Pharmaceutics: The science of medicine design (Integrated Foundations Of Pharmacy)

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All participants pharmacists and patients were asked consent to participate, having signed a written declaration of consent. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Miguel Mira da Silva, Email: tp. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Jul 30; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic diseases is pressing health systems to introduce reforms.

Results The results show the contribution of DSRM in the implementation of online services for pharmacies. Conclusions This paper summarizes a research project in which an online pharmaceutical service was proposed, designed, developed, demonstrated and evaluated using DSRM. Keywords: Pharmaceutical services, Services implementation, Online services, Patient experience, Design science research. Background Chronic diseases are already the main cause of mortality in Europe, and are becoming a challenge for middle and low income economies due to the demographic and epidemiological transitions taking place [ 1 ].

Methods The implementation of online services in a healthcare practice presents several challenges [ 25 ]. Table 1 DSRM activities and respective tasks. DSRM activity Tasks 1. Online survey of IST utilization in Portuguese pharmacies. Define objectives of a solution Set of qualitative interviews performed within primary health centers and hospitals 3. Demonstration Field study to test the platform in two settings with a selected group of patients 5. Communication Practitioners, conference communications, journal papers, and theses. Open in a separate window.

Activity 2 - Defining objectives of a solution The aim of this activity was to identify the services required by patients when they interact with pharmacies. Activity 4 - Demonstration In this activity, the utility for patients and pharmacists of the proposed online service was demonstrated. Activity 5 - Evaluation The evaluation took place eight months after the start of the demonstration activity, and included tests with four pharmacists and three patients. Table 2 Tasks developed for testing the online service. Pharmacist tasks Patient tasks Scenario I -.

Enter the ePharmacare platform with your username and password. Look for the date of the next visit to your user XXX. Set the end date of package. Scenario I -. Seek new messages. Scenario IV — Add the height and weight values. Scenario V - Find the last blood pressure value. Scenario IX — Find the end date for the package of Ben-u-ron. Scenario X — You have been taking two cups of green tea daily, add this information to your profile. Activity 1: Identify problem and motivate The problem identification activity is crucial to help focus the DSRM and to guarantee user involvement.

Scenario exercise The scenario analysis highlighted that the development of a new role for community pharmacists is dependent on the economic and legislative environment in which these professionals operate and also of their inner ability to innovate and develop new services. Activity 2: Define objectives of a solution After the problem identification activity, DSRM proposes the definition of objectives for a solution.

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Activity 3: Design and development From the insights obtained in the previous activities, the design of a disease management platform to support online pharmaceutical care services for chronic patients was proposed. Activity 4: Demonstration A total of 28 patients showed interest in participating, answering the initial recruitment survey.

Table 3 Physiological and biochemical parameters that showed improvement. Activity 5: Evaluation The objectives of this activity were to assess the usability of the platform and to identify missing features in the service, aiming to inform the next cycle of DSRM. The main evaluation conclusions were the following: Pharmacists used the ePharmacare platform without difficulty during the usability test; Patients, however, needed some guidance, hinting at some design flaws and insufficient training.

They found the platform comfortable and simple to use, despite the design issues The lack of communication with a GP was felt by most of the patients and by all of the pharmacists. Research findings Regarding the results of each activity, some comments can be made. Implications for research In this paper, the authors test DSRM as a method to develop new online services, in an iterative process that values end-users inputs.

Service modelling The modelling stage at the end of activity 2 yielded an initial Service Experience Blueprint for the online service. Implications for pharmacy practice Whether these professionals have the necessary skills to provide online pharmaceutical care services is an aspect that needs to be further explored.

Science is the backbone of the pharmacy profession

Conclusion The recent evolution of IST e. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Consent for publication Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate This study was performed in strict accordance with the good research practices and code of ethics of Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. References 1. Global status report on Non-communicable diseases.

World health report - primary health care: Now more than ever. Geneve: WHO; Chronic illness management: what is the role of primary care? Ann Intern Med. The Asheville Project: Long-term clinical and economic outcomes of a community pharmacy diabetes care program. J Am Pharm Assoc. Collaboration between pharmacists, physicians and nurse practitioners: a qualitative investigation of working relationships in the inpatient medical setting.

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Hawthorne N, Anderson C. The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature. Hum Resour Health. Cochrane database Syst Rev. Community pharmacy services in Portugal. Ann Pharmacother. Ministry of Health. Decree-Law no. Lisboa: Ministry of Health; Preventable drug-related morbidity in community pharmacy: Development and piloting of a complex intervention. Int J Clin Pharm.

Science is the backbone of the pharmacy profession | Correspondence | Pharmaceutical Journal

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A scenario-planning approach to human resources for health: the case of community pharmacists in Portugal. The evolving role of the community pharmacist in chronic disease management - a literature review. Ann Acad Med Singapore. Kreps GL, Neuhauser L. New directions in eHealth communication: Opportunities and challenges. Patient Educ Couns. Expanding the scope of health information systems: From hospitals to regional networks, to national infrastructures, and beyond.

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Community pharmacist workload and service provision analysis. Segundo Consenso de Granada sobre problemas relacionados com medicamentos. Acta Med Port. Strauss A, Corbin J. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc. Mello D. Porto: Universidade do Porto; They include:. Academics in our Institute of Pharmaceutical Science provide substantial teaching in a wider range of undergraduate and postgraduate taught course delivered within teaching departments in:.

Our research is governed by the need of clinical practice. We have established a PhD programme for NHS pharmacists and scientists, with 14 doctorates already awarded and eight still in progress. Members of our CAG have a multiplicity of collaborations with industry that have led to the award of research grants, consultancy agreements, Collaborative Awards in Science and Engineering CASE studentships, knowledge partnerships and the setting up of their own companies.

We collaborate across all pharmacy units in the partnership to support this clinical research. We aim to be a centre of excellence for providing pharmacy services and drug management solutions for clinical research. We review all clinical trials of investigational medicinal products as part of an approval process for research and development in each of our partner trusts. We also work with researchers to ensure clinical trials are set up efficiently and provide support in designing effective trials. We use cookies on our website to provide a better service.

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