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Beck, B. Animal Tool Behaviour. Becker, G. Accounting for Tastes. Becker, M. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 48 1—2 : 1— Earth offering among the Classic Period lowland Maya: burials and caches as ritual deposits. An upper limit of 20 min was assigned for performance time if an individual failed to find the food reward within the duration. To avoid observer bias, the videos were analyzed in blind i. The community sampling and zebrafish collections were not made inside any reserved forest or protected area. The fish caught during community sampling were identified, recorded, and put back into the water bodies.
No animals were euthanized or sacrificed during any part of the study, and behavioral observations were conducted without any chemical treatment on individuals. At the end of the experiments, all zebrafish were transferred to stock tanks in the laboratory, where they continue to be maintained.
All data analyses were conducted using StatistiXL Version 1. Prior to analysis, behavioral data on performance and number of mistakes was square-root transformed to normalize error distribution. Separate linear mixed models LMMs were used for performance time and number of mistakes made by individuals response variables in R Version 3. Sex, body size, population, trial, and interaction effects were taken as fixed effects and individual IDs as random effect, to account for repeated measures of the same individuals across trials.
Factors that were found to be statistically significant were further analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal—Wallis and Mann—Whitney tests. In order to test for memory of individuals within a population, the performance time and number of mistakes committed during eighth trial and test was compared using Wilcoxon paired-samples test. Post hoc test results for comparison of fifth and eighth trial performances across populations. Comparison of mean number of mistakes made by males and females of a Seripetkalwa SK and b Kaushalya KA populations during training.
Males made significantly fewer mistakes than females. Bars represent standard errors. Tests for memory. Comparison of a mean performance time and b mean number of mistakes made during the eighth trial and test trial. Comparisons were made between performance time and number of mistakes made during eighth and test trial within populations. Our results showed that performance of individuals improved see Fig. Individuals across populations differed in their performance rates, as indicated by the significant interaction between population and trial. Though the populations started with a similar initial performance in the maze, their performances varied as trials progressed.
The mean performance time of population WA was higher than other populations throughout the training see Fig. Therefore, the performance of WA varied the most among the four populations. Our findings emphasize the plausible role of environmental factors such as complexity of the native habitat, predation, and flow conditions in explaining differences in performance in a maze. Learning and memory processes are fine-tuned within a population to suit specific environmental requirements that the animals encounter Brydges et al.
Habitats that are spatially complex would provide for an enriched rearing environment for development of increased neural plasticity and enhanced cognitive behavioral processes Salvanes et al. In our study, the natural habitat of WA population was structurally least complex see Table 1 , and therefore lack of enrichment during early rearing could have resulted in relatively weaker learning abilities. Therefore, comparative studies with more replication of populations from each kind of habitat are warranted to disentangle the role of each of these factors in shaping learning abilities.
However, in order to be able to relate habitat instability to differences in learning abilities among zebrafish populations, the reported habitats would need seasonal sampling. The differences observed in learning could be attributed to confounding effects of other factors as well. Individuals across populations could differ in swimming speed, which could affect the time they took to find the food. Differences in activity and exploratory tendencies between individuals of populations could amount to differences in abilities to solve the spatial task. Fish belonging to high-flow habitats have high metabolic rate and higher energy needs that could result in increased foraging requirement Killen, Glazier, et al.
Since the task involved finding a food reward, individuals with higher metabolic rate could be expected to have greater urge to locate the same during subsequent trials. Again, since wild-collected fish could have been of different ages, this could have potentially affected their learning abilities as well. Further, the interpopulation differences could have been mediated by different degrees of cerebral lateralization among populations through turn biases, and therefore some populations could have performed better than the others.
However, the extent to which differences in brain lateralization among wild zebrafish may translate to turn biases within populations remain to be tested. Although our results showed no significant effect of sex and body size on performance time, there were sex differences in the number of mistakes made. Males made significantly fewer mistakes than females in two populations, KA and SK.
In our study, differences in number of mistakes committed could be linked to difference in precision and speed with which the color-association task was learned. Such variations could be population specific, and therefore we observed males to have made fewer mistakes than females only within two populations. Further studies testing divergences in laterality and color preference between sexes and among wild populations are required to disentangle the interplay of these factors in influencing performance in maze.
In tests for memory, individuals of populations KA and AS showed stronger abilities to remember the learnt task see Figs. On the other hand, memory of the task was significantly reduced for individuals of the SK population, whereas WA, while having shown weakest learning abilities in the maze, remembered the task.
Memory retention is an energetically expensive process and develops in organisms that inhabit environments that demand its requirement Dukas, ; Odling-Smee et al. Spatially complex habitats would promote development of increased neural plasticity and enhanced cognitive abilities Salvanes et al. The ability to learn and remember the association of various cues for locating foraging patches or shelters in composite topographies would be favored by natural selection.
Therefore, KA and AS individuals, which occurred in habitats with comparatively greater substrate and vegetation diversity, exhibited stronger memory abilities compared to individuals from SK and WA, which occurred in spatially simple habitats. The role of habitat stability in influencing memory was beyond the scope of this study, as habitat information was obtained from a single sampling survey.
In conclusion, our findings suggest that differences in learning and memory among wild zebrafish could be caused by a combination of habitat-related and morphological and physiological factors. The strategies adopted by individuals are likely to be adaptively optimized for survival in the immediate surroundings. Whether these responses are phenotypically plastic or genetically determined and therefore fixed within populations needs to be investigated.
Further experiments on heritability of these traits across populations are warranted to tease apart the roles played by either of these factors. The authors express sincere gratitude to Rohitashva Shukla for assistance during collection of wild populations and ecological data from the study locations.
The authors also thank the local fishermen for help during collections of zebrafish. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Divergences in learning and memory among wild zebrafish: Do sex and body size play a role? Article First Online: 19 October The details for habitat measurements of the four collection sites are illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1 Environmental and ecological variables of the four water bodies. A square shaped arena The square tank consisted of an inner square-shaped layer with sides measuring The sides of the inner layer were separated from corresponding sides of the outer wall of the tank by 7. The edges of the inner square were connected to the diagonal ends of the tank walls by cm connections, thereby forming four separate chambers. Each of the four chambers had a main door leading to the center of the test arena. Each chamber had three sections separated by two windows openings as shown.
A removable colored frame red, yellow, green, or blue identified each main door. A food reward associated with an artificial plant was always placed inside the right-hand section of the red-door chamber see Fig. Hence, the choice of the red-door chamber for reward was purely based on random selection. The position of food reward and plant within the red-door chamber was fixed and never changed. A test fish would have to explore the maze and locate the food inside the right-side section of the red-door chamber.
The task in question therefore was composed of a major color-association component followed by a turn component. The outer wall of the testing tank was covered on all sides with brown cardboard paper to prevent any local external cues from affecting fish behavior.
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The walls of the inner layer and the diagonal connections were all opaque. The maze was positioned under a white ceiling and uniform lighting conditions. Open image in new window. We selected the first and the eighth trials as these were the initial and final tests for performance for post hoc comparisons. Additionally we also compared the fifth trial performance as it was roughly halfway through the training. Therefore, the performance of population WA was most different from the other three populations during the 5th and the 8th days of training.
In tests for memory based on comparisons of performance and number of mistakes on eighth and the test trial see Fig. Table 2 Post hoc test results for comparison of fifth and eighth trial performances across populations. Table 3 Results of Wilcoxon paired-sample test for memory. Arthur, D. Spatial and non-spatial visual discrimination learning in zebrafish Danio rerio. Animal Cognition , 4 2 , — CrossRef Google Scholar.
Arunachalam, M. Natural history of zebrafish Danio rerio in India. Zebrafish , 10 , 1— Bates, D. R package version 0. Google Scholar. Brown, B. You can now find red data books of the lichens of Britain, the organisms of Malta, or the threatened birds of the United States. The books were also read in surprising ways. For a listing of standardised data and references, the response of readers could be unexpectedly emotional. Here, for example, is the primatologist Russell Mittermeier , recalling his first encounter:. I still have fond memories of receiving in the mail my copy of the first Red Data Book… I was about 20 when I first received this publication, and it had a profound impact on me.
I pored over every page, reading each one dozens of times, feeling awful about those species that were severely endangered, and resolving to dedicate my career to doing something on their behalf quotation from IUCN Red List , p. The reason I am reading the Red Data Books is because I am tracing how science was used to redefine categories of threat to species in the twentieth century. The redefinition of the criteria for inclusion, basing them on quantitative population biology, is a later story, and is the main focus of my historical investigation.
Do get in touch — jonathan. Nevertheless, the Red Data Books of are the key texts of this project to assess and categorise the threatened wildlife of the world. The sheet describes some characteristics, a few scattered distribution facts, and possible reasons for decline assuming it was ever common.
It is a standardised template, deliberately so: gaps were left in plain view to encourage others to fill them with data.
Divergences in learning and memory among wild zebrafish: Do sex and body size play a role?
There almost no green sheets. There are fifteen pigeons and doves pigeonholed in volume 2. The key for decoding these is as follows.