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This was not only established for species such as Procerodes lobatus , Cercyra hastata , Girardia dorotocephala , G. The experimental procedures followed in these studies may be different. Furthermore, Kanatani obtained bipolar worms, after treatment with demecolcine, from long anterior segments of D. Further, Hauser and Santos reported that they had generated Janus heads from short pieces of Girardia schubarti that included a portion of the pharynx; it is noteworthy that in these series of experiments many other short fragments of G.
In contrast to experimentally induced heteromorphosis, spontaneous, natural occurrence of bipolar worms has been observed much more rarely in stock cultures of planarians. However, Jenkins reported no less than four of such bipolar specimens from a single culture of mature G. One of these worms fissioned and thus gave rise to two animals, each with one head.
S1 and one bipolar animal in a culture of a so far unidentified species of Dugesia from Liguria, Italy Fig. In their studies on regeneration different workers have used different model species.
Therefore, one may be inclined to contemplate the caveat that what applies to one species does not necessarily hold true for another model species. However, although the capability of regeneration is not equally distributed among the triclads, there is yet no indication that the regenerative processes differ among species of planarians.
The underlying principle of using model species is that regenerative processes, inducers, releasers, signaling pathways, etc. In fact, planarian species are regularly used as models for genetic discoveries with potential implications even for human development, regeneration, and disease.
Therefore, causal explanations for this kind of heteromorphosis should be sought first in mechanisms and factors that are unrelated to a reduced geomagnetic field or microgravity. We thank Professor M. Kawakatsu Sapporo, Japan for correspondence on freshwater planarians used in regeneration experiments by Japanese workers. We are grateful to Dr L. Winsor Townsville, Australia for reading a draft of the manuscript. Stocchino was supported by a grant in memory of Professor N.
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