Call J et al. Twelve domestic dogs Canis familiaris were given a series of trials in which they were forbidden to take a piece of visible food. In some trials, the human continued to look at the dog throughout the trial control condition , whereas in others, the human a left the room, b turned her back, c engaged in a distracting activity, or d closed her eyes. Dogs behaved in clearly different ways in most of the conditions in which the human did not watch them compared with the control condition, in which she did.
In particular, when the human looked at them, dogs retrieved less food, approached it in a more indirect way, and sat as opposed to laid down more often than in the other conditions. In einigen Runden wurden die Besitzer angewiesen, ihren Hund durchgehend zu beobachten. The purpose of this study was to describe, qualitatively the use of service dogs by persons with physical disabilities and the meaning of this experience.
Five service dog owners were observed and interviewed on multiple occasions through an ethnographic approach. Service dogs are used to enhance independence in occupational performance areas and contribute to improvements in psychosocial functioning. Given these benefits, service dogs could be viewed as a form of assistive technology that occupational therapists may want to consider as an alternative to traditional devices for some clients. Caprilli, Simona, and Andrea Messeri. This pilot study examined the reactions of children, their parents and the hospital staff and the hospital-wide infection rate before and after the introduction of animals.
The analysis of the hospital infection rate was completed independently by the Hospital Infections Committee. The authors found that the presence of infections in the wards did not increase and the number of children at the meetings with pets in the wards was high children. The study also found that the presence of animals produced some beneficial effects on children: Zudem nahmen viele Kinder an den Sitzungen mit Tieren teil.
Es gab noch weitere positive Auswirkungen auf die Kinder, die durch die Anwesenheit der Tiere hervorgerufen wurden: Magnetic alignment is a suitable paradigm to scan for the occurrence of magnetosensitivity across animal taxa with the heuristic potential to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of magnetoreception and identify further functions of magnetosensation apart from navigation. With this in mind we searched for signs of magnetic alignment in dogs.
We measured the direction of the body axis in 70 dogs of 37 breeds during defecation 1, observations and urination 5, observations over a two-year period. After complete sampling, we sorted the data according to the geomagnetic conditions prevailing during the respective sampling periods.
Meaning of "Wellensittich" in the German dictionary
Relative declination and intensity changes of the MF during the respective dog walks were calculated from daily magnetograms. Directional preferences of dogs under different MF conditions were analyzed and tested by means of circular statistics. Results Dogs preferred to excrete with the body being aligned along the North—South axis under calm MF conditions. This directional behavior was abolished under unstable MF. The best predictor of the behavioral switch was the rate of change in declination, i. Conclusions It is for the first time that a magnetic sensitivity was proved in dogs, b a measurable, predictable behavioral reaction upon natural MF fluctuations could be unambiguously proven in a mammal, and c high sensitivity to small changes in polarity, rather than in intensity, of MF was identified as biologically meaningful.
Our findings open new horizons in magnetoreception research. In diesem Zusammenhang wurde nach Anzeichen magnetischer Ausrichtung bei Hunden gesucht.
Behindertenpädagogik Sonstiges – Infoboerse
Dieses Richtungsverhalten wurde unter instabilen Magnetfeld-Bedingungen aufgehoben. The present study assessed the effect of petting a dog on secretory immunoglobulin A IgA levels. Each participant was exposed to one of the three conditions for 18 min. Pre- and posttreatment saliva samples yielded a significant increase in IgA for Group 1 only.
Scores on this scale correlated with IgA increases only for participants in Group 2 petting a stuffed animal. Results are discussed in terms of the beneficial effects of pets on health in general, and immunity in particular. Speichelproben, die vorher und nachher entnommen wurden, zeigten nur einen deutlichen Anstieg, wenn ein echtes Tier gestreichelt wurde.
In Bearbeitung Cirulli F et al. There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects.
In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.
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Cole KM et al. Animal-assisted therapy improves physiological and psychosocial variables in healthy and hypertensive patients. To determine whether a minute hospital visit with a therapy dog improves hemodynamic measures, lowers neurohormone levels, and decreases state anxiety in patients with advanced heart failure. A 3-group randomized repeated-measures experimental design was used in 76 adults.
Longitudinal analysis was used to model differences among the 3 groups at 3 times. One group received a minute visit from a volunteer with a therapy dog; another group, a minute visit from a volunteer; and the control group, usual care. Data were collected at baseline, at 8 minutes, and at 16 minutes. Compared with controls, the volunteer-dog group had significantly greater decreases in systolic pulmonary artery pressure during Compared with the volunteer-only group, the volunteer-dog group had significantly greater decreases in epinephrine levels during After the intervention, the volunteer-dog group had the greatest decrease from baseline in state anxiety sum score compared with the volunteer-only Zu diesem Zweck wurden 76 Teilnehmer in drei Gruppen aufgeteilt.
Daten wurden zu Beginn, nach acht Minuten und nach 16 Minuten erhoben. Cooper, and Michael L. Assistive Technology 1, no. This cross-sectional study examined whether partnering with service dogs influenced psychosocial well-being and community participation of adult individuals using wheelchairs or scooters. One hundred and fifty-two people were recruited and group-matched, resulting in 76 participants with and 76 without service dogs.
Standardized scale scores for affect, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and loneliness were used to operationally define psychosocial well-being. Psychosocial characteristics did not differ significantly between those partnered with and without service dogs overall. However, of participants with progressive conditions, those with service dogs demonstrated significantly higher positive affect scores than comparison group participants.
Among those with clinical depression, service dog partners scored significantly higher in positive affect. Finally, regardless of whether individuals had service dogs, fewer depressive symptoms and being female or married were predictors of greater community participation. Select individuals may experience psychosocial benefits from partnering with service dogs. However, it is unclear if these benefits might also be derived from companion dogs. Further research is needed to substantiate the findings of this study.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of partnerships between people with disabilities and service dogs on functional performance and social interaction. A single-subject, alternating treatment design was used. The participants were 3 women with mobility challenges who owned service dogs.
For each participant, time and perceived amount of effort for two tasks were measured for functional performance. Interaction and satisfaction levels were measured for social interactions. Primary findings were that service dog partnerships decreased performance time for four of the six tasks, decreased effort for five of the six tasks, increased social interactions for 2 of the participants, and increased levels of satisfaction with social interactions for all participants.
For adult women with mobility challenges, service dog partnerships may contribute to energy conservation through decreased time and effort required to complete some tasks and may increase social interactions. Dalziel DJ et al. A Review and Preliminary Study. Research development and use of purported alerting dogs. Review of the literature was performed.
A qualitative questionnaire was completed by epilepsy patients. Service dog trainers were identified.
Of 63 patients, 29 owned pet dogs. Nine reported their dog responded to seizures, three also were reported to alert to seizure onset. A literature review revealed psychological and practical benefits of service dogs are well documented. Fifteen trainers of seizure-assist dogs were identified and interviewed. Warrants further research to aid in the selection of patients who may benefit from seizure-assist dogs, for identification and further training of these dogs and possibly the development of seizure-alerting devices.
Zudem wurden Trainer von Service-Hunden ausfindig gemacht. Drei berichteten, dass ihre Hunde vor dem Einsetzen eines Anfalls warnen. Eine Literaturrecherche ergab, dass psychologische und praktische Vorteile von Service-Hunden gut dokumentiert sind. Trained dogs were largely unable to identify skin swabs obtained from hypoglycemic T1D subjects. We chose to test with skin swabs because 1 dogs are well known to respond to scents carried on human skin 1 and 2 the trainers had reported success with this method in training the animals to respond to hypoglycemia.
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled study to address whether dogs can detect a hypoglycemic scent, though there are anecdotal and case reports suggesting that dogs can respond to hypoglycemia 2—4. Our results addressed only whether there is a detectable hypoglycemia scent on the skin. In future studies, it may be helpful to include behavioral elements, such as studies in the presence of human companions. It might also be helpful to obtain swabs from the usual human companions of the dogs. We found that trained dogs were unable to correctly identify skin swabs obtained during hypoglycemia in subjects with T1D.
Further studies are needed to address the role of other factors that the animals might use, such as behavioral cues. Diederich, Claire, and Jean-Marie Giffroy.
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