Therefore, since these Mazarinades explicitly resort to the notions of tragedy and catastrophe, and seem to combine the elements of tragedy offered by Aristotle, I offer to study them in relation with his Poetics.
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In fact, in this chapter 9 of his Poetics , Aristotle clarifies his definition of the poet. Rather than the one who writes in verse, he is the one who designs stories, because representing actions in a mimesis means organising facts into a whole, building a story, according to what is probable or necessary It is also why words usually designating impossible and unnatural things are used. Also absol.
In the French context, even at the time of the Fronde, the killing of a monarch could not be considered but as a regicide.
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If this might be true of French history, it was not true of English and Scottish history. If we study Charles I as a tragic character, we can examine this question of Aristotelian catharsis further. The problem is to know what pattern his story follows.
His death cannot be thought of in terms of retribution. His execution is always regarded as a murder pure and simple. This is therefore a step away from the Aristotelian tragic model. What they echo, in a way, is the violent shock that the death of Charles I caused in France.
The language they use is unambiguous and the mimesis does not obliterate the horror of the historic event. If there is any catharsis at all, it can only be understood in political terms, for two reasons. First, although the French were appalled at the legal killing of a monarch, their shock cannot compare with what the English felt. As Lois Potter writes:. Troops dispersed the crowd as soon as the executioner had finished his work.
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The funeral was private; the procession from Westminster to Windsor took place in the dark and the service was entirely silent because Bishop Juxon, who officiated, was forbidden to use the Common prayer service and refused to use anything else. Their purpose is to purge their readers from their potential regicidal impulses.
And this is all the truer as the action is most unnatural, as Aristotle means, when he writes:. We will endeavour at present to establish, what Incidents are terrible or pitiful. Whatsoever happens is either between Friends or Enemies or indifferent Persons […]. In this sense, we can say that from mimesis, we pass on to lyricism No mimesis is possible for such a denouement, which exceeds showing or telling. Here too the tragic metaphor is explicit.
Here, on the contrary, what this Mazarinade enhances is the absence of resolution, the impossible restoration of any order whatsoever. Indeed they popularize the portrait of the king as a hero and a Christian martyr, these two traits combining the two genres of heroic tragedy and Christian tragedy This comparison of the king with Christ emphasizes the uniqueness of his death and points to the insufficiencies of the Aristotelian tragic model to account for it.
In these cases, the notion of catastrophe assumes, once again, a political meaning and, once again, takes us further away from Classical tragedy. Finally, we can observe the ultimate metamorphosis of this notion of catastrophe in the Remonstrance… :. One can remark that this cosmic phenomenon is exactly what is reported to have happened at the Crucifixion. In this sense it only reinforces the Christ-like figure of Charles I. The more we try to reach for the Aristotelian horizon suggested in these texts, the more it seems to vanish as mere illusion. The recurring comparison of Charles I with Christ rather tends to make of his death a deicide, removing it from the realm and understanding of common human beings, and from the too restricted limits of tragedy.
She also tells us that this popular version was reprinted six times in Great-Britain, between and Translated from the original Greek, according to Mr. Together, with Mr. Theodore Goulston, London, printed for Dan. Browne and Will. Turner, , p.
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