TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT IN A MANUFACTURING ENVIONMENT with important tips on practical management

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Many performance testers are doing this with no idea of how it actually translates to in load on the downstream systems. Well, here is the bad news… at multiple points in the infrastructure this is going to result in, you guessed it, about ten times as much load as there should be. There are typically firewalls in front of and in-between a few of the tiers. Here is a short list of some of the unnatural behaviors that can occur in the environment as a result of cheating the performance test cases:. Adopt an Agile testing mindset. This method of working also implied that the testers are generally abstracted from the whole software development process and only come in at the later stages when the software was already developed.

Testers must evolve. Emphasize code quality. It is defined by standards, specifications, numbers, factors and different parameters. Hence, when a company wants to develop a high-quality software system, it considers a great number of aspects.

How to pick the best project management methodology for success | CIO

Code quality takes one of the leading positions in the list. They confirm that continuous development of a software system makes the source code significantly complicated after numerous updates. Therefore, the team has to analyse the code on a continual basis to keep the code base in a good maintainable state. This will prevent uncovered technical debts, system crashes and expensive fixes.

Utilize smoke testing. Run an agile beta test. Regression testing is a crucial step. Software development life cycle sdlc includes the following steps:. But usually, if the main goal is to get a high-quality software and minimize the cost of bug-fixing, we can apply tests during the requirements analysis phase.

The earlier you start the tests, the better results you get. Ensure maximum test coverage. You can break this User information screen into smaller parts for writing test cases: Parts like UI testing, security testing, functional testing of the User information form etc. Apply all form field type and size tests, negative and validation tests on input fields and write all such test cases for maximum coverage. Do you need to test your API? You have to make sure that it is bug-free before shipping. Find difficult bugs by experimenting with unusual behaviors.


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Web services apps can be tested in isolated components. These provide an opportunity for testers to test the web application in isolated components rather than a full blown integrated web application. If a test case can be specified in a rule — that MUST be automated. A product requirement is expressed as a failing test to start with. The approach of BDD throws this context to other boundary, specify tests in the form of expected behavior. So, automated tests are based on specification that is a human language but expressed in business terms mainly and with a fixed format Given-when-then.

After all, users are real people, so why not test with real people, too? Usability can be a serious roadblock to adoption, and testing a feature for acceptance is a critical aspect of QA. Recognize that automation can have errors. An error filled automation script may be misinterpreted as failed functionality in your tested application, or even worse your automation script will interpret an error as a correct functionality.

Manually testing your core, critical-path functionality ensures that your test case is passing from a user perspective, with no room for misinterpretation. Each function added to a model is a target for tests.

Process Improvement: Six Sigma & Kaizen Methodologies

This is what BDD preaches and it is the process on which I rely for creating tests. Unit test every time you need to minimize risk. Unit testing is best utilised to smooth out the rougher edges of software development and is relatively cheap to perform when compared with, for example, the cost of delivering a broken build for user acceptance testing. Unit tests will help to identify problems during the early stages of the development cycle, before they reach the customer and the testing team. Each completed unit test brings you closer to a more robust and reliable system.

After functional testing, conduct integration testing. An automated vulnerability scanner can be helpful for streamlining security testing. These work by routing the HTTP traffic to and from an application through a proxy, and then resending the requests with various attack attempts replacing the original values.

This can be an effective way of finding certain classes of vulnerability in a short amount of time, but it is important to understand and make sure that your stakeholders understand that this is not a magic bullet. The tool is naive, and has no knowledge of the applications business logic — it is simply replaying requests and checking the responses. There are many types of vulnerability that can not and will not be found with this strategy, and use of a scanning tool absolutely does not replace the need for manual security testing.

You need to know enough about security vulnerabilities to be able to evaluate each finding of the automated tool. Taking a scanner report and sending it unverified to the developers is the worst possible thing one could do. Address signup and login issues. If you have a stand-alone mobile app or a mobile app that complements a desktop app, consider how different connections will impact performance.

It sits in one area and stay there, more or less, for the life of its use. Connected by wire, the connection is stable and usually fast. A mobile device is, well, mobile. The user is constantly moving from place to place, and from one coverage area to another.

7 Management Practices That Can Improve Employee Productivity

Or in this case, you plan to be inefficient. While creating test plan you need follow an organized approach to make it good test plan. The good test plan must cover Scope of testing, test objectives, budget limitations, deadlines, test execution schedule, risks identifications and more. Snoop on your competition to discover common mistakes. Such reports are kept by the regulators and can typically be accessed in their archives. Past regulatory reports are a priceless treasure trove of information on what typically goes wrong, especially because of the huge financial and reputation impact of incidents that are escalated to such a level.

Users today are quite vocal when they encounter problems, and a quick search for competing products on Facebook or Twitter might uncover quite a few interesting testing ideas. If your competitors have a publicly available bug tracking system or a discussion forum for customers, sign up and monitor it. Look for categories of problems that people typically inquire about and try to translate them to your product, to get more testing ideas. Instead of writing a multitude of test cases, focus on writing better ones. But rather than have a lot of half-baked test cases, you should write fewer, but more effective ones.

Focus on high-priority bugs. These bugs have greater impact on the system and usually, it takes up more time in terms of testing. Mainly due to the complexity of the bug or perhaps the level of significance of it to the end-users. Conducting user testing? There are several formats of yoga in the market, especially in the western world. Hence, it is important to note that many Ashtanga Yoga practitioners believe that theirs is the most authentic form of yoga ever.

Which users from this large community should we consider for user testing of this particular yoga app? Who do we recruit? How do we recruit? On what basis? These users may not be the best possible sample given diversity factors like geographies, culture, age group, profession, tech-savvy-ness and so forth.

It is always good to know who are the users and what are their key characteristics. Without this information, we might just react like horses with blinkers on. These people may or may not be the users we are looking for. Few of them may not even know how to use a mobile app. Some might be extremely tech-savvy and represent a fairly good sample. Recruiting users depends on asking the right questions depending on the context of the product.

Do you need independent testing staff? The answer depends on the size and context of the project, the risks, the development methodology, the skill and experience of the developers, and other factors. For instance, if the project is a short-term, small, low-risk project, with highly experienced programmers utilizing thorough unit testing or test-first development, then test engineers may not be required for the project to succeed. In these circumstances, it may be appropriate to instead use contractors or outsourcing, or adjust the project management and development approach by switching to more senior developers and test-first development, for example.

Inexperienced managers sometimes gamble on the success of a project by skipping thorough testing or having programmers do post-development functional testing of their own work, a decidedly high-risk gamble. It allows for both a deeper and stronger skills and b the contribution of differing perspectives. A technical person who can be highly effective in approaching tasks from both of those perspectives is rare, which is why, sooner or later, organizations bring in test specialists. Automated testing can save both time and money. With automated testing, every possible input and usage combination is tested out in every possible combination, multiple times, and in multiple environments operating systems, operating system versions, and computer hardware.

By taking the extra time to automate testing in this manner, developers and testers alike can be assured that any bugs found will allow for solutions that make the software compatible for all end users, regardless of what type of computer and operating system they use. Prioritize automation based on the tests that will need to be run most often. Some common candidates for automation are:. You should also look at tests with repeatable execution as candidates for automation.

In fact, not everything is automatable. When planning what test cases to automate here are some things to look for:. However, every situation is different. Divide and conquer. When I ask them why do they work this way they explain to me that they started with small documents that grew over time…. By breaking down their very long and complex testing procedures into smaller and more modular test cases, they can gain flexibility and achieve faster and more accurate coverage.

If you look into any testing tasks and break it down into smaller testing tasks then you will be able to manage your team more efficiently and provide better visibility to your internal customers. Most logging systems provide a timestamp for each log entry, often to the millisecond, and each log entry follows some standard format.

Clear your browser cache. Use dedicated testers. Complicating matters is the fact that collaborative research frequently results in users that are geographically distributed; yelling over a cubicle wall or going to the next office to discuss a bug may no longer be an option. In the worst case, subtle bugs in simulation or data processing components could ultimately lead to the recall of research results. No one wants that! These groups are typically involved in integration, performance, usability, and system-level testing. Remember the Law of Demeter.

The Environmental Domain

Test functionality first, user experience second. People seek out apps to perform specific functions. Incomplete or inadequate functionality will result in abandonment, so make sure that the main functions are fully implemented and tested before you move on. Exploratory testing has its place, but it also has some cons. It may seem ad hoc to some, but in the hands of a skilled and experienced exploratory tester, this technique can prove powerful. Advocates argue that exploratory testing allows the full power of the human brain to be brought to bear on finding bugs and verifying functionality without preconceived restrictions.

The lack of preparation, structure, and guidance can lead to many unproductive hours and retesting the same functionality over and over. One can easily see that completely ad hoc testing is clearly not the best way to go about testing. Testers who learn about inputs, software environments, and the other things that can be varied during a test pass will be better equipped to explore their application with purpose and intent. This knowledge will help them test better and smarter and maximize their chances of uncovering serious design and implementation flaws.

Use Black Box testing when valuable or necessary. The style of testing looks at the inputs and outputs of the software under test but does not examine the internal workings of the product. The code itself is treated as if it were hidden under a black box.

Testing in production is important. And users were the ones who suffered. A testing brain is invaluable in DevOps. Even if organizations can automate their integrations, builds, and delivery processes but they still struggle to manage test orchestration and automation. Testing brains play a critical role to achieve this with their expertise in test design, test automation and test case development with DevOps.

Irrespective of what DevOps processes, models and tools organizations use, testing is a vital part of the overall DevOps process — not only to ensure code changes work as expected and integrate well — but to ensure the requirement changes do break the functionality. Ask the right questions. Try to understand the context and dependencies, then ask the questions that will give you deeper insights, help you understand, and enable you to build the right test cases.

Avoid test traps such as running out of test ideas. This can significantly delay testing, leading to serious risks. As Kent Beck and Cynthia Andres observe in Extreme Programming Explained , catching problems early costs less than fixing them at the end of the development lifecycle. I would argue that in many cases, this approach produces better outcomes. Assign severity to defects. For example, an application crash on clicking a button is severe to the system. So its severity will be high.

So its severity will be low. Exploratory testing is a technique that shifts focus from system-centric checking to user-centric testing. To be effective, exploratory tests have to rely on the user-centric artifacts that capture the user behavior. Exploratory testers rely on hunches, biases, conjectures, intuition, personal experience and heuristics while continuously learning from the system behavior.

User experience UX design process tries to uncover similar aspects of user behavior that motivates users of the system that are the basis for user expectations. Testers will be respected if they not only log the bugs but also provide solutions. Watch for unexpected behavior. This can help you find issues you might otherwise overlook.

The principles of agile

Eliminate technical issues during development that can impact user experience. Nothing slows a customer down more than a technical issue. So when developing software, be certain that all the bugs are worked out and operations run smoothly to ensure an optimal user experience. This created the need to revisit some earlier development stages to course correct. Luckily, our second reiteration was complete, the software was rid of bugs, and the UX experience was clean. Identify bottlenecks. NET application performance, the best thing you can do is identify the bottleneck by measuring the speed of your site with database profiling, tracing, and looking at your logs.

Be diplomatic in bug reports. In every probability this could initiate a controversy which would reflect your superiority complex as a tester. Your main aim should be to keep your bug report conclusive supporting your bug plus the sole motive must be to get the bug closed ultimately. Try to use diplomacy in bug report, instead of using authoritative statements in favor of your bug thereby making your bug report unpleasant, best way is to be suggestive. Such an approach shall always be taken in good spirit.

Speed up the development cycle with consistent feedback. Being agile also means providing touch points for continuous feedback. Perform repeated tests with different test environments, and then try to find results patterns. Practice pattern recognition. For instance, when you have to compare to pieces of similar code and come up with small bugs which might go unnoticed, you will able to draw conclusions in no time. Keep on testing. New ideas for organization can keep things improving and keep employees engaged. Some companies like to include a sixth S in their 5S program: Safety. When safety is included, the system is often called 6S.

The Safety step involves focusing on what can be done to eliminate risks in work processes by arranging things in certain ways. This might involve setting up workstations so they're more ergonomic, marking intersections—such as the places where forklifts and pedestrians cross paths—with signs, and labeling the storage cabinet for cleaning chemicals so people are aware of potential hazards.

If the layout of the workplace or the tasks people perform are dangerous, those dangers should be reduced as much as possible. That's what the sixth S focuses on. Some people consider safety an outcome of performing the other five S's appropriately, and as a result say a sixth S isn't necessary. They think if the workspace is properly organized and cleaned and uses helpful visual safety cues, a separate safety step is unnecessary.

Neither approach to safety is right or wrong. But however a business wants to approach safety, it should be aware that paying attention to safety is important. Tip: If mishaps and accidents do happen, stop to consider whether a 5S improvement could have prevented it. Could less clutter, cleaner walking surfaces, or better signs and labels have made a difference? Even though 5S is a fairly simple concept, beginning a new 5S program can feel daunting.

It's like undertaking a big cleaning project in the garage or the basement at home; there's a lot of stuff to deal with, and getting started probably doesn't sound fun. Start with practical steps such as deciding which departments and individuals will be involved, what training is needed, and what tools to use to facilitate the process.


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  8. Determining these concrete things will help begin the process of 5S implementation. Here's the short answer to this question: everyone. If a department is starting 5S, managers and all other employees should be included. If anyone is left out, this could lead to confusion or to messes that people don't want to take ownership of. It is possible that some people will play a bigger role in 5S than others, which is fine.

    There might be 5S coordinators who are in charge of installing and maintaining 5S labeling, keeping tracking of assigned tasks, or introducing new department members to the 5S system. These people will obviously spend a lot of time thinking about 5S compared to others. Everyone should think about 5S regularly, though. It's also important to remember that company leaders should participate in 5S, especially if 5S is a company-wide effort.

    When people see their superiors taking 5S seriously by participating in it, they'll be more likely to take it seriously, too. Anyone who will participate in 5S activities needs to receive training. A demonstration of how 5S could occur at a workstation might also be useful. For employees to understand why the company is going to start using 5S and why it's important, they should be given a brief history of 5S, its parts, and its benefits. It's quite possible that the way 5S is carried out at one organization or even one department will be different from others, so groups performing 5S for the first time may need to work out the best way to perform the steps of 5S in their spaces.

    In any case, everyone should receive training when 5S is new, and then any new employees who come onboard later should receive training about 5S as well. A key part of 5S is that it makes spaces cleaner and therefore easier to navigate. That means people can more easily get their work done. Visual communication tools such as labels, floor markings, cabinet and shelf markings, and shadow boards can make navigating spaces even simpler. Plus, these tools can help keep the workspace organized. A workplace that uses visual management in this way is often referred to as a visual workplace.

    Businesses may choose to use some or all of these visual tools. Tip: If you use color-coded floor markings, tapes, or other visual cues, make sure everyone understands them. Post a color chart if necessary. In recent decades, 5S has moved beyond manufacturing to other industries such as healthcare. Many offices also employ 5S, as do some schools and other government organizations. The basic steps of 5S can be applied to any workplace. An office can use 5S to keep supplies organized, as can hospitals and medical clinics. It's really just a matter of determining what workspaces and work processes will benefit most from improved workplace organization.

    Look at the example below to see 5S in action. Before 5S, spaces are cluttered and confusing.

    Common Project Management Methodologies

    After 5S, everything has an assigned place, which is often marked with floor marking tape, labels, and other visual cues. When 5S is used in the workplace, it's easier to detect abnormalities and spot potential problems before they grow into significant issues. Business leaders considering using 5S may wonder if 5S is expensive to implement. Generally, it's not. There may be an up-front investment in tools like floor marking tape and labels, and some time does need to be spent on training and on 5S activities, which takes up employees' time.

    In the long run, though, 5S makes processes run more smoothly and prevents mishaps, and those things usually save businesses money. Unable to play video? Click here. Zero Defects. More Resources. Lean Supplies. Floor Marking. Visual Communication. Reduced costs Higher quality Increased productivity Greater employee satisfaction A safer work environment.

    What is the purpose of this item? When was this item last used? How frequently is it used? Who uses it? Does it really need to be here? Location Description Name of person applying the tag Date of application. What can 5S do for you? How to start a 5S program Download now. Which people or workstations use which items? When are items used? Which items are used most frequently?

    Should items be grouped by type? Where would it be most logical to place items? Would some placements be more ergonomic for workers than others? Would some placements cut down on unnecessary motion? Are more storage containers necessary to keep things organized? Floor Marking Tape These tapes can be used to outline work cells, mark the locations where equipment or materials are placed, or highlight hazards.

    They come in a variety of colors and patterns, and can also be used on shelves, workbenches, cabinets, and other surfaces. Labels and Signs These visuals use text, colors, and symbols to convey information.

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