, and so forth, I need not trouble myself. They must be felt with the heart. For a beginning, remember two important rules: 1 it's better for you to go hungry than to eat whatever happens to be around, and 2 it's better to be alone than with whomever happens to be around.
Myself when young did eagerly frequent Doctor and Saint, and heard great argument About it and about: but evermore Came out by the same door as in I went. What, without asking, hither hurried Whence? And, without asking, Whither hurried hence! Ah, contrite Heav'n endowed us with the Vine To drug the memory of that insolence! And fear not lest Existence closing your Account, should lose, or know the type no more; The Eternal Saki from that Bowl has pour'd Millions of Bubbles like us, and will pour.
Waste not your Hour, nor in the vain pursuit Of This and That endeavour and dispute; Better be merry with the fruitful Grape Than sadden after none, or bitter, Fruit. Ah, but my Computations, People say, Have squared the Year to human compass, eh? If so, by striking from the Calendar Unborn To - morrow, and dead Yesterday. Oh threats of Hell and Hopes of Paradise! One thing at least is certain - This Life flies; One thing is certain and the rest is Lies; The Flower that once is blown for ever dies.
Strange, is it not? For let Philosopher and Doctor preach Of what they will, and what they will not - each Is but one Link in an eternal Chain That none can slip, nor break, nor over - reach. As under cover of departing Day Slunk hunger - stricken Ramazan away, Once more within the Potter's house alone I stood, surrounded by the Shapes of Clay.
And once again there gather'd a scarce heard Whisper among them; as it were, the stirr'd Ashes of some all but extinguisht Tongue, Which mine ear kindled into Living Word. Said one among them - "Surely not in vain My substance from the common Earth was ta'en That he who subtly wrought me into Shape Should stamp me back to shapeless Earth again? None answer'd this; but after silence spake Some Vessel of a more ungainly Make; "They sneer at me for leaning all awry: What! He's a Good Fellow, and 'twill all be well.
Would but the Desert of the Fountain yield One glimpse - if dimly, yet indeed, reveal'd, Toward which the fainting Traveller might spring, As springs the trampled herbage of the field! Of if the World were but to re - create, That we might catch ere closed the Book of Fate, And make The Writer on a fairer leaf Inscribe our names, or quite obliterate! Ah Love! But see! The rising Moon of Heav'n again Looks for us, Sweet - heart, through the quivering Plane: How oft hereafter rising will she look Among those leaves - for one of us in vain! When I see a fly land on such a businessman's nose, or mud is thrown at him by the acceleration of a yet hastier car passing by, or Knippelsbro Copenhagen Bridge is blocked for the sake of a boat passing under it, or a stone fall down from a house and kills him, then I laugh out of full lungs.
Who could bare himself or herself for not laughing? What good do they accomplish these people of hasting? Do they not end up like that old woman who, from sudden stupefaction of finding out that her house is burning, rescues nothing else than the chimney iron? What else do they rescue from of Life's big fire? To say that love is a feeling or anything of the kind is an unchristian conception of love. That is the aesthetic definition and therefore fits the erotic and everything of that nature.
But to the Christian love is the works of love. Christ's love was not an inner feeling, a full heart and what not, it was the work of love which was his life. Even if I have been mistaken on this or that point: God is nevertheless love. An unhappy person who conceals profound anguish in his heart but whose lips are so formed that as sighs and cries pass over them they sound like beautiful music.
These antitheses are mediated in a higher unity; in our common stupidity. Their desires are staid and dull, their passions drowsy. That is why my soul always turns back to the Old Testament and to Shakespeare. The clown came out to tell the audience. They thought it was a joke and applauded. He told hem again, and they became still more hilarious. Whether you laugh at the stupidities of the world or you weep over them, you will regret it either way. Whether you trust a girl or do not trust her, you will regret it either way. Whether you hand yourself or do not hang yourself, you will regret it either way.
There sat all the gods assembled. The gods were bored; therefore they created human beings. Adam was bored because he was alone; therefore Eve was created. Since that moment, boredom entered the world and grew in quantity in exact proportion to the growth of population. To amus themselves, [the people of the world] hit upon the notion of building a tower so high that it would reach the sky. In our age the principle of association. It strengthens by numbers, by solidarity, but from the ethical point of view this is a weakening. Not until the single individual has established an ethical stance in despite of the whole world, not until then can there be any question of genuinely uniting.
Otherwise it gets to be a union of people who separately are weak; a union as unbeautiful and depraved as child-marriage" Muggeridge. If I do not know that, my greater understanding will be of no help to him Despair defined as finitude lacking infinitude; infinitude lacking finitude; possibility lacking necessity; necessity lacking possibility. The greatest hazard of all, losing the self, can occur very quietly in the world, as if it were nothing at all. If I have ventured wrongly, well, then life helps me by punishing me.
But if I have not ventured at all, who helps me then? Every human being is a psychical-physical synthesis intended to be a spirit; this is the building, but he prefers to live in the basement, that is, in sensate categories. Thus the highest and holiest things make no impact whatsoever" He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it" Constructive ends can never give absolute moral justification to destructive means, because in the final analysis the end is preexistent in the mean.
We are prone to judge success by the index of our salaries or the size of our automobiles, rather than by the quality of our service and relationship to humanity" The oppressed must never allow the conscience of the oppressor to slumber. One of them is Christian and humane, declares the individual to be sacrosanct, and asserts that the rules of arithmetic are not to be applied to human units.
Those are the consequences of our consequentialness" Koestler , Two of them crushed half the world. The third was very small and weak and, actually, invisible. It was a shy little bird hidden in my rib an inch or so above my stomach. Sometimes in the most unexpected moments the bird would wake up, lift its head, and flutter its wings in rapture.
Then I too would lift my head because, for that short moment, I would know for certain that love and hope are infinitely more powerful than hate and fury, and that somewhere beyond the line of my horizon there was life indestructible, always triumphant" Under a Cruel Star, trans. I wanted to save everything, to cover up nothing, to pretty up nothing, to keep things inside me the way they had been, and to live with them. I wanted to live because I was alive, not just because by some accident I was not dead" If the system was fair and sound, it would provide ways of compensating for error.
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It might work in heaven, but its a foolish and destructive illusion for this world. Look at all those idealists who wanted nothing more than to work for the well-being of others; half of them are in jail; the other half start trembling every time their doorbell rings" No act is too sordid for them to carry out, no act disturbs their sleep, so long as it is not called by its proper name, so long as it is not put into words. In this lies the great power of words, which are the only weapon of the defenseless" Tourists from abroad and our own people would join them, listening, and pondering those beautiful, deceitful words carved into the stone: Truth Prevails.
Does it? Truth alone does not prevail. When it clashes with power, truth often loses. It prevails only when people are strong enough to defend it" There is a story of a convert in Newcastle who was asked why he became a Catholic, and he said he tried all the other places of worship, and everywhere they thrust a hymn-book into his hand, and stood at the door asking him to come again--except the Catholic church, where nobody took any notice of you at all Off the Record.
Films which satisfy our desire for such propositions may well reach into the dimension of ideology" They had answers to all of their own questions, but no answer for mine. There is only one question which really matters: why do bad things happen to good people? All other theological conversation is intellectually diverting. But I do not believe the same things about Him that I did years ago, when I was growing up or when I was a theological student. I recognize his limitations. He is limited in what He can do by laws of nature and human moral freedom. I can worship a God who hates suffering but cannot eliminate it, more easily than I can worship a God who chooses to make children suffer and die, for whatever exalted reason.
God may not prevent the calamity, but He gives us the strength and the perseverance to overcome it. Are you capable of forgiving and loving God even when you have found out that He is not perfect, even when He has let you down and disappointed you by permitting bas luck and sickness and cruelty in His world, and permitting some of those things to happen to you? Can you learn to love and forgive Him, despite his limitations, as Job does, and as you once learned to forgive and love your parents even though they were not as wise, as strong, or as perfect as you needed them to be" , , Proletarian ideology values chiefly that these given qualities be aroused and nurtured in humanity and be manifested not only in community w the one chosen of the heart, but in community w all the members of the collective.
The ideal of love of the working class, flowing from working cooperation and spiritual-volitional solidarity of members of the working class, men and women, naturally differs in form and content, from the conception of love in other cultural epochs. A mutual sincere sympathy will develop. The striving to express love not only in kisses and embraces, but in togetherness of action, in unity of will, in joint creation, will grow. The task of proletarian ideology is not to banish Eros from the social community, but only to rearm its quiver w the arrows of a new structure, to nurture the feeling of love between the sexes in the spirit of the greatest possible force, comradely solidarity" Rosenburg On Deism "a deistic God, an absentee landlord who ignores his slum" Fundamentals The greatest difference is not between those who have found God and those who have not.
This is only a temporary difference, for all in the second class will get into the first; all seekers will find [as Jesus promised]. The greatest difference is between seekers and nonseekers, for that is an eternal difference" Handbook Jesus never told men to try to live as He lived by imitation but to let Him live in them by divine initiative.
Serving on a jury forces a man to make up his mind and declare himself about something. Men don't like to do that. Sometimes it's unpleasant" To Kill a Mockingbird It's when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do" To Kill a Mockingbird Before I can live with other folks I've got to live with myself.
The one thing that doesn't abide by majority rule is a person's conscience" To Kill a Mockingbird We say that this is deception, dupery, stultification of the workers and peasants in the interests of the landowners and capitalists. We say: morality is what serves to destroy the old exploiting society and to unite all the working people around the proletariat, which is building up a new, a communist society" Bolshevik Visions, ed. Rosenberg, p. The helplessness of the exploited in their struggle with the exploiters also leads directly to a belief in a better afterlife, just as the impotence of savages in their struggle with nature leads to a faith in gods, devils, miracles and other such things.
To those who work hard and experience want throughout their lives, religion teaches submission and patience, and promises consolation in a heavenly reward. And for those who live at the expense of the work of others, religion appeals for charity, offering them tickets for heavenly bliss at rather moderate prices. Religion is the opium of the people. Religion is spiritual alcohol, in which the slaves of capital drown out their human identity, their strivings for a life worthy of man.
But the slave who recognizes his slavery, who rises up to battle for liberation, has already halfway ceased to be a slave. The conscious worker of our day, raised in the big factory, clears away from himself the darkness found in the service of priests and bourgeois hypocrites, in order to create for himself a better life here on earth. The proletariat of our day is becoming an advocate of socialism, which calls upon science to conduct a struggle with religious darkness, which frees the workers from faith in another life, which leads them to struggle for a better earthly life" Rosenburg Holy places are dark places.
It is life and strength, not knowledge and words, that we get in them. Holy wisdom is not clear and thin like water, but thick and dark like blood. For they are not the thing itself; they are only the scent of a flower we have not found, the echo of a tune we have not heard, news from a country we have not visited. In the same way, though I do not believe I wish I did that my desire for Paradise proves that I shall enjoy it, I think it a pretty good indication that such a thing exists and that some men will.
Morality is indispensable: but the Divine Life, which gives itself to us and which calls us to be gods, intends for us something in which morality will be swallowed up. We are to be remade. He behaves like the rich lover in a romance who woos the maiden on his own merits, disguised as a poor man, and only when he has won her reveals that he has a throne and palace to offer.
For I cannot help thinking that any religion which begins with a thirst for immortality is damned, as a religion, from the outset. That the self-rejection will turn out to be also a self-finding [i. All day long we are, in some degree, helping each other to one or the other of these destinations. There are no ordinary people. You have never talked to a mere mortal. The world is crowded with Him. He walks everywhere incognito. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. You must make your choice.
Either this man was, and is, the son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at his feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronizing nonsense about his being a great human teacher.
He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to" Lewis, Mere Let us treat sex just as we treat all our other impulses. I have since discovered that they meant exactly the opposite. They meant that sex was to be treated as no other impulse in our nature has ever been treated by civilized people. All the others, we admit, have to be bridled. The happiness which God designs for His higher creatures is the happiness of being freely, voluntarily united to Him and to each other in an ecstasy of love and delight compared with which the most rapturous love between a man and a woman in this earth is mere milk and water.
And for that they must be free" Lewis Mere I do not mean that the ghost may not wish to come out of hell, in the vague fashion wherein an envious man "wishes" to be happy: but they certainly do not will even the first preliminary stages of that self-abandonment through which alone the soul can reach any good. They enjoy forever the horrible freedom they have demanded, and are therefore self-enslaved just as the blessed, forever submitting to obedience, become through all eternity more and more free" Lewis Problem It is hardly complimentary to God that we should choose Him as an alternative to Hell: yet even this He accepts.
And obviously to watch a man doing something is not to make him do it" Lewis Screwtape All the habits of the patient, both mentally and bodily, are still in our favor. Work hard, then, on the disappointment or anticlimax which is certainly coming to the patient during his first few weeks as a churchman. The Enemy allows this disappointment to occur on the threshold of every human endeavor. It occurs when the boy who has been enchanted in the nursery by Stories from the Odyssey buckles down to really learning Greek. It occurs when lovers have got married and begin the real task of learning to live together.
In every department of life it marks the transition from dreaming aspiration to laborious doing. Desiring their freedom, He therefore refuses to carry them, by their mere affections and habits, to any of the goals which He sets before them: He leaves them to "do it on their own. But also, remember, there lies our danger. If once they get through this initial dryness successfully, they become much less dependent on emotion and therefore much harder to tempt C. The Screwtape Letters, p. If may surprise you to know that in His efforts to get permanent possession of a soul, He relies on the troughs even more than on the peaks; some of his special favorites have gone through longer and deeper troughs than anyone else.
Sooner or later, He withdraws, if not in fact, at least in conscious experience, all those supports and incentives. He leaves the creature to stand up on its own two legs--to carry out from the will alone duties which have lost all relish. It is during such trough periods, much more than during the peak periods, that it is growing into the sort of creature He wants it to be.
Hence the prayers offered in the state of dryness are those which please Him best. Our cause is never more in danger than when a human, no longer desiring, but still intending to do our Enemy's will, looks round upon a universe from which every trace of Him seems to have vanished, and asks why he has been forsaken, and still obeys" Screwtape Letters , The attitude which you want to guard against is that in which temporal affairs are treated primarily as material for obedience.
Once you have made the World an end, and faith a means, you have almost won your man, and it makes little difference what kind of worldly end he is pursuing. Provided that meetings, pamphlets, policies, movements, causes, and crusades matter more to him than prayers and sacraments and charity, he is ours--and the more 'religious' on those terms the more securely ours" We want an entire race perpetually in pursuit of the rainbow's end. The thing to do is to get a man at first to value social justice as a thing which the Enemy demands, and then work him on to stage at which he values Christianity because it may produce social justice.
For the Enemy will not be used as a convenience. You see the little rift? We direct the fashionable outcry of each generation against those vices of which it is least in danger and fix its approval on the virtue nearest to that vice which we are trying to make endemic. Thus we make it fashionable to expose the dangers of enthusiasm at the very moment when they are all really becoming worldly and lukewarm; a century later, when we are really making them all Byronic and drunk with emotion, the fashionable outcry is directed against the dangers of mere 'understanding'" The Screwtape Letters, We may hope for a good deal of cruelty and unchastity, but if we are not careful, we shall see thousands turning in this tribulation to the Enemy, while tens of thousands who do not go so far as that will nevertheless have their attention diverted from themselves to values and causes which they believe to be higher than the self.
Consider too what undesirable deaths occur in wartime. How much better for us if all humans died in costly nursing homes amid doctors who lie, nurses who lie, friends who lie, as we have trained them, promising life to the dying,. After an interval of seven years he may be elected again. If the king is killed by the enemy, his nearest rela- tive may be a candidate to succeed him. If he dies a natural death, or if his period of service has expired, he shall not be succeeded by any blood rela- tion nearer than the fourth degree. Those who fight with arms are not men of counsel, therefore no king must bear arms.
His wisdom must be his weapon, and the love of bis warriors his shield. These are the Rights of the Mothers and the Kings. If war breaks out, the mother sends her messengers to the king, who sends messengers to the Grevetmen to call the citizens to arms. The Grevetmen call all the citizens together and decide how many men shall be sent.
All the resolutions must immediately be sent to the mother by messengers and witnesses. The mother considers all the resolutions and decides upon them, and with this the king as well as the people must be satisfied. When in the field, the king consults only his superior officers, but three citizens of the mother must be present, without any voice. These citizens must send daily reports to the mother, that they may be sure nothing is done contrary to the counsels of Frya. If the king wishes to do anything which his council opposes, he may not persist in it. If the king is not present, the next to him takes command, and so on in succession according to rank.
If there is no leader present, one must be choseu. If there is no time to choose, any one may come forward who feels himself capable of leading. If a king has conquered a dangerous enemy, his successors may take his name after their own. The king may, if he wishes, choose an open piece of ground for a house and ground; the ground shall be enclosed, and may be so large that there shall be seven hundred steps to the boundary in all directions from the house. Here are the Rules established for the Security of all Frisians.
Ut Mineos Seriftun. Whenever in time of war either ships or houses are destroyed, either by the enemy or as a matter of precau- tion, a general levy shall be assessed on the people to make it good again, so that no one may neglect the general welfare to preserve his own interest. If there are widows and orphans, they shall likewise be maintained at the public expense ; and the sons may inscribe the names of their fathers on their shields for the honour of their families.
If any who have been taken prisoners should return, they must be kept separate from the camp, because they may have obtained their liberty by making treacherous promises, and thus they may avoid keeping their pro- mises without forfeiting their honour. If any enemies be taken prisoners, they must be sent to the interior of the country, that they may learn our free customs. If they are afterwards set free, it must be done with kindness by the maidens, in order that we may make them comrades and friends, instead of haters and enemies.
If the offended will spare his life and forego their revenge, it may be permitted. If the culprit should be a king, Grevetjnan, or other person in authority, we must make good his fault, but he must be punished. If he bears on his shield the honourable name of his forefathers, his kinsmen shall no longer wear it, in order that every man may look after the conduct of his rela- tives.
Laws for the Navigators. Navigator is the title of those who make foreign voyages. The navigators may choose their own masters. The traders must be chosen and named by the community to which they belong, and the navigators have no voice in their election. If during a voyage it is found that the king is bad or incompetent, another may be put in his place, and on the return home he may make his complaint to the Older- man. If the fleet returns with profits, the sailors may divide one-third among themselves in the following manner : The king twelve portions, the admiral seven, the boatswains each two portions, the captains three, and the rest of the crew each one part; the youngest boys each one-third of a portion, the second boys half a portion each, and the eldest boys two-thirds of a portion each.
If any have been disabled, they must be maintained at the public expense, and honoured in the same way as the soldiers. Their widows and orphans must be maintained at the public expense ; and if they were killed in a sea-fight, their sons may bear the names of their fathers on their shields. If he was betrothed, his bride may claim seven portions in order to erect a monument to her bridegroom, but then she must remain a widow all her life.
If a sailor is worn out and poor, and has no house or patrimony, one must be given him. If he does not wish for a house, his friends may take him home ; and the com- munity must bear the expense, unless his friends decline to receive it. Useful Extracts from the Writings left by Minno. If any one comes and says, I am at war, you must help me; or another comes and says, My son is an infant and incompetent, and I am old, so I wish you to be his guardian, and to take charge of my property until he is of age, it is proper to refuse in order that we may not come into disputes about matters foreign to our free customs.
Whenever a foreign trader comes to the open markets at Wyringen and Almanland, if he cheats, he must im- mediately be fined, and it must be published by the maidens throughout the whole country. If he should come back, no one must deal with him. He must return as he came. Whenever traders are chosen to go to trading stations, or to sail with the fleets, they must be well known and of good reputation with the maidens. If, however, a bad man should by chance be chosen and should try to cheat, the others are bound to remove him. If he should have committed a cheat, it must be made good, and the culprit must be banished from the land in order that our name may be everywhere held in honour.
If we should be ill-treated in a foreign market, whether distant or near, we must immediately attack them ; for though we desire to be at peace, we must not let our neighbours underrate us or think that we are afraid. In my youth I often grumbled at the strictness of the laws, but afterwards I learned to thank Frya for her Tex and our forefathers for the laws which they established upon it.
Many are like Finda. They are clever enough, but they are too rapacious, haughty, false, im- moral, and bloodthirsty. The toad blows himself out, but he can only crawl. They say a great deal about making good laws, and every one wishes to make regulations against misconduct, but does not wish to submit to them himself. Whoever is the most crafty crows over the others, and tries to make them submit to him, till another comes who drives him off his perch. If the water is disturbed it becomes troubled, uneven, but it always has a tendency to return to its tranquil condition.
Eternity is another symbol of Wr-alda, who remains always just and unchangeable. Ut-a Skrifta Minnos. If, therefore, it is desired to make laws and regulations which shall be permanent, they must be equal for all men. The judges must pro- nounce their decisions according to these laws. If we act thus, our judgment will never fail to be right. If instead of doing right, men will commit wrong, there will arise quarrels and differences among people and states. Thence arise civil wars, and everything is thrown into con- fusion and destroyed; and, 0 foolish people!
When Nyhalennia, whose real name was Min-erva, was well established, and the Krekalanders loved her as well as our own people did, there came some princes and priests to her citadel and asked Min-erva where her possessions lay. Hellenia answered, I carry my possessions in my own bosom.
What I have inherited is the love of wisdom, justice, and freedom. If I lose these I shall become as the least of your slaves; now I give advice for nothing, but then I should sell it. The gentlemen went away laughing and saying, Tour humble servants, wise Hellenia. But they missed their object, for the people took up this name as a name of honour.
When they saw that Ny hellenia or Nehalennia. She was once asked, If you are not a witch, what is the use of the eggs that you always carry with you? Time will hatch them, and we must watch that no harm happens to them. The priests said, Well answered ; but what is the use of the dog on your right hand? Hellenia replied, Does not the shepherd have a sheep-dog to keep his flock together?
We understand that very well, said the priests; but tell us what means the owl that always sits upon your head, is that light-shunning animal a sign of your clear vision? No, answered Hellenia; he reminds me that there are people on earth who, like him, have their homes in churches and holes, who go about in the twilight, not, like him, to deliver us from mice and other plagues, but to in- vent tricks to steal away the knowledge of other people, in order to take advantage of them, to make slaves of them, and to suck their blood like leeches.
Another time they came with a whole troop of people, when the plague was in the country, and said ; We are all making offerings to the gods that they may take away the plague. Will you not help to turn away their anger, or have you yourself brought the plague into the land with all your arts? No, said Min-erva ; I know no gods that do evil, therefore I cannot ask them to do better.
Where, then, does evil come from? Hellenia andere, Frya het ys vppe wei brocht ind thene kroder that is tid, tham mot thit ovrige dva. With alle rampon is red ind help to findande, tha Wr. Tach alsa nil-t vs drochten navt, hi wil that wi ekkorum helpa, men hi wil ik thit jahweder fry sy ind wis wrde. All the evil comes from you, and from the stupidity of the people who let themselves be deceived by you. If, then, your god is so exceedingly good, why does he not turn away the bad?
Hel- lenia answered : Frya has placed us here, and the car- rier, that is, Time, must do the rest. For all calamities there is counsel and remedy to be found, but Wr-alda wills that we should search it out ourselves, in order that we may become strong and wise. If we will not do that, he leaves us to our own devices, in order that we may experience the results of wise or foolish conduct.
Then a prince said, I should think it best to submit. Very possibly, answered Hellenia ; for then men would be like sheep, and you and the priests would take care of them, shearing them and leading them to the shambles. This is what our god does not desire, he de- sires that we should help one another, but that all should be free and wise. That is also our desire, and therefore our people choose their princes, counts, councillors, chiefs, and masters among the wisest of the good men, in order that every man shall do his best to be wise and good.
Thus doing, we learn ourselves and teach the people that being wise and acting wisely can alone lead to holiness. That seems very good judgment, said the priests ; but if you mean that the plague is caused by our stupidity, then Nyhellenia will perhaps be so good as to bestow upon us a little of that new light of which she is so proud. Yes, said Hellenia, but ravens and other birds of prey feed only on dead carrion, whereas the plague feeds not only on carrion but on bad laws and customs and wicked passions.
If you wish the plague to depart from you and not return, you must put away your bad passions and become pure within and without. Th2t folk bigost to jolande 2nd to spotande. Then Hellenia stood up and said: The sparrows follow the sower, and the people their good princes, therefore it becomes you to begin by rendering yourselves pure, so that you may look within and without, and not be ashamed of your own conduct. Now, instead of purifying the people, you have invented foul festivals, in which they have so long revelled that they wallow like swine in the mire to atone for your evil passions.
The people began to mock and to jeer, so that she did not dare to pursue the subject ; and one would have thought that they would have called all the people together to drive us out of the land ; but no, in place of abusing her they went all about from the heathenish Krekaland to the Alps, pro- claiming that it had pleased the Almighty God to send his clever daughter Min-erva, surnamed Nyhellenia, over the sea in a cloud to give people good counsel, and that all who listened to her should become rich and happy, and in the end governors of all the kingdoms of the earth.
They erected statues to her on all their altars, they announced and sold to the simple people advice that she had never given, and related. They cunningly made themselves masters of our laws and customs, and by craft and subtlety were able to explain and spread them around. They appointed priestesses under their own care, who were apparently under the protection of Festa, our first Eeremoeder, to watch over the holy lamp; but that lamp they lit themselves, and instead of imbuing the priestesses with wisdom, and then sending them to watch the sick and educate the young, they made them stupid and ignorant, and never allowed them to come out.
When Nyhellenia died, we wished to choose another mother, and some of us wished to go to Texland to look for her; but the priests, who were all-powerful among their own people, would not permit it, and accused us before the people of being unholy. From the Writings of Minno. When I came away from Athenia with my followers, we arrived at an island named by my crew Kreta, because of the cries that the inhabitants raised on our arrival.
When they really saw that we did not come to make war, they were quiet, so that at last I was able to buy a harbour in exchange for a boat and some iron implements, and a piece of land. When we had been settled there a short time, and they discovered that we had no slaves, they were very much astonished ; and when I explained to them that we had laws which made everybody equal, they wished to have the same; but they had hardly established them before the whole land was in confusion.
The priests and the princes declared that we had excited their subjects to rebellion, and the people appealed to us for aid and protection. When the princes saw that they were about to lose their kingdom, they gave freedom to their people, and came to me to establish a code of laws. The people, however, got no freedom, and the princes remained masters, acting according to their own pleasure. When this storm had passed, they began to sow divisions among us. They told my people that I had invoked their assistance to make myself permanent king. Once I found poison in my food.
Ende wra skrifta Minnos. These are the Three Principles on which these Laws are founded. Everybody knows that he requires the necessaries of life, and if he cannot obtain them he does not know how to preserve his life. All men have a natural desire to have children, and if it is not satisfied they are not aware what evil may spring from it. To secure this, these laws and regulations are made.
The people of Finda have also their rules and regula- tions, but these are not made according to what is just — only for the advantage of priests and princes — therefore their states are full of disputes and murder. If any man falls into a state of destitution, his case must be brought before the count by the maidens, be- cause a high-minded Frisian cannot bear to do that himself. If any man becomes poor because he will not work, he must be sent out of the country, because the cowardly and lazy are troublesome and ill-disposed, therefore they ought to be got rid of.
Every young man ought to seek a bride and to be married at five-and-twenty. Ta knd. Thissa Domar send makad fara Nvdiga Manniska. Sa hwa in hd. If a young man is not married at five-and- twenty, he must be driven from his home, and the younger men must avoid him. If then he will not marry, he must be de- clared dead, and leave the country, so that he may not give offence. If a man is impotent, he must openly declare that no one has anything to fear from him, then he may come or go where he likes. If after that he commits any act of incontinence, then he must flee away ; if he does not, he may be given over to the vengeance of those whom he has offended, and no one may aid him.
Any one who commits a theft shall restore it three- fold. For a second offence he shall be sent to the tin mines. The person robbed may forgive him if he pleases, but for a third offence no one shall protect him. These Bules are made for Angry People. If he cannot pay, he must suffer the same injury as he has done to the other. If he refuses this, he must appeal to the Burgtmaagd in order to be sent to work in the iron or tin mines until he has expiated his crime under the general law. If a man is so wicked as to kill a Frisian, he must forfeit his own life ; but if the Burgtmaagd can send him to the tin mines for his life before he is taken, she may do so.
This send Domar fara Horninga. Him skolde mSn mota barna. These are the Rules concerning Bastards. If he is caught in the act, he must be thrown into the fire ; and wherever he may flee, he shall never be secure from the avenging justice. No true Frisian shall speak ill of the faults of his neighbours.
If any man injures himself, but does no harm to others, he must be his own judge ; but if he becomes so bad that he is dangerous to others, they must bring it before the count. But if instead of going to the count a man accuses another behind his back, he must be put on the pillory in the market-place, and then sent out of the country, but not to the tin mines, because even there a backbiter is to be feared.
If any man should prove a traitor and show to our enemies the paths leading to our places of refuge, or creep into them by night, he must be the offspring of Finda; he must be burnt. The sailors must take his mother and all his relations to a desolate island, and there scatter his ashes, in order that no poisonous herbs may spring from them. Tha hja wrdon alle fat. Zie plaat I. There were three men who each stole a sack of corn from different owners, but they were all caught. The first owner brought his thief to the judge, and the maidens said everywhere that he had done right.
The second owner took the corn away from his thief and let him go in peace. The maidens said he has done well. This was reported to the Eeremoeder, and she had it made known over the whole country. What is written hereunder is inscribed on the Walls of Waraburgt. See Plate I. What appears at the top is the signs of the Juul — that is, the first symbol of Wr-alda, also of the origin or be- ginning from which Time is derived ; this is the Kroder, which must always go round with the Juul. According to this model Frya formed the set hand which she used to write her Tex.
When Fasta was Eeremoeder she made a running hand out of it. The Witkoning— that is, the Sea-King Godfried the Old — made separate numbers for the set hand and for the runic hand. It is therefore not too much that we celebrate it once a year. We may be eternally thankful to Wr-alda that he allowed his spirit to exercise such an influence over our fore- fathers.
Zie plaat II.
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Furthermore, they wished pat their writing should be illegible by other people, be- cause they always had matters to conceal. In doing this pey acted very unwisely, because their children could only pith great difficulty read the writings of their predecessors, whereas our most ancient writings are as easy to read as pose that were written yesterday. See Plate II. This stands inscribed upon all Citadels. The sun rose higher, and there was Seldom frost. The trees and shrubs produced various fruits, which are now lost. In the fields we had not only rbarley,. The years Vere not counted, for one was as happy as another.
X Angelara, Angli. The banks of these rivers were at one time entirely in- habited by our people, as well as the banks of the Rhine from one end to the other. Opposite Denmark and Jut- land we had colonies and a Burgtmaagd. Thence we obtained copper and iron, as well as tar and pitch, and some other necessaries. Opposite to us we had Britain, formerly Westland, with her tin mines. Britain was the land of the exiles, who with the help of their Burgtmaagd had gone away to save their lives ; but in order that they might not come back they were tattooed with a B on the forehead, the banished with a red dye, the other criminals with blue.
Moreover, our sailors and mer- chants had many factories among the distant Krekalanders and in Lydia. In Lydia Lybia the people are black. As our country was so great and extensive, we had many different names. Those who lived in the islands were called Letten, because they lived an isolated life. All those who lived between Denmark and the Sandval, now the Scheldt, were called Stuurlieden pilots , Zeekampers naval men , and Angel- aren fishermen. The Angelaren were men who fished in the sea, and were so named because they used lines and , hooks instead of nets.
From there to the nearest part of Krekaland the inhabitants were called Kadhemers, because they never went to sea but remained ashore. Those who were settled in the higher marches bounded by Twisklanden Germany were called Sax- mannen, because they were always armed against the wild beasts and the savage Britons. How the Bad Time came.
During the whole summer the sun had been hid behind the clouds, as if unwilling to look upon the earth.
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There was perpetual calm, and the damp mist hung like a wet sail over the houses and the marshes. In the midst of this stillness the earth began to tremble as if she was dying. The mountains opened to vomit forth fire and flames. Some sank into the bosom of the earth, and in other places mountains rose out of the plain.
Aldland, called by the seafaring people, Atland, disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over hill and dale that everything was buried in the sea. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the water. Whole forests were burned one after the other, and when the wind blew from that quarter our land was covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drift. During three years this continued, but at length it ceased, and forests became visible.
Many countries were submerged, and in other places land rose above the sea, and the wood was destroyed through the half of Twiskland Germany. Our dispersed people were exterminated or made slaves. Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, and time taught us that union is force. This is inscribed on the Waraburgt by the Aldegamude. It lies three hours south from Medeasblik.
Thus is the Preface. Hills, bow your heads; weep, ye streams and clouds. Schoonland Scandinavia blushes, an enslaved people tramples on your garment, 0 Frya. This is the History. One hundred and one years after the submersion of Aldland a people came out of the East. That people was driven by another.
Behind us, in Twistland Germany , they fell into disputes, divided into two parties, and each went its own way. Of the one no account has come to us, but the other came in the back of our Schoonland, which was thinly inhabited, particularly the upper part. There- fore they were able to take possession of it without contest, and as they did no other harm, we would not make war about it.
Now that we have learned to know them, we will describe their customs, and after that how matters went between us. The priests are the only rulers ; they call themselves Magyars, and their headman Magy. He is high priest and king in one. The rest of the people are of no account, and in subjection to them. This people have not even a name ; but we call them Finns, because although all the festivals are melancholy and bloody, they are so formal that we are inferior to them in that respect.
But still they are not to be envied, because they are slaves to their priests, and still more to their creeds. They have weapons of stone, the Magyars of copper. The Magyars affirm that they can exorcise f - is before Christ. Goda-hisburch, Gothenburg, t Alderga, Ouddorp bij Alkmaar. When they were well established, the Magyars sought our friendship, they praised our language and customs, our cattle and iron weapons, which they would willingly have exchanged for their gold and silver ornaments, and they always kept their people within their own boundaries, and that outwitted our watchfulness.
Eighty years afterwards, just at the time of the Juul- feest, they overran our country like a snowstorm driven by the wind. All who could not flee away were killed. Fry a was appealed to, but the Schoonlanders Scandina- vians had neglected her advice. Then all the forces were assembled, and three hours from Godasburgt they were withstood, but war continued.
Kat or Katerine was the name of the priestess who was Burgtmaagd of Godasburgt. Kat was proud and haughty, and would neither seek coun- sel nor aid from the mother; but when the Burgtheeren citizens knew this, they themselves sent messengers to Texland to the Eeremoeder. Minna — this was the name of the mother — summoned all the sailors and the young men from Oostflyland and Denmark.
From this expedition the history of Wodin sprang, which is inscribed on the cita- dels, and is here copied. At Aldergamude there lived an old sea-king whose name was Sterik, and whose deeds were famous. This old fellow had three nephews. Wodin, the eldest, lived at Lumkamakia, near the Eemude, in Oost- flyland, with his parents. He had once commanded troops. Teunis and Inka were naval warriors, and were just then staying with their father at Aldergamude.
When the young warriors had assembled together, they chose Wodin to be their leader or king, and the naval force chose Ten- nis for their sea-king and Inka for their admiral. The navy then sailed to Denmark, where they took on board Wodin and his valiant host. Kiliaan in voce. When the northern brothers met together, Wodin divided his powerful army into three bodies. Frya was their war-cry, and they drove back the Finns and Magyars like children.
You think that we attacked your brothers out of illwill, but we were driven out by our enemies, who are still at our heels. We have often asked your Burgt- maagd for help, but she took no notice of us. The Magy says that if we kill half our numbers in fight- ing with each other, then the wild shepherds will come and kill all the rest.
The Magy possesses great riches, but he has seen that Frya is much more powerful than all our spirits together. He will lay down his head in her lap. You are the most warlike king on the earth, and your people are of iron. Become our king, and we will all be your slaves. What glory it would be for you if you could drive back the savages I Our trumpets would re- sound with your praises, and the fame of your deeds would precede you everywhere. Wodin was strong, fierce, and warlike, but he was not clear-sighted, therefore he was taken in their toils, and crowned by the Magy.
Very many of the sailors and. But Kat, who did not wish to ap- pear before either the mother or the general assembly, jumped overboard. Then a storm arose and drove the ships upon the banks of Denmark, with the total de- struction of their crews. This strait was afterwards called the Kattegat.
When Wodin returned, Magy gave him his daughter to wife. Whereupon he was incensed with herbs; but they were magic herbs, and by degrees he became so audacious that he dared to disavow and ridicule the spirits of Frya and Wr-alda, while he bent his free head before the false and deceitful images.
His reign lasted seven years, and then he disappeared. The Magy said that he was taken up by their gods and still reigned over us, but our people laughed at what they said. When Wodin had disappeared some time, disputes arose. We wished to choose another king, but the Magy would not permit it. He asserted that it was his right given him by his idols. But besides this dispute there was one between the Mag- yars and Finns, who would honour neither Frya nor Wodin ; but the Magy did just as he pleased, because his daughter had a son by Wodin, and he would have it that this son was of high descent.
While all were disputing and quarrelling, he crowned the boy as king, and set up himself as guardian and counsellor. Those who cared more for themselves than for justice let him work his own way, but the good men took their departure. Many Magyars fled back with their troops, and the sea-people took ship, accompanied by a body of stalwart Finns as rowers.
Next comes upon the stage the history of Neef Teunis and Neef Inka. When Teunis wished to return home, he went first towards Denmark ; but he might not land there, for so the Wodin is Odin or Wodan. In this way he would have lost all his people by want and hardship, so he landed at night to steal and sailed on by day. Thus coasting along, he at length arrived at the colony of Kadik Cadiz , so called because it was built with a stone quay.
Here they bought all kinds of stores, but Tuntia the] Burgtmaagd would not allow them to settle there. When they were ready they began to disagree. Inka thought that perchance some high-lying part of Atland might remain as an island, where he and his people might live in peace. As the two cousins could not agree, Teunis planted a red flag on the shore, and Inka a blue flag. When they had counted the people and divided the ships accordingly, the fleet sepa- rated.
We shall hear of Teunis afterwards, but nothing more of Inka. Neef Teunis coasted through the straits to the Mediter- ranean Sea. The result of all this was that the Krekalanders far and wide were lost to the superintendence of the mother. X Thyr, de zoon van Odin. At last they arrived at the Phoenician coast, one hundred and ninety-three years after Atland was submerged. Near the coast they found an island with two deep bays, so that there appeared to be three islands. In the middle one they established themselves, and afterwards built a city wall round the place. Then they wanted to give it a name, but disagreed about it.
Some wanted to call it Fryasburgt, others Neeftunia ; but the Magyars and Finns begged that it might be called Thyrhisburgt. Thyr was the name of one of their idols, and it was upon his feast-day that they had landed there ; and in return they offered to recognise Teunis as their perpetual king. Tennis let himself be persuaded, and the others would not make any quarrel about it.
When they were well estab- lished, they sent some old seamen and Magyars on an expedition as far as the town of Sidon; but at first the inhabitants of the coast would have nothing to do with them, saying, You are only foreign adventurers whom we do not respect. But when we sold them some of our iron weapons, everything went well.
They also wished to buy our amber, and their inquiries about it were incessant. But Teunis, who was far-seeing, pretended that he had no more iron weapons or amber. Then merchants came and begged him to let them have twenty vessels, which they would freight with the finest goods, and they would pro- vide as many people to row as he would require. Twelve ships were then laden with wine, honey, tanned leather, and saddles and bridles mounted in gold, such as had never been seen before.
X Missellja, Marseille. Afterwards this place was called Almanaland, and the market where they traded at Wyringen was called Toe- laatmarkt. The mother advised that they should sell everything except iron weapons, but no attention was paid to what she said. As the Thyriers had thus free play, they came from far and near to take away our goods, to the loss of our seafaring people. Therefore it was resolved in a general assembly to allow only seven Thyrian ships and no more in a year.
What the Consequence of this was. In the northernmost part of the Mediterranean there lies an island close to the coast. They now came and asked to buy that, on which a general council was held. Hereafter will be seen what reason we had. The Golen, as the missionary priests of Sidon were called, had observed that the land there was thinly peopled, and was far from the mother.
When they were well established, their merchants exchanged their beautiful copper weapons and all sorts of jewels for our iron weapons and hides of wild beasts, which were abundant in our southern Almanaland is Ameland. If any of our people had so conducted himself that his life was in danger, the Golen afforded him a refuge, and sent him to Phonisia, that is, Palmland.
When he was settled there, they made him write to his family, friends, and connections that the country was so good and the people so happy that no one could form any idea of it. In Britain there were plenty of men, but few women. When the Golen knew this, they carried off girls every- where and gave them to the Britons for nothing. So all these girls served their purpose to steal children from Wr-alda in order to give them to false gods.
In the middle of one island is the city of Walhallagara Middelburg , and on the walls of this city the following history is inscribed. This name was well chosen, for her counsels were new and clear above all others. On the other side of the Scheldt, at Flyburgt, Sijrhed presided. This maiden was full of tricks. Therefore the mariners called her Kalta, and the landsmen thought it was a title.
In the last will of the dead mother, Rosamond was named first, Min-erva second, and Sijrhed third in suc- cession. Min-erva did not mind that, but Sijrhed was very much offended. Like a foreign princess, she wished to be honoured, feared, and worshipped; but Min-erva only desired to be loved. At last all the sailors, even from Denmark and Flymeer, did homage to her. This hurt Sijrhed, because she wanted to excel Min-erva.
In order to give an impression of her great watchfulness, she had a cock put on her banner. So then Min-erva went and put a sheep-dog and an owl on her banner. The dog, she said, guards his master and his flock, and the owl watches that the mice shall not devastate the fields ; but the cock in his lewdness and his pride is only fit to murder his nearest relations.
When Kalta found that her scheme had failed she was still more vexed, so she secretly sent for the Magyars to teach her conjuring. When she had had enough of this she threw herself into the hands of the Gauls ; but all her malpractices did not improve her position. When she saw that the sailors kept more and more aloof from her, she tried to win them back by fear. At the full moon, when the sea was stormy, she ran over the wild waves, calling to the sailors that they would all be lost if they did not worship her. Then she blinded their eyes, so that they mistook land for water and water for land, and in this way many a good ship was totally lost.
At the first war-feast, when all her countrymen were armed, she brought casks of beer, which she had drugged. Sunrise could not be more beautiful. When she saw that the eyes of all were fixed upon her, she opened her lips and said : — Sons and daughters of Frya, you know that in these last times we hare suffered much loss and misery because the sailors no longer come to buy our paper, but you do not know what the reason of it is.
I have long kept silence about it, but can do so no longer. Listen, then, my friends, that you may know on which side to show your teeth. On the other side of the Scheldt, where from time to time there come ships from all parts, they make now paper from pumpkin leaves, by which they save flax and outdo us. Now, as the making of paper was always our principal industry, the mother willed that people should learn it from us ; but Min-erva has bewitched all the people — yes, bewitched, my friends — as well as all our cattle that died lately.
I must come out with it. If I were not Burgtmaagd, I should know what to do. I should burn the witch in her nest. As soon as she had uttered these words she sped away to her citadel ; but the drunken people were so excited that they did not stop to weigh what they had heard. In mad haste they hurried over the Sandfal, and as night came on they burst into the citadel.
However, Kalta again missed her aim ; for Min-erva, her maidens, and her lamp were all saved by the alertness of the seamen. We now come to the History of Jon. Nw skold er. He would also have taken paper from here, but when he saw how Kalta had destroyed the citadel he became so angry that he went off with all his people to Flyburgt, and out of revenge set fire to it. His admiral and some of his people saved the lamp and the maidens, but they could not catch Sijrhed or Kalta. She climbed up on the furthest battlement, and they thought she must be killed in the flames ; but what happened?
At this time Rosamond the mother, who had done all in her power by gentle means to preserve peace, when she saw how bad it was, made short work of it. Immediately she sent messengers throughout all the districts to call a general levy, which brought together all the defenders of the country. The landsmen who were fighting were all caught, but Jon with his seamen tpok refuge on board his fleet, taking with him the two lamps, as well as Min- erva and the maidens of both the citadels. Helprik, the chief, summoned him to appear'; but while all the soldiers were on the other side of the Scheldt, Jon sailed back to the Flymeer, and then straight to our islands.
His fight- ing men and mpny of our people took women and chil- dren on board, apd when Jon saw that he and his people would be punished for their misdeeds, he secretly took his departure. This step was a mistake, for now came the beginning of the end. Kalta, who, people said, could go as easily on the water as on the land, went to the mainland and on to Missellia Marseilles. Then came the Gauls out of the Mediterranean Sea with their ships to Cadiz, and along all our coa,sts, and fell upon Britain ; but they could not make any good footing there, because the government was powerful and the exiles were JHfc.
If you wish to be free again, and take my advice, and live under my care, come away. I will provide you with arms, and will watch over you. She built herself a citadel on the high land to the north, and called it Kaltasburgh. From this castle she ruled as a true mother, against their will, not for her followers, but over them, who were thenceforth called Kelts.
The Gauls gradually obtained dominion over the whole of Britain, partly because they no longer had any citadel ; secondly, because they had there no Burgtmaagden ; and thirdly, because they had no real lamps. From all these causes the people could not learn anything. They were stupid and foolish, and having allowed the Gauls to rob them of their arms, they were led about like a bull with a ring in his nose. It is inscribed at Texland.
Ten years after Jon went away, there arrived three ships in the Flymeer ; the people cried Huzza! What a blessing! When Jon reached the Mediterranean Sea, the reports of the Gauls had preceded him, so that on the nearest Italian coast he was nowhere safe. Therefore he went with his fleet straight over to Lybia. There the black men wanted to catch them and eat them.
At last they came to Tyre, but Min-erva said, Keep clear, for here the air has been long poisoned by the priests. The king was a descendant of Teunis, as we were afterwards informed; but as the priests wished to have a king, who, according to their ideas, was of long descent, they deified Teunis, to the vexation of his followers. After they had passed Tyre, the Tyrians seized one of the rearmost ships, and as the ship was too far behind us, we could not take it back again ; but Jon swore to be revenged for it. When night came, Jon bent his course towards the distant Krekalanden.
At last they arrived at a country that looked very barren, but they found a harbour there. Here, said Min-erva, we need not perhaps have any fear of princes or priests, as they always look out for rich fat lands. When they entered the harbour, there was not room for all the ships, and yet most of the people were too cowardly to go any further. Then Jon, who wished to get away, went with his spear and banner, calling to the young people, to know who would volunteer to share his adventures.
Min-erva did the same thing, but she wished to remain there. The greater part stopped with Min-erva, but the young sailors went with Jon. Min-erva retained her lamp and her own maidens. Between the near and the distant coasts of Italy Jon found some islands, which he thought desirable. Upon the largest he built a city in the wood between the mountains. From the smaller islands he made ex- peditions for vengeance on the Tyrians, and plundered their ships and their lands.
Therefore these islands were called Insulae Piratarum, as well as Johannis Insulae. When Min-erva had examined the country which is called by the inhabitants Attica, she saw that the people were all goatherds, and that they lived on meat, wild roots, herbs, and honey. They were clothed in skins, and had their dwellings on the slopes hellinga of the hills, wherefore they were called Hellingers.
At first they ran away, but when they found that we did not attack them, they came hack and showed great friendship. Min-erva asked if we might settle there peaceably. This was agreed to on. By the advice of Min-erva it was called Athens, because, she said, those who come after us ought to know that we are not here by cunning or violence, but were received as friends dtha. While we were building the citadel the principal person- ages came to see us, and when they saw that we had no slaves it did not please them, and they gave her to under- stand it, as they thought that she was a princess.
But Min-erva said, How did you get your slaves? They answered, We bought some and took others in war. That nv willath tha forsta navt, hja willath vs wei driwa. If you wish to remain our allies, you will free your slaves. The chiefs did not like this, and wanted to drive us away; but the most enlightened of the people came and helped us to build our citadel, which was built of stone.
This is the history of Jon and of Min-erva. This is about the Geertmen. When Hellenia or Min-erva died, the priests pretended to be with us, and in order to make it appear so, they deified Hellenia.
They refused to have any other mother chosen, saying that they feared there was no one among her maidens whom they could trust as they had trusted Min- erva, surnamed Nyhellenia. But we would not recognise Min-erva as a goddess, be- cause she herself had told us that no one could be perfectly good except the spirit of Wr-alda. Thereupon they gave the people statues of her, declaring that they might ask of them whatever they liked, as long as they were obedient to her. By these kinds of tales the stupid people were estranged from us, and at last they attacked ns ; but as we had built our stone city wall with two horns down to the sea, they could not get at us.
Then, lo and behold! When he saw that with his people he could not storm our wall, he sent messengers to Tyre. Thereupon there arrived three hundred ships full of wild mountain soldiers, which sailed unexpectedly into our haven while we were defending the walls. When they had taken our harbour, the wild soldiers wanted to plunder the village and our ships — one had already ravished a girl — but Cecrops would not permit it ; and the Tyrian sailors, who still had Frisian blood in their veins, said, If you do that we will burn our ships, and you shall never see your mountains again.
Cecrops, who had no inclination towards murder or devastation, sent messengers to Geert, requiring her to give up the citadel, offering her free exit with all her live and dead property, and her followers the same. The wisest of the citizens, seeing that they could not hold the citadel, advised Geert to accept at once, before Cecrops became furious and changed his mind. Soon after they had left the harbour they fell in with at least thirty ships coming from Tyre with women and children. They were on their way to Athens, but when they heard how things stood there they went with Geert.
Hyr seton hja hjara selva nithar. At last they landed at the Punjab, called in our language the Five Rivers, because five rivers flow together to the sea. Here they settled, and called it Geertmania. The King of Tyre afterwards, seeing that all his best sailors were gone, sent all his ships with his wild soldiers to catch them, dead or alive. When they arrived at the strait, both the sea and the earth trembled. The land was upheaved so that all the water ran out of the strait, and the muddy shores were raised up like a rampart.
This happened on account of the virtues of the Geertmen, as every one can plainly understand. After twelve years had elapsed without our seeing any Italians in Almanland, there came three ships, finer than any that we possessed or had ever seen. On the largest of them was a king of the Jonischen Islands whose name was Ulysses, the fame of whose wis- dom was great.
To him a priestess had prophesied that he should become the king of all Italy provided he could obtain' a lamp that had been lighted at the lamp in Tex- land. For this purpose he had brought great treasures with him, above all, jewels for women more beautiful than had ever been seen before. They were from Troy, a town that the Greeks had taken.
All these treasures he offered to the mother, but the mother would have nothing to do with them. At last, when he found that there was nothing to be got from her, he went to Walhallagara Walcheren. Pangab is the Indus. Tha selva heth er nimmerte jecht. Here he tarried for years, to the scandal of all that knew it. According to the report of the maidens, he obtained a lamp from her ; but it did him no good, because when he got to sea his ship was lost, and he was taken up naked and destitute by another ship.
From the other Greeks you will have heard a great deal of bad about Cecrops, because he was not in good repute ; but I dare affirm that he was an enlightened man,' very renowned both among the inhabitants and among us, for he was against oppression, unlike the other priests, and was virtuous, and knew how to value the wisdom of dis- tant nations.
Knowing that, he permitted us to live according to our own Asegaboek. There wa3 a story cur- rent that he was favourable to us because he was the son of a Frisian girl and an Egyptian priest : the reason of this was that he had blue eyes, and that many of our girls had been stolen and sold to Egypt, but he never con- firmed this.
However it may have been, certain it is that he showed us more friendship than all the other priests together. When he died, his successors soon began to tear up our charters, and gradually to enact so many un- suitable statutes that at long last nothing remained of liberty but the shadow and the name. Besides, they would not allow the laws to be written, so that the knowledge of them was hidden from us.
At first the men of Athens only married women of our own race, but the young men as they grew up with the girls of the country took them to wife. The bastard chil- dren of this connection were the handsomest and cleverest in the world ; but they were likewise the wickedest, waver- ing between the two parties, paying no regard to laws or customs except where they suited their own interests. As long as a ray of Frya's spirit existed, all the building materials were for common use, and no one might build a house larger or better than his neighbours ; but when some degenerate townspeople got rich by sea-voyages and by the silver that their slaves got in the silver countries, they went to live out on the hills or in the valleys.
There, behind high enclosures of trees or walls, they built palaces with costly furniture, and in order to remain in good odour with the nasty priests, they placed there. Sometimes the dirty priests and princes wished for the boys rather than the girls, and often led them astray from the paths of virtue by rich presents or by force. Because riches were more valued by this lost and degenerate race than virtue or honour, one sometimes saw boys dressed in splendid flowing robes, to the disgrace of their parents and maidens, and to the shame of their own sex.
If our simple parents came to a general assembly at Athens and made complaints, a cry was raised, Hear, hear! Such is Athens become, like a morass in a tropical country full of leeches, toads, and poisonous snakes, in which no man of decent habits can set his foot. Ill This is inscribed in all our Citadels. How our Denmark was lost to us years after the submersion of Atland. Through the mad wantonness of Wodin, Magy had become master of the east part of Scandinavia. They dare not come over the hills and over the sea. The mother would not prevent it.
She said, I see no danger in their weapons, but much in taking the Scandinavians back again, because they are so degenerate and spoilt. The general assembly were of the same opinion. Therefore it was left to him. A good hundred years ago Denmark began to trade ; they gave their iron weapons in exchange for gold ornaments, as well as for copper and iron-ore.
The mother sent messengers to advise them to have nothing to do with this trade. There was danger to their morals in it, and if they lost their morals they would soon lose their liberty. But the Den- markers paid no attention to her. They did not believe that they could lose their morals, therefore they would not listen to her. At last they were at a loss themselves for weapons and necessaries, and this difficulty was their punishment.
Their bodies were brilliantly adorned, but their cupboards and their sheds were empty. Just one hundred years after the first ship with provisions sailed from the coast, poverty and want made their appearance, hunger spread her wings all over the country, dissension marched proudly about the streets and into the houses, charity found no place, and unity departed. The child asked its mother for food ; she had no food to give, only jewels. The women applied to their husbands, the husbands appealed to the counts ; the counts had nothing to give, or if they had, they hid it away.
When the frost had made the bridge, vigilance ceased in the land, and treachery took its place. Instead of watching on the shores, they put their horses in their sledges and drove off to Scandinavia. Then the Scandinavians, who hungered after the land of their forefathers, came to Denmark.
One bright night they all came. Now, they said, we have a right to the land of our fathers ; and while they were fighting about it, the. As they had no good weapons, they lost the battle, and with it their free- dom, and Magy became master. There are some who think that they were betrayed by the counts, and that the maidens had long suspected it ; but if any one attempted to speak about it, his mouth was shut by golden chains. We can express no opinion about it, we can only say to you, Do not trust too much to the wisdom of your princes or of your maidens; but if you wish to keep things straight, everybody must watch over his own passions, as well as the general welfare.
Two years afterwards Magy himself came with a fleet of light boats to steal the lamp from the mother of Texland. This wicked deed he accomplished one stormy winter night, while the wind roared and the hail rattled against the windows. The watchman on the tower hearing the noise, lighted his torch. As soon as the light from the tower fell upon the bastion, he saw that already armed men had got over the wall. He immediately gave the alarm, but it was too late. Before the guard was ready, there were two thousand people battering the gate. The struggle did not last long. Jes, ik sja-t.