America's contributions to the world included motion pictures and the Broadway stage; radio and television; amateur and professional sports; jazz, the "blues," country-and-Western music, traditional ballads and popular songs, and rock 'n' roll; domestic and international business and trade; public and private educational opportunities; and a rich and varied literature. While Americans did not invent all these categories, they nevertheless took each to new heights during the Eisenhower Years, and shared their bounty with the world.
The Eisenhower Years, generally speaking, were happier, more stable, more prosperous, more optimistic, and simpler times then the preceding decades of the 's and '40's and the increasingly turbulent 's and '70's that followed.
United States in the 1950s
In fact, America's exuberance in so many areas of the arts and everyday life was omnipresent. As for political and military achievements, President Eisenhower kept us safely out of war, and was wise enough to stay out of the way of Americas artists and entrepreneurs. As a result, the Eisenhower Years should forever be remembered as those "Happy Days.
He taught American History and Government at the high school and adult school levels before becoming a high school administrator. He also proposed ending the military draft and switching to an all-volunteer military. Eisenhower publicly opposed these ideas, even though in private he was working on a proposal to ban atmospheric nuclear testing.
Handling two developing foreign policy crises that occurred in the weeks before the election also helped Eisenhower. In Soviet-occupied Hungary, many citizens had risen in revolt against Soviet domination, but this quieted with the formation of a new government. Eisenhower condemned both actions but was able only to pressure the Western forces to withdraw from Egypt. The Eisenhower administration had also supported the Brown v.
Board of Education Supreme Court ruling in , which ended legal segregation in public schools. Stevenson won only six southern states and the border state of Missouri, becoming the first losing candidate since William Jennings Bryan vs. William McKinley to carry the Show Me State Missouri would not vote for the losing candidate in a presidential election again until Eisenhower won Louisiana, making him the first Republican presidential candidate to carry the state since Reconstruction in He was the last Republican presidential candidate to receive that level of support from black voters.
Orange is the electoral vote for Walter Burgwyn Jones by an Alabama faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.
The Postwar Booms
Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and federal power. The court was both lauded and criticized for efforts to bring an end to racial segregation in the United States, incorporating the Bill of Rights i. The period is recognized as a high point in judicial power that has receded ever since, but with a substantial continuing impact.
Prominent justices of the Court during the Warren era, besides the chief justice himself, included William J. Brennan, Jr. Warren took his seat January 11, , via a recess appointment by President Eisenhower. The Senate confirmed him 6 weeks later. When Warren joined the court, all the justices had been appointed by former Presidents Franklin Roosevelt or Harry Truman, and all were committed New Deal liberals.
However, they disagreed on the role that the courts should play in achieving liberal goals. The Court was split between two warring factions. When Frankfurter retired, President John F. Kennedy named labor lawyer Arthur Goldberg to replace him and Warren finally had the fifth liberal vote for his majority.
Warren made the Supreme Court a power center on a more even basis with Congress and the presidency, particularly through four landmark decisions: Brown v. Warren boasted a strong political background, having served three terms as governor of California, and was the Republican nominee for vice president in He brought a strong belief in the remedial power of law. He also focused on broad ethical principles, rather than narrower interpretative structures or strict precedent. Warren often used this worldview in deciding groundbreaking cases such as Brown v.
Board of Education , Reynolds v. Sims , and Miranda v. Arizona , where such traditional sources of precedent were stacked against him. Brown v. Board of Education , Gideon v. Wainwright , and Cooper v. Aaron were all unanimously decided. Over the years his ability to lead the court, to forge majorities in support of major decisions, and to inspire liberal forces around the nation, outweighed his intellectual weaknesses.
The Warren Court reached many decisions that changed not only the laws of the United States but contributed to significant social change. Below are some of its most important cases. In other cases, the court also ruled that the Constitution protects a general right to privacy Griswold v. Connecticut and it established that public schools cannot have official prayer Engel v. Vitale or mandatory Bible readings Abington School District v. The Warren Court was also credited with reading an equal protection clause into the Fifth Amendment Bolling v.
Skip to main content. Politics and Culture of Abundance: — Search for:. The Eisenhower Administration The Eisenhower Administration As president from to , Dwight Eisenhower oversaw 8 years of relative peace and moderate economic growth at home while his foreign policy initiatives, including U. Eisenhower made great strides in Cold War policy, including overtures to the Soviet Union, meeting with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, and signing the armistice stifling the Korean War. He also significantly increased U. In domestic affairs, Eisenhower expanded Social Security, kept the national debt low, reduced taxes, and limited immigration.
Despite an ambiguous stand on civil rights, he also introduced the first civil rights legislation since The formal institution was established on February 19, Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, it is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the military.
Eisenhower : The 34th President of the United States, serving from until He had previously been a five-star general in the U. The technological superiority required for such supremacy was seen as necessary for national security, in additions to being symbolic of ideological superiority. Fifth Party System : A term referring to the era of U. For this reason it is also often called the New Deal Party System. American Indian Relocation Indian termination comprised a series of laws initiated in the s but aggressively developed in the s and s that stripped Indian nations of their sovereignty and had disastrous consequences on the economic, social, and cultural condition of American Indians.
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Termination began with a series of laws directed at dismantling tribal sovereignty and introduced in the s, but House Concurrent Resolution of announced the federal policy of termination and called for immediate ending of the federal relationship with a selected group of tribes. By the s, tribes were terminated. Termination had disastrous effects on American Indians.
They struggled with poverty and unemployment and lost access to education and health care. The loss of culture and community was also a critical effect. While proposals to end termination appeared in the s, House Concurrent Resolution was formally abandoned as late as As termination continued, American Indians continued their protest.
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Several crucial organizations were formed to help protect the rights of the Indians and their land, but not until January 24, , did President Ronald Reagan issue an American Indian policy statement supporting explicit repudiation of the termination policy. To that end, Congress proposed to end the special relationship between tribes and the federal government. In practical terms, the policy terminated the U. While Eisenhower was popular, some speculated that his health issues would prevent him from running. Television played an important role in the campaign; it allowed the candidates to reach many demographics at once and made it possible for still-recovering Eisenhower to speak to a broad audience without excessive travel.
The election focused on many domestic issues, including government spending on social programs, the draft, and nuclear testing.
The Age of Eisenhower | Book by William I Hitchcock | Official Publisher Page | Simon & Schuster
Key Terms Brown v. A New African-American Culture 7. The Treaty of Paris and Its Impact 9. The Intolerable Acts The Declaration of Independence Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris When Does the Revolution End? The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Economic Crisis of the s Constitution Through Compromise The Antifederalists' Victory in Defeat Native American Resilience and Violence in the West The Life and Times of John Adams Jeffersonian America: A Second Revolution?
Gabriel's Rebellion: Another View of Virginia in Claiming Victory from Defeat Early National Arts and Cultural Independence Jacksonian Democracy and Modern America Jackson vs. Irish and German Immigration Transcendentalism, An American Philosophy The Southern Argument for Slavery Gold in California The Compromise of Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner The South Secedes Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs. The Road to Appomattox The Assassination of the President Rebuilding the Old Order The New Tycoons: John D.
The New Tycoons: J. Politics of the Gilded Age