Parla con i morti (Fiona Griffiths Vol. 1) (Italian Edition)

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List of association football families. See also: List of English association football families. See also: List of African association football families. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Antoni Lima , [note 5] Ildefons Lima [note 5] brother [17]. Courtney Wildin , Luther Wildin brother [18]. New to Kuwait? Then you need the Kuwait Union for New Teachers. They have also printed the text onto a t-shirt.

Similarly, embedded within an article by Sally Vincent is the line "Point A moved to point B to point C until" , which is arguably an intentional reference. There is no ambiguity whatsoever surrounding "-cunthorpe", a deliberate truncation of the Humberside town Scunthorpe on the back cover of a book by Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie Likewise, when a knight in Thomas Heywood's Wisewomen Of Hogsdon declares, in Latin, "Nobis ut carmine dicunt", he is described as "a beastly man" to highlight the embedded obscenity.

Mrs Roberts didn't like him, but that's 'cos she's a Contaminated water can really make you sick"; Trey Parker, and 'applicant' Dominic Brigstocke, :. As John Hamilton explains in an letter quoted by Linda Mugglestone , 'cunt' has "the same syllable as a contraction of Contra". Oz made a similar pun on 'conjugal': "Oh, a cuntjugal" Nick Gomez, Matthew Parris once called 'cunt' "a word beginning with 'c', which I couldn't possibly repeat" Rod Liddle, , and in keeping with this is the commonest 'cunt' euphemism: 'the c-word' not to be confused with 'crossword', which is sometimes abbreviated to 'c-word'.

Simon Carr reports that his children confuse 'the c-word' with "the K-word" He also quotes their confusion over 'cunt' itself: "Mummy, clint! That's a rude word, isn't it? Ruth Wajnryb writes "the 'SEE'-word" , to distinguish it from the hard 'c' sound of 'cunt'. If 'cunt' can be a 'c-word', can 'cock' be one, too? A surprisingly large number of these other words beginning with 'c' have also occasionally been called 'the c-word', usually for comic effect.

The following is a representative selection. No surprise, then, that he is a fan of the c-word. In fact, not only is Musk a regular player of the computer game known as Civilization , which is all about husbanding resources to build an epic human community, but that word peppers his public utterances" BBC World Service, ; "Catholicism: the c-word. Not the c-word, a c-word" Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, ; "They definitely had the c-word: they had chemistry" Katy Takatsuki, ; "two other C-words: Conscience and Cyclothymia" Alexandra Mullen, ; "[Christopher] Nolan's script, co-authored with his brother Jonathan, never deigns to use the c-word: Catwoman" Robbie Collin, ; "non-carcinogenic [ Uh oh, the other dreaded c-word.

Cut" The Sun , ; "the c-word: 'cuts'" Victoria Derbyshire [BBC Radio 5 Live], ; "another c-word: 'contextualise'" Dymphna Flynn, [a] ; "the c-word: 'compliance'" Dymphna Flynn, [b] ; "Clunge a slang word for female genitalia is the new C-word" Liz Hoggard, ; "try to avoid mentioning the crowd [because] they hate the C-word here" Charlie Wyett, ; "he was anxious to avoid the c-word: 'corporate'" Annie Dunkinson, ; "In went the c-word - c as in crisis" Catherine Donegan, ; Yesterday In Parliament quoted David Cameron saying "Why's he so chicken when it comes to the Greens?

These are not conservatories" Jon Stock, ; "Could you make it more celebratory? Could you compromise? Hey, we're all guys here, I'll say it: cuckoo-head" Pam Cooke, ; 'championship': "Stevie Craigan is running scared of an ear-bashing from John Lambie for mentioning the 'C' word" Andy Devlin, ; 'crash': "We don't mention the C-word" Tim Ross and David Gordois, ; "uttering the C word - as in "choke"" George Kimball, ; "building momentum off three c-words: crowds showing up in bigger numbers than ever before, more cash in the bank than any other GOP candidate, and a confidence in the campaign strategy of turning out conservatives in Iowa and the South" NBC Nightly News , ; "Is Caitlyn the new c-word?

Paul Casey, ; "isn't that Italian "champagne"? The "C" word" Fiona Phillips, ; 'comradely': "an exceedingly rare [Tony] Blair use of the c-word" Andrew Rawnsley and Gaby Hinsliff, ; "'There are good comrades who have fallen,' he said, an exceptional use of the c-word from [Tony Blair]" Andrew Rawnsley, ; "conservation [ Mr Clinton had charisma" Patrick Barkham, ; 'Clinton': "I have that uneasy feeling that the C word has echoed behind me in the corridors of corporate America" Kathleen Deveny, ; 'coup': "In his only public statement since Mr. Morsi's ouster, Mr. Carter" Mark Hosenball, ; "I would include Emanuelle And The Last Cannibals other than just, you know, because the title uses the c-word" Calum Waddell, ; "I don't want to use the 'C' word, chokers, so I am not going to" Commentatorballs , ; "[He] looked like someone who didn't even know what the C-word might be.

The revue show The C Word revolved around three c-words: 'comedy', 'clits', and 'cake'. Mark Mason's novel The C Words discusses 'commitment', 'coupledom', and 'children'. Grace Chin wrote a play about commitment titled The C-Word in There was even a c-word reference in a TV commercial for Phileas Fogg crisps :. After it was reported that Donald Trump called a woman a word beginning with 'c' and ending with 't', Stephen Colbert misunderstood for comic effect: "He called her a cat?!

The most frequent word, other than 'cunt', to be termed 'the c-word', is 'cancer': "The C-words Cancer and Comedy" Allen Klein, and "students talk about the Big C word. They don't mean Cancer. They mean Commitment" John Allen Lee, A cancer-awareness comedy event titled The 'C' Word was held in Toronto in Newspaper headlines often use the phrase 'the c-word' to pun on other contentious terms beginning with that letter: "the phrase 'the c-word' is sometimes deliberately used to mean something else, while exploiting the intertextuality of the original meaning" Ruth Wajnryb, ; for example The Guardian 's headline Kick-Ass 2 Star Chloe Moretz On Carrie, Controversy And Other C-Words Andrea Hubert, , in which Moretz compared the c-word in America and the UK: "cunt is a funny word.

It's a strong word, sure, but more so in America. In England it's just like any other curse word". The most common example of this is 'Christmas', which, like 'cancer', can be seen as an alternative 'c-word'. The headline Don't Mention The C-Word , for example, is about the removal of the word 'Christmas' from secular greetings cards.

In the article, Richard Littlejohn asks, rhetorically: "Who, exactly, is offended by the C-word? He has fun inventing phrases such as "Father C-word", "C-word Eve", and "C-word Day", all attempts to highlight the absurdity of banning the word 'Christmas'. Less festively, he also bemoans the culture of liberalism, 'political correctness', and ' Guardian istas' in other words, his usual targets , asking: "How on earth do you describe these New Scrooges? Difficult, I know.

But try the other C-word". As if that wasn't enough, Littlejohn went on to essentially repeat himself two Christmases later, in another article also headlined Don't Mention The C Word "the dreaded C Word [ Tim Rider's article C-Word Ban was also about the contentiousness of 'Christmas': "They do not want any mention of what they call the C-Word because they are worried it will offend followers of other faiths" , as was the article Merry C-Word in Los Angeles Times , which urged readers to say 'Christmas' despite its controversy. Yet another article, headlined Just Don't Mention The C-Word also concerned the festive season: "Ditch the dreams of a white Christmas", as did Jay Nordlinger's article December's C-Word "people could not bring themselves to utter the C-word", Cricket experts were aghast at the "inappropriate use of the c-word"", in a spoof article headlined Kevin Pietersen In C-Word Drama That final example, from The Sun 's coverage of a speech by Gordon Brown, also resulted in a Sun leader column headlined C Ironically, after David Cameron goaded Brown for not saying 'cuts', when Cameron himself became Prime Minister, he used the euphemism 'difficult decisions' to avoid saying 'cuts'.

The sheer extent of the 'cunt' lexicon supports Scott Capurro's assertion that it is "plainly the most versatile word in the English language" Capurro also notes the variety of reactions provoked by the word: "the reaction can be so varied. Some people will try to be smug about it and think, "Well, that does nothing for me". And the person sitting right next to that person could be completely moved by the word, emotionally drawn to somebody who uses that word, you know.

And the person sitting next to that person could be someone who's completely disgusted by it. It's one of those great words that can get many, many different reactions from people. This ideology, which was originally termed cunt-power, sought to invert the word's injurious potential - to prevent men using it as a misogynist insult, women assertively employed it themselves: "The old cunt was patriarchal, misogynist. The new cunt would be matriarchal, feminist" Peter Silverton, The feminist Cunt-Art movement incorporated the word into paintings and performances, and several female writers have campaigned for its transvaluation.

In my evaluation of the ideology of cunt-power, I discuss the extent of its practicality, popularity, and longevity. However, words do hurt us, and they can be used as weapons. Walter Kirn has called 'cunt' "the A-bomb of the English language [ Verbal weapons cause intense emotional pain.

GQ has noted that "No word is more hurtful or destructive than the C-word" Catherine MacKinnon cites numerous examples of abusive language provoking distress and resulting in litigation. Asserting that "A woman worker who was referred to by a [presumed male] co-worker as a 'cunt' could present a strong case for sexual harassment" , she quotes "Cavern Cunt", "stupid cunt", "fucking cunt", and "repeated use of the word 'cunt'" as phrases resulting in convictions for sexual harassment.

Just as 'cunt' can be a violent word, its use can also have violent repercussions: it is "a word so offensive that it would earn you a slap if you called someone it in a bar" Adam Renton, By contrast, however, a more recent case was dismissed when it was ruled that the word 'cunt' did not constitute sexual harassment: the court concluded that the word, while being "one of the most derogatory terms for a woman", could also be regarded as complementary Kevin Vaughan, A female student at Colorado University had alleged that another student called her a 'cunt'.

Hoffman was ridiculed by the press, not least because the name of her university is commonly abbreviated to 'CU': "In CU President Betsy Hoffman's world [ When men use the word 'cunt' to insult women, courts have deemed the act to be unlawful. When men use it to insult other men, as Julia Penelope demonstrates, their usage is still inherently insulting to women: "[words] used by men to insult other men, motherfucker, son-of-a-bitch, bastard, sissy, and cunt insult men because they're female words" The other male insults cited by Penelope are also tangential insults to women: to call a man a 'motherfucker' implicates both him and his mother, 'bastard' implies a man's mother is a slut, 'sissy' insults a man by likening him to a woman, and 'son-of-a-bitch' can be seen as an indirect insult to a man though a direct insult to his mother.

He calls it "the four-letter word a man can use to destroy everything with a woman [ Kirn explains the offensiveness of 'cunt' with reference to its plosive phonetics and its semantic reductionism: "The word is an ugly sonic package, as compact as a stone [ It strips away any aura of uniqueness". A character in the Hungarian film Taxidermia also notes the ugliness of the word, or rather its Hungarian equivalent. Somewhat insensitively, Kirn feels that women over-react to the word when it is used against them: "It doesn't bruise.

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It doesn't leave a mark. Yet women treat its deployment as tantamount to an act of nonphysical domestic violence". He also ignores the word's feminist reclamation, stating incorrectly: "you'll never hear someone call herself a cunt, let alone call another woman one. Essentially, Kirn's article is a macho defence of what he sees as the male privilege to call women cunts: "I'm grateful for the C-bomb, and thankful that women have nothing with which to match it. When a man has already lost the argument and his girl is headed out the door [we] have one last, lethal grenade to throw".

Unsurprisingly, women wrote to GQ to take issue with Kirn's article. Kim Andrew stressed that Kirn's definition of 'cunt' as "the A-bomb of the English language" does not apply to the UK, where it is used more freely than in America: "The word cunt is only an "A-bomb" in American English. M Restrepo's reaction was that, provided 'cunt' is not used insultingly as Kirn employs it , it should not be tabooed: "What era is Walter Kirn living in?

Cunt is no longer taboo. In welcome contrast to Kirn's article, Jonathon Green criticises the inherent patriarchy of the slang lexicon: "Slang is the essence of 'man-made language', created by men and largely spoken by him too" This is a trend which has noticeably increased over time, as Germaine Greer explains: "The more body-hatred grows, so that the sexual function is hated and feared by those unable to renounce it, the more abusive terms we find in the language" [a]. Specifically, the status and deployment of 'cunt' as "The worst name anyone can be called [and] the most degrading epithet" Germaine Greer, [a] , and especially as the worst name a woman can be called, serves to reinforce the tradition of cultural patriarchy, as Jane Mills points out: "the use of 'cunt' as the worst swear word that anyone can think of says a great deal about misogyny in our society, and I think it reveals fear, disgust, and also [a] denial of female sexuality" Kerry Richardson, Joan Smith agrees: "It is impossible not to make a link, as lexicographers and feminist writers have done, between the [ Smith calls 'cunt' "the worst possible thing - much worse than ['prick'] - one human being can say to another" and Simon Carr calls it "the worst thing you can say about anyone" As Deborah Cameron notes, "taboo words tend to refer to women's bodies rather than men's.

Thus for example cunt is a more strongly tabooed word than prick, and has more tabooed synonyms" Jonathon Green concurs that "the slang terms for the vagina outstrip any rivals, and certainly those for the penis [ William Leith notes that "We may have equality of the sexes but we do not have equality of sexual organs [ I can print the words prick, cock and dick as much as I like", adding coyly: "but I know I have to be careful with the c-word" Ed Vulliamy makes the same point: "the c-word is different.

The inequality of 'prick' and 'cunt' is also explored in the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm David Steinberg, , after the central character uses 'cunt' as an insult towards another man:. So what! Pricks and cunts, they're equal. Cunt's much heavier. According to Brigid McConville and John Shearlaw, 'cunt' "reflects the deep fear and hatred of the female by the male in our culture. It is a far nastier and more violent insult than 'prick' which tends to mean foolish rather than evil. This violent usage is a constant and disturbing reminder to women of the hatred associated with female sexuality and leaves women with few positive words to name their own organs" The 'cunt' taboo is but the most extreme example of a general taboo surrounding the lexicon of the female genitals: "Mild, non-specific [ The word 'vagina' is also subject to this taboo: "Even the word vagina has not easily entered public space".

Braun and Wilkinson cite examples of the term being banned from billboards "the London Underground banned a birth control advertisement - deeming it 'offensive' for including the word 'vagina'" and theatrical posters "Promotional material for theatrical pieces whose titles contained the word vagina has been censored [ Indeed, after surveying women's own attitudes, Sophie Laws discovered that they even felt obligated to self-censor their own discourse: "[women do not] refer to their sexual and reproductive organs in any way except in the most private of interactions" Virginia Braun and Celia Kitzinger published a 'survey of surveys', revealing the extent to which 'vagina' is a tabooed word: "Many people appear to consider women's genitalia to be unmentionable.

The German equivalent is even more demeaning: 'Schamscheide' 'vagina' translates literally as 'sheath of shame'. Word-meanings are dictated by consensus and contemporary usage, thus negative meanings can be reversed when pejorative terms are systematically reappropriated: "There have been several recent instances of a particular group explicitly reclaiming a taboo word previously used against them" Susie Dent, Melinda Yuen-Ching Chen and Robin Brontsema have both described the specific reappropriation of 'queer', though they also discuss the concept of reappropriation in general.

Cunt: A Cultural History of the C-Word

Brontsema provides a succinct definition of the terminology: "Linguistic reclamation, also known as linguistic resignification or reappropriation, refers to the appropriation of a pejorative epithet by its target s " He views the process as a harnessing and reversal of the original invective: "[the] injurious power is the same fuel that feeds the fire of its counter-appropriation. Laying claim to the forbidden, the word as weapon is taken up and taken back by those it seeks to shackle - a self-emancipation that defies hegemonic linguistic ownership and the a buse of power".

Chen defines reclamation as "an array of theoretical and conventional interpretations of both linguistic and non-linguistic collective acts in which a derogatory sign or signifier is consciously employed by the 'original' target of the derogation, often in a positive or oppositional sense" The focus here is primarily on feminist reappropriations, specifically on feminist attempts to reclaim 'cunt' and other abusive terms: "Girls and women can thus reclaim the words in our language that have been used against us" Gloria Bertonis, The mainstream success of reappropriations, however, depend upon the consensus of the population as a whole: "you cannot demand the word ['cunt'] be used only as a hallelujah to the flower of your womanhood; like all words, its meaning had been decided through collective use" Andrew Billen, The commonest derogative term for a woman - 'bitch' - is on the road to reclamation.

A woman should be proud to declare she is a Bitch, because Bitch is Beautiful. It should be an act of affirmation by self and not negation by others" Casey Miller and Kate Smith discuss this transvaluation of 'bitch' and also cite "Groups of feminists who choose to call themselves witches [ Other formerly derogatory terms for women have also been reclaimed: "The feminist spirit has reclaimed some words with defiance and humor. Witch, bitch, dyke, and other formerly pejorative epithets turned up in the brave names of small feminist groups" Gloria Steinem, Mary Daly has attempted to reverse the negative associations of words such as 'spinster', 'witch', 'harpy', 'hag', and 'crone'.

Where she is able to demonstrate non-pejorative etymological origins of these terms, she advocates a reversal of their current definitions.

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Daly does readily admit that not every modern negative term was originally positive 'crone', for example, has always implied old age , though in these cases she assert that negative connotations are a patriarchal perception: "ageism is a feature of phallic society. For women who have transvalued this, a Crone is one who should be an example of strength, courage and wisdom" In an episode of the sitcom Veep , 'crone' is confused with the c-word: "I called the president the c-word I was like, 'What an old crone! Regularly used as a pejorative term [ As Roz Wobarsht wrote in a letter to the feminist magazine Ms : "I think a female's use of words abusive to females defuses them.

Our use takes away the power of the words to damage us" Jane Mills adds that "crumpet has recently been appropriated by women to refer to men [and] women today are making a conscious attempt to reform the English language [including] the reclamation and rehabilitation of words and meanings" Maureen Dowd notes the "different coloration" of 'pimp' and charts the transition of 'girl' "from an insult in early feminist days to a word embraced by young women".

A less likely pioneer of reclamation is the self-styled 'battle-axe' Christine Hamilton, though her celebratory Book Of British Battle-Axes nevertheless marked a re-evaluation of the term. Julie Bindel cites 'bird' and 'ho' as "blatant insults [ Patrick Strudwick praises Bint Magazine for "reclaiming the term "bint" from the huge slag heap of misogynist smears and turning it into something fabulous" The offensive term 'slut' has also been reclaimed as an epithet of empowerment: Kate Spicer suggests that 'slut' is "a term of abuse that has been redefined by fashion to mean something cool [ In the s, Katharine Whitehorn famously used her column in The Observer to self-identify as a 'slut', using the term in its original sense meaning a slovenly woman.

In , Bea Miller released the song S. In , the campaigning group SlutWalk Toronto organised a series of 'slutwalks' - demonstrations in which women marched while wearing sexually-provocative clothing and holding banners reappropriating the word 'slut'. The SlutWalk campaign provoked considerable feminist debate, with Gail Dines and Wendy J Murphy arguing that the protesters were fighting a lost cause: "The organisers claim that celebrating the word "slut", and promoting sluttishness in general, will help women achieve full autonomy over their sexuality.

But the focus on "reclaiming" the word slut fails to address the real issue. The word is so saturated with the ideology that female sexual energy deserves punishment that trying to change its meaning is a waste of precious feminist resources" Germaine Greer was more enthusiastic about the SlutWalk phenomenon, though she cautioned that "It's difficult, probably impossible, to reclaim a word that has always been an insult" and she should know.

Here, the principal is the same as that pioneered by Madonna: sexual aggression, feared by men and characterised by them in disrespectful terms such as 'slut', can be redefined as an assertive and positive attribute. It is not simply the word 'slut' that is being redefined, it is the lifestyle that the word represents - the meaning of the term 'slut' has stayed the same, though the cultural acceptance of its characteristics has increased.

As Chinese is a tonal language, the same word can have multiple meanings depending on its pronunciation; this has been used subversively by women to reappropriate the pejorative term 'shengnu' 'leftover women' , which can also mean 'victorious women' when pronouced with a different tone.

This "pun that turns the tables on the prejudicial description" gained popularity following the television series The Price Of Being A Victorious Woman Tatlow, [a]. It is important to note the distinction between changing a word's definition and changing its connotation. Women have sought not to change the definitions of for example 'cunt' or 'slut', but instead to alter the cultural connotations of the terms.

Thus, the reclaimed word 'cunt' is still defined as 'vagina' and the reclaimed 'slut' still means 'sexual predator'. What have been reclaimed are the social attitudes towards the concepts of vaginas and sexual predators: whereas these once attracted negative connotations, they have been transvalued into positive concepts. In a sense, this is true of a large number of terms which are regarded as positive by some yet as negative by others: for example, 'liberal' is used as an insult by conservatives, and 'conservative' is used as an insult by liberals.

Salman Rushdie gives examples of older political terms which have also been reclaimed: "To turn insults into strengths, Whigs [and] Tories [both] chose to wear with pride the names they were given in scorn" Also, in Thailand, poor farmers protesting against the aristocratic political system wore t-shirts with the word 'prai' 'commoner' as a symbol of pride, in "a brilliant subversion of a word that these days has insulting connotations" Banyan, After Republicans derided Barack Obama's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as 'Obamacare', Obama himself began using this more concise though originally derogatory term, professing that he liked it.

Richard Herring notes the paradox that, while the vagina should be celebrated, 'cunt' is an inexplicably offensive term: "it describes quite a nice thing. If you give words the power then they are nasty. But you can turn things around and use them in a different way" Anthony Barnes, Thus, reclaiming abusive language requires a change not in meaning but in attitude. Whereas Madonna is perhaps the most significant embodiment of this transvaluation - female sexual empowerment being asserted as liberating and subversive - the theory behind it has been articulated most dramatically by Germaine Greer in her essay for Suck on the word 'whore'.

Germaine Greer - who instigated the cunt-power movement, of which more later - wrote I Am A Whore , in which she consciously identified herself with the word 'whore', attempting to show that it can be positive rather than negative: "Whore is a dirty word - so we'll call everybody whore and get people uptight; whereas really you've got to come out the other way around and make whore a sacred word like it used to be and it still can be" [b]. Greer's biographer fundamentally misjudged her suggestion, calling it "a direct betrayal of what feminism was supposed to be about [ In fact, far from identifying as a prostitute, Greer was implying that the word 'whore' could be removed from its pejorative associations.

A term with similar status is the racially abusive 'nigger', which has been reclaimed or 'flipped' by African-Americans such as Richard Pryor's Supernigger , and is used in this context as a term of endearment. Jonathon Green suggests that this use "as a binding, unifying, positive word" dates from as early as the s Jennifer Higgie, Its reappropriation is not universally accepted, however: Spike Lee has criticised what he perceives as Samuel L Jackson's insensitivity towards the word's history. Similar attempts to reclaim other racially abusive terms such as 'paki' notably the PAK1 clothing brand have been equally contentious: "even now this "flipping", as it is called, has not been totally successful" Sarfraz Manzoor, In his article A Bad Word Made Good , Andrew Clark notes the reappropriation of 'wog', formerly a term of racist abuse though later used self-referentially amongst Australia's Greek community: "the term has metamorphosed in the Antipodes.

Greek[s] happily refer to themselves as wogs [ Furthermore, Todd Anten cites the increasing transvaluation of 'chink', noting that "Virtually any word that is or has been a slur can be reappropriated by the target group" Lenny Bruce made the point that the social suppression of taboo words such as 'cunt' and 'nigger' serves to perpetuate and increase their power: "the word's suppression gives it the power, the violence, the viciousness" He argued that only through repetition can we remove the abusive powers of taboo words: "If [you said] niggerniggerniggernigger [ The film's director later explained that he was consciously attempting to "take everything that's negative in the language and turn it into a positive thing" Criterion, The editor of the Jewish magazine Heeb intended its title as a transvaluation of the term, a variant of 'hebe': "We're reappropriating it, but with a twist of pride" Peg Tyre, Annie Goldflam self-identified as both a 'kike' and a 'dyke', in Queerer Than Queer : "I am both a kike and a dyke, derogatory terms for Jews and lesbians, respectively, but which I here reclaim as proud markers of my identity" The homophobic term 'queer' has also been positively - yet contentiously - reappropriated, for example by Queer Nation: "In recent years 'queer' has come to be used differently [and this] once pejorative term [is] a positive self-description [ Ratna Kapur and Tayyab Mahmud cite 'fruit' amongst other terms "appropriated by the gay community as words denoting pride, self-awareness, and self-acceptance" The gay-oriented cosmetics brand FAG: Fabulous And Gay has helped to reclaim 'fag', and Todd Anten cites the company's mission statement: "to abolish the negative connotation of the word fag and reposition it [ Larry Kramer's book Faggots began the transvaluation of another homophobic term.

Another book title, Christopher Frayling's Spaghetti Westerns , was also intended as a positive reappropriation of a negative term: "The book's title was deliberately polemical, seeking to turn what had initially been a put-down into a badge of honour" Edward Buscombe, The similar film term 'chop-socky' has also been "repurposed" David Kamp and Lawrence Levi, The various epithets used to insult mentally handicapped people represent a further lexicon of reclaimed pejoratives.

Mark Radcliffe profiles "people with mental health problems tak[ing] the sting out of stigma by reclaiming pejoratives" , citing 'Crazy Folks' and 'Mad Pride' as groups whose names "reclaim some of the stigmatising language". This consciously humorous appropriation of 'crazy' and 'mad' must, however, avoid being misinterpreted as a trivialisation of those whom it seeks to empower.

The term 'punk' has become associated with a musical genre, though it also has an insulting definition, as it is used to describe men who are raped by fellow prisoners in jail. Robert Martin, who was repeatedly gang-raped in prison, has now spoken out against jail-rape while also celebrating the term 'punk': "He has taken the word "punk," which in its nonmusical context has always been a term of derision, and turned it into an emblem of honor. He has performed the same etymological magic trick that others have done with [ Finally, we should consider 'otaku', 'geek', and 'nerd', all of which are negative terms implying anti-social obsessive behaviour.

Increasingly, people are self-identifying as geeks, otakus, and nerds, using the terms proudly: a computing magazine called Otaku was launched in , David Bell cites 'geek' as "Originally a term of abuse for people overly-obsessed with computers - though now reappropriated as a badge of pride" , and 'GEEK' and 'nerd' t-shirts are on sale. The comedy film Revenge Of The Nerds celebrated the atypical victory of nerds against jocks in an American school.

It is clear that "The conversion of a derogatory term into a battle cry by radicals is not uncommon" Hugh Rawson, , though 'cunt' itself has yet to emerge as a fully reclaimed term. Presently, the initial stages of its reappropriation are more contentious and complex than those of the epithets dicussed above. Todd Anten categorises slurs into two types, to distinguish between words in different positions along the road to reclamation: 'close' words "which are at the end stages of reappropriation", and 'clear' words "which are at the beginning stages".

He also notes that it is not only words that can be reclaimed: "The power of reappropriation is not limited to textual slurs; visual slurs may also be reappropriated". He cites as an example the pink triangle used by the Nazis to identify homosexuals: "[it] evolved from a mark of Nazi hatred into a symbol of gay pride". An especially intriguing aspect of reappropriation is that of trademark applications. Aware that potentially disparaging words are denied trademark status, Todd Anten argues that such restrictions should be lifted for "self-disparaging" terms: "The reappropriation of former slurs is an integral part of the fostering of individual and group identity [ He also cites Joe Garofoli's comment that "[S]elf-labeling defuses the impact of derisive terms by making them more commonplace".

In the latter case, 'jap', Anten notes that the term "may disparage multiple groups": it was intended as a reclaimed term in a Jewish context, though it may still offend Japanese people. Reappropriation is indeed a minefield. The marginalisation of the feminine is apparent not only in relation to language but also in cultural attitudes towards the sexual organs themselves.

A large penis is equated with potency and sexual prowess: 'size matters' has become a cliche, though it is still perceived as an index of masculinity by men. Take care, God bless you and take your hand. God Bless you Celine and continue to strengthen you. I met you many years ago in Illinois a choir did back ground for you. Very dear Celine, Plutot que mes mots, ceux de Nelson Mandela : "La plus grande victoire de l'existence ne consiste pas a ne jamais tomber, mais a se relever apres chaque chute. You are a real warrior. Ainsi je partage ta peine, votre peine, tu es une battante , j'admire ton courage Merci, du plus profond de mon coeur.

On vous aime. Very dear Rene, We miss you, We miss your smile, your simplicity, your existence For sure, we will not forget you Of course we think to your family, your gorgeous and talented wife, your beloved sons. God help them , give them strength, hope, and all they need to move on The best way is not to forget you, it is to live with you Always in our hearts, in our minds, in our lives God bless you Sonia B. Celine, I was so sorry to hear of the loss of both your husband and your brother.

There is nothing harder in life than losing someone you love. To lose two people you love so close together is something I can't even imagine. I won't say something as trite as "I know what you're going through" because grief is a very personal thing. Even someone who has been through it themselves can never truly know or understand what you are personally feeling. I hope it helps to know that you are loved by so many people. Millions of fans are thinking of you, praying for you, and grieving with you and your family.

I am one of them. I wish there was more that I could say. I will continue to think of you. I am sad to say that I have not yet been able to see one of your concerts. I have chronic health problems and while it would be a major Aunderstatement to say that I am a HUGE fan, it is very difficult for me to leave the house, much less travel across the country to Las Vegas I live in Virginia.

I am hoping so hard that my health will improve enough for me to be able get on that plane and come see you while you are still in Vegas. If not, I hope you will go on tour one day and come to a location near me. Either way, it is my life's goal to get to see you. Until then, I will continue to listen to you on my iPod and sing along every day! Music has such great healing powers and I believe that is one of the ways your heart will mend.

With love. It takes a very rare and special person to persevere after the death of Rene and then your brother.

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  • Jan 14 will be a day a day edged in my mind. I decided that I was coming back to see and hear you on your return to Vegas in February. That was a very special night for me. Interesting that I was talking to one of my brother's caretakers today who is from Quebec and he attended Rene's funeral at Notre Dame. His not dead his God took his body back but his soul stayes in celine as long as she wants to. In memory of Rene Angelil, a beautiful soul whose light shines forever in our hearts. God bless you, Rene. You will never be forgotten.

    Dearest Celine and Family, I am so very sorry for your loss. Having lost my first husband, I know that the grief is very personal, but it did help having the support of family and friends. It takes time to heal, and even though you will never stop loving and missing your Rene, there will come a time when the sharpest edges of pain will soften, and healing will come.

    My thoughts and prayers go out to you and your sons, as well as to Rene's family. Take the time to grieve, but continue to sing, as he would want you to do. God bless you, sweet lady. Your Rene is safe in the arms of God. Wishing you peace. All love to you. Dear Celine I'm so sorry for your lost as I have lost my husband also. The love will always be there and not a day do u forget him.

    I know he was precious to u. You have the children to be so thankful for and their love. You have been a fan of mine for so long that I wish you alwAys the best.. Always remember u truly have your fans family and your children who truly loves you. I just wanted to send my condolences to your family and his. Celine love your music you are my favorite artist I could listen to it all day. You have a wonderful personality. My Husband surprised me couple years ago in Vegas and bought VIP tickets and they were worth every penny.

    We were right in front of you in the 6 row. Best concert in my whole life. Thank you Jackie. Very dear Celine, Rene passed away but we will never forget him. You were young, with no confidence but with the will to work, to sing and to become a great artist He made all that and so much more People all over the world know you, know your songs and love you. He did it. You did it.

    An Introduction to British Library MS Lansdowne 380

    All that because you loved and trust each other We thank you Rene because your love story was beautiful It made us dream. It made us believe that all is possible I will never stop listening her and singing, smiling, dansing Her voice is music, Thank you for being, for living and for loving Celine You made her happy. Rest in peace Rene , We love you too Sonia B. Very dear Celine, Believe in you, believe in your love, believe in your music, Your voice is so powerful, it gives confidence, faith, strength and so much joy to peole who listen it You are so talented.

    With you, all seem possible even the impossible , You are magic , A real diamond , An incredible performer and we do love you God bless you and help you Rip Rene and thanks for finding and loving Celine Sonia B. May you rest with God. Your so blessed to have a beautiful wife and family gone not Forgotten. Very dear and sweet Celine, Another day, another night without Rene but for sure you must feel his presence, smell his perfume Your love is so strong, it cat fly away like this You can handle with the pain and transform it in strenght Stay as you are, as we see you : happy, funny, sensitive, brilliant, beautiful, strong and simple We like you, we really love you because Rene and you are so special, so unique His kindness was so evident Impossible to deny it , a very real gentleman!

    Be in peace Celine, live your life, enjoy and love God bless you Il y a ces grands capitaine. Bon voyage! So sorry for your loss. Keep him in your heart with your songs. I believe that a love like yours will reunite you two in heaven. I am 31 years older than my wife and I can relate to your love.

    March 16, Dear Celine, My heartfelt condolences to you and your family. Know that you are not alone. Your family and fans adore you. Let that love help to give you the strength to heal and move forward. Feel the spirit, love, joy of life that Rene left you and your sons. Truly an amazing legacy. Thank you for giving so much of yourself in your music.

    May the following poem bring you some comfort: Someday I knew someday this day would come When God would call my name, When I'd be asked to let go, Despite resulting pain, He'd asked me if I'd leave behind all those I dearly love, and though it is most difficult I've a mission from above. I'll journey on and serve my Lord, and hold you in my heart, I pray that you will do the same, Each day is a new start. Keep trusting God, He has a plan, He'll give you all you need, and if you choose to follow, our Saviour always leads.

    Fay Beaman Laing You are in my thoughts and prayers, take care, Fay. Dear Celine, No one can prepare you for a loss; it comes like a swift wind. However, take comfort in knowing that he is now resting in the arms of our Lord. My deepest condolences to you and your family. Love from Greece Andreas Georgiopoulos. Dear Celine Dion Angelil, Know that you and your beautiful three boys are being prayed for often during this difficult time and trial with the death of your beloved husband. As Christians we understand Jesus suffered so that we can go to him for comfort because he understands.

    May God the father of our Lord Jesus Christ give you his peace that passes all understanding in the days months and years ahead. God's grace be with you Celine. June and Ray Aromatorio. I am so sorry to hear of your loss. I lost my husband to cancer 8 years ago, and I know the pain you are having. I always said we were joined at the heart, and half of mine went with him, just like I felt when you spoke of him and your love. May you come to realize he will always be there with you, look for the signs he will send, a butterfly, a bird, he will let you know he is still with you.

    My husband sends a bird soaring like no other, especially when I am venturing into something new. Although the pain is terrible to lose him, the thirty-eight years we had together and the memories I will always treasure are what I remember every day. Now when you sing "My Heart Will Go On" it will have a special meaning for you, as it does for me and so many other widows, the only people that truly know how we feel. May God give you the strength to face each day, and the joy of seeing Renee in the eyes and smiles of your children always, the part of him he left for you until you see him again.

    Very dear Celine, I do not know if my words can help you when you live such a pain but i try. I try to send you strength, hope, love, comfort and peace but you are the only one. The only one who can fight the sadness, the despair, and can live with this terrible loss You are not alone. Rene was a very nice man and he will be missed.. His talent, his appetite for life, his simplicity made him as known as his famous, very famius wife Rip Rene, Celine, we love you and support you Even though Im a very busy professional woman, Im steel sending my blessings to you and your lovely family.

    I strongly believe that the people that we meet and related to in this world will never be apart, even beyond the death. So Rene will be with you forever!!! Love your music, love the way you transmit it!!! Each morning after my usual conversation with God, I drive to my work, with your wonderful son Im Alive!!! It turns me on!!! Thanks a lot, Celine for being such a special instrument of God!!! Dearest Celine, Our family sends our heartfelt condolences during this difficult time. We truly wish you and your sons all the best.

    While we never had the pleasure of ever meeting Rene, when we did see an interview you were doing, your face lit up every time you began to speak of him. From what we have seen from past interviews, it seemed as though you and Rene were always on your first date. The love the two of you shared was so beautiful. You are in our thoughts and prayers. Celine, my heart aches for you and the pain you must feel. I wish I could reach out and hug you to comfort you. I am praying for you and your family daily.

    I know Rene is watching over you with sooo much love and will continue to protect you! You and your music have always inspired me. When my mom died in ,it is you who unknowingly helped me with my grief. With you at my side, I sang to my mom with all the love in my heart. I love you, Celine and thank you for being the beautiful person you are. God bless you always. Vincent de Paul. Dear Celine and family, I remember Rene walking in to the audience at the start of your show in Paris in As he walked down the aisle we all stood, clapping and cheering.

    Because we all appreciate the talent and dedication Rene has always showed. Rene smiled and waved, self conscious and seeming like he didn't deserve the fuss. All through the show he was smiling with the most amazing pride, his love for his wife showing through. He took his eyes off the stage, just once, to laugh at Rene-Charles jumping up on his chair singing along with his mum!

    What I saw that day, even from a distance, was a genuine, professional, proud and gracious man. Your loss cannot be put into words. But know that we have all lost something special in Rene. He will be in my thoughts, as will you all, and though these are words from a stranger I hope somehow they offer some small comfort. All my love. Listened to your song thats the way it is today, asking for people not to surrender. For for billions it is too late they already did. There should be more who turn back and who don't.

    Your songs should last forever with the value in their lyrics meaning. If this world should have more Rene s and Celine s This world should be different. Juan Torres Santiago de Chile Chile. Dear Celine: I think that should be people who never die or suffer. Is the people like Rene and Celine Dion. Is the people that is like a lighthouse who enlighten humanity with the most beautiful feelings. Love and solidarity. I'm not a celebrity, or a remarkable handicap or an important guy from music industry. I'm just one more of millions around the world who feel that the world still is beautiful when hear your voice singing.

    You can't imagine how sad I am now thinking the pain you have suffer when lost your partner of a whole life. I send you my love and my friendship to you and all your family. Thanks for being who you are and for light up my life. Juan Torres Santiago de Chile. Dear Celine Be brave, Rene will be dearly missed and always near.

    You have your boys who will be a delight. You will look at them and see Rene and smile. Be strong. Sonia B Ps : just take a deep breathe, Just do what he would like you to do, Make him happy, Make you happy. To Celine and family, In the darkest of days , you will see the sunshine in a memory and in the face of your loved one's.

    My heartfelt sympathy to all of you. We never stop loving those who's very being make us who we are, because we cannot see them. When we feel we are lost , the love you shared with Rene and the love you have for your children will bring you home , God bless Marguerita x. Sincerest condolences to Rene's family. The world knew him as the kindest man who doted on his wife and children. May he be an example to other men around the world and may his love carry on in the lives of his family.

    I lost my child, then my wife shortly after, so I have just an inkling of what you've been through. Condoglianze dal profondo del mio cuore. Con affetto Tiziana. Celine I send you and your family my condolences I too am a widow I lost my Husband 23 years ago we have 2 girls they were so young at the time they were 4 and 8 years old so I understand your loss I admire you as singer and I think your a wonder full person and true lady I wish you didn't have to go threw this but I believe you will someday not to soon will be an angel in heaven you a wonder full women and fantastic mother and an astounding singer your truley amazing the way you look for the positive out a hard time you truley amaze me love Colleen Hoeper.

    Celine and Family, It is with a heavy heart that I extend my sincere,heartfelt condolences for your most unimaginable loss. I'm a studio musician in Nashville who has watched and admired through the years how your and Rene's relationship and partnership,became a living example to all who travel in this life together , how love that knows no end is the most powerful force in any realm.

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    • I sit alone now in the darkness of despair. I cry my silent tears, My heart is broken into a million tiny pieces. The silence is deafening to my ears. The darkness frightens me, The shadows climb the wall. I hear footsteps walking, Passing through the hall. The loneliness surrounds me, It takes my breath away, This is the pattern of my life, Since that awful, dreadful day. Without a clue Without a hint Of what was yet to be, God called you home To be with him And took you away from me.

      I walk, I talk. I carry on When the sun pokes out its head But when darkness falls And evening comes I cannot go to bed. For this is when I miss you most of all When I curl into a little ball And cry those silent tears. Watching the shadows, And missing you. Very dear Celine, You lost the love of your life , but you are not alone You have your beautiful Rene Charles, Nelson, Eddy Rene would like you to sing , to show, to be this singing wonder he helped to grow up Here and now do the show , Make him proud again and again You are not a simple woman.

      You are Celine. You can raise your up You can sing like an angel, You can dance like a goddess Do not forget it Rene wias the first to dance, the first to cry, te first to applause Make him happy in heaven God bless you all. My heart goes out to you and your family during this difficult time. Remember the first year is the hardest. Getting through all the "firsts". Always remember we never forget we just learn to live a new life without them physically in it. He will always be there with you and in your heart. To know you still speak with him makes my heart soar.

      I too speak to my mom who has been gone for 12 years. Keep doing what you are doing. I truly believe Rene will be watching! Celine and family, may the Lord give you comfort and peace during this difficult time. I'm truly sorry for your loss of both your husband and brother.

      Please know that you all are loved and being prayed for. Bless you and yours! Dear Celine I have been a fan of yours for many many years. I have followed the great love story that was yours and Rene and it is one that has always fascinated me. It was heartbreaking to learn about his demise. Even in fame, I always cherish his simplicity and stately demeanor. I am a believer in God and a believer in the resurrection; and I do know that as God lives, we will see him again I lost my husband to head and neck cancer January 25, We have been married for 27 years so I really identify with you Celine.

      You are in my prayers. Your love story touched my heart. Like me you were very blessed to be married to your best friend. God bless you honey Rene will always be with you stay strong and love in your heart. Y que Dios te colme de bendiciones. Celin dion im so sorry for your loss my prayers are with you and your family. Deep love to you and to all of your family. God gave you a wonderful talent. Keep on using and enjoying it. Celine I send you an Irish blessing that our Lord may give you and your family peace amd serenity at this sad sad time sorry for your loss our friend.

      And til today your music has been an extraordinary influence on my life. I once again want to express my deepest condolences to you in this difficult time. Sincerely yours Katie. Love love love Love is everywhere Where there is love, there is hope.. Where there is love, there is strength, and will, and courage, and dignity, integrity Rene was all that and more, much more Lets celebrate him!

      He was good, and patient He will net be forgotten God bless his loving family, Sonia B. Dieu veille sur vous et vos enfants. Bises de france. Je t'embrasse. Mais comovida ainda estou escrevendo para desejar a voce e teus filhos serenidade para continuar a caminhada da vida. Sou brasileira e me chamo Stella. Dear Celine and family, sending my sincere condolences to you and your love ones. Dear Celion, My condolences to you and your children for the loss of your beloved husband and father, He will always look after you, be with you and your beloved children from heaven and he will always find you where ever you are to give you the strength to keep going day after day.

      You are and will be in my prayers as long I live. Good Bless You With my admiration. March 6, Dear Celine, we have been hearing your beautiful voice for the last twenty years. We loved watching through blue ray your show at Las Vegas and we hope to see you personally. My name is Rene 50 years old and I am joyfully married for the last 20 years with Laura We have been blessed with three beautiful girls: Mercedes 18 , Lourdes 17 and Fatima We hope you and Rene will meet again Thanks for sharing your beatiful voice with us.

      Laura, Mercedes, Lourdes, Fatima and Rene. Dear Celine, Those we Love remain with us, for Love itself lives on. Cherished memories never fade, because a loved one is gone. Those we Love can never be, more than a thought apart. For as long as there is a memory, they'll live on in our heart. My thoughts and prayers are with you and your family.

      Dear celine All my love for you and your family with all my Heart The love of boths remains intact forever We are with you be strong we loves you so much. Que DIEU vous aide pour tout ce que vous faites et veille vos enfants. Very dear Celine, He touched us like you did. Two persons, but one strength, one power , one light shining always and for ever It was so emotional, and funny You were always telling about you and your husband Rene Here or in heaven, he will always be A real gentleman, a real musician, a real businessman but always and for ever a real dad and a real loving husband Keep faith in life, Keep hope One day, you will see, you will undestand , death is not the end God bless you alll Sonia B.

      A candle in celebration of a new birth and a celebration of a life well lived. On earth, or in Heaven. He will always be with you and love you. May be The light be with him, and let him be patient, happy and as good as he was. A lot of love and light to You Celine. Krystian from Poland. His light and Gods blessings will shine on you and the family.

      He will always live because you will keep him alive in your lives. Never gone! Best to you, Celine! Enjoy the good things and spirits in life! Celine, Your heart will go on and on Forever in our hearts. The show must go on, continue to make Renee proud, you're the best Hugs from, Wisconsin. Celine and children, my deepest condolences for the passing of Rene.

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      You have not lost him. He is in a better place but always with you. My wonderful husband a my center I had the big career while he was my rock passed a year ago December. I now find peace and happiness for him.

      What are works?

      Eventually you also will feel this, while always missing your best friend. Best wishes for all. Je vous souhaite courage et paix en ces moments difficiles. Dear Celine. I am so sorry for your loss. I was at your opening night and I cried with you. God loves you so much and I felt so blessed to see you.

      We live in Edmonton and came to Las Vegas for the first time on February 22 to see you. I love you and I pray for you. God bless. Certains malheureux qui jugent et griffonnent du papier ne comprendrons jamais Je prie pour vous et votre famille. Prend soin de toi ma belle et prend le temps de vivre ton deuil et la perte de ton amour. Querida Celine: mucha paz muchas bendiciones la certeza de la Fe en Cristo nos hace descubrir la Pascua de Rene.

      Tres chere Celine, Que rajouter qui n'ait pas ete dit deja? admin