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Previous Page 1 2 Ayuda de Kindle. Prime Reading Eligible. Seven were newly composed; one was a revival. Curiously, in this period, Juan de Navas continued to compose musical-theatrical pieces and other works but was slowly replaced by a younger Spanish composer who would eventually become maestro de capilla and whose career would be controversial both during and after his lifetime.
Enmeshed in political intrigue during the War of Succession at a time when his career as a composer of theatrical music was flourishing, he would be sent into exile but later forgiven. After his death, he would be accused of having polluted Spanish music and of having led Spain into decline through his music. His theatrical works, bearing the stigma of the political decline of their time, would be neglected and forgotten for centuries.
Two other musicians, Gregorio de la Rosa and Juan de Serqueira, appear in this period. I have not included them in my analysis, as they were not court musicians and did not write new theatrical works. They were attached to companies of actors who were paid for composing the loa introduction or a baile dance , or both, for the revivals of older works. Stein, Songs of Mortals, Dialogues of the Gods, n. Moreover, foreign influence cannot be held up as the cause for the decline in Spanish music because, as we have seen, Spanish theatrical music originated as a hybrid of indigenous and foreign elements to begin with.
Spanish theatrical music never declined either in the seventeenth century or in the eighteenth century. On the contrary, it evolved and became enriched through the foreign traits that it absorbed and later merged with popular national forms and musical characteristics. I will study their stylistic evolution in the context of the elements Feijoo singles out for criticism. In he competed for the position of second organist at the prestigious cathedral in Seville. Siemens suggests, because he was dissatisfied with his position as second organist in Seville. See Lothar G. The last position he held as church organist was at the cathedral of Palencia from to It was most likely in that he wrote his first theatrical piece for the court and sometime soon after he was appointed maestro de capilla, taking over from court composer Juan de Navas.
The Spanish limpieza de sangre puritate sanguinis referred to ethnic and religious ancestry. Anyone who desired a tranquil career in church or state, or in many cases even admittance to one, applied to the Inquisition for certificates attesting their purity of blood, and for this purpose, they described their genealogy, named witnesses and paid a fee.
He may have also met the French composer, Henry Desmarets , who arrived in Madrid with six other French musicians on loan from the Versailles court. The group, which stayed in Spain until , performed several divertissements both in Barcelona and Madrid as part of the festivities for the marriage of Philip V and Maria Luisa. The widow queen had been exiled from Madrid and sent with only a few of her servants to Toledo in before the arrival of the new monarch.
Unfortunately for her and for all the Habsburg defenders, the troops of Philip V recaptured Madrid. Many pro-Austrians were detained and imprisoned for having celebrated the proclamation of Charles II at Madrid, and Mariana, who was in Madrid at the time supporting her nephew, was sent back to Toledo. Philip V would later send the Duke of Osuna to oversee and monitor the transfer of the widow queen to Bayonne, France.
Most likely, he went into exile in for supporting the Habsburg cause and joined the court of Mariana of Neuburg in Bayonne in the south of France. He was forced to leave Bayonne to avoid reprisals and took up residence in another French city, Pau, which he probably left at some point in Sometime between and , perhaps due to his connections with Osuna and a few other influential aristocrats at the Madrid court, he was pardoned and allowed to return to Spain.
He was offered a post in Palencia as organist in , but there is no record of his response. The last theatrical work composed in this early period is the zarzuela Selva encantada de amor. Two works have survived from the middle period, the opera La Guerra de los Gigantes of and the zarzuela Apolo y Dafne written in collaboration with the composer Juan de Navas.
Three zarzuelas El imposible Mayor, en Amor le venze Amor first performed at the Teatro de la Cruz in Madrid in , and Veneno es de amor la envidia and Las Nuevas Armas de Amor both from the following year, come from the late period. Salir el amor del mundo? Charles, may time celebrate your convalescence, your years counting for its empire. During the summer of that year, the monarch fell ill after eating eel pie that may have been poisoned. At the same time the people were in mourning after the death of the queen mother on May All performances were suspended until the period of mourning was over on September 1, and it is probable that the work was performed after this date when Charles II had completely recovered.
The list includes works. As in most zarzuelas of the time, its undemanding story line was intended simply to entertain the monarch and his court. Apollo, Mars, and Jupiter descend from the Olympus and come to her aid. Cupid is chased, captured, and shut forever in a cave. For the synopsis and a formal description of the work, including its scenes and their musical setting, see Appendix 4. La Guerra de los Gigantes? All three manifest the Italian influence at the Madrid court and were performed for the monarch.
While the first seems to have been an experimental exercise in the new genre, the second and third operas were clearly produced for political purposes. Not satisfied with ruling the earth, Palante, leader of the Giants, wishes to conquer Olympus and incites the Giants to war.
Hercules and Minerva defeat the Giants, and the Gods celebrate their victory. If the introduction in fact refers to her, then the opera would have been produced in and the character of the Lord would have represented the Count of Salvatierra of Avala. Not only is the work an opera a genre favoured and promoted by the new monarch but it also contains allegorical and political connotations. El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor? It is likely that the Italians accompanied Philip V on his return to Madrid after his visit to Naples and later Milan whose possession for the Spanish crown he had been fighting to maintain.
These foreign musicians, unlike their Spanish counterparts, benefited from the protection of the king and were not required to answer to the municipal authorities. Although they originally performed for the king only at the Buen Retiro Palace, they later rented a corral public theatre and mounted performances for the Madrid audience.
Their tremendous success in the city was due to their music — recitatives and Italian arias — as well as their innovative seating of the audience. While men and women were traditionally seated in separate sections of the theatre for performances of Spanish works in the Madrid theatres, for presentations of the new Italian company men and women sat together.
Unfortunately, since the Italians did not answer to the city authorities, none of their performances were recorded or documented. In the end, their love conquers all. For the synopsis and a formal description of the work, including its scenes and their musical settings, see Appendix 4. However, his court career may have been cut short because of his political instruction of the monarch in his literary works. His last literary work for the monarch was performed in Shortly after, he left the court and was succeed by Antonio de Zamora.
Two issues have sparked the debate over the identity of the librettist. The zarzuela El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor was followed by two more very successful theatrical works in the same style see Appendix 3. Observers and musicologists of the time believed that Spanish music was not worth studying because it was not progressive or because it was strongly influenced by Italian music.
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But while there had been foreign influence at court as early as the sixteenth century as noted in 1. He was attacked as a musician and also as a public figure. If one takes into account that the accuser was a Bourbon supporter a Frenchman in this case , the accusation then can be seen as yet another example of the French agenda of highlighting the superiority of the House of Bourbon by calling into ill repute everything and everyone associated with the Spanish Habsburg dynastic monarchy.
Vas Rego responded: In Madrid he did wonders and he was at the top of his field: … I showed my respect in letters that I keep. But I do not find Feijoo to be right because he murmurs falsely. See above, 9. See Louise K. Stein with Jack Sage and John H.
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Stanley Sadie, 2nd ed. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Salamanca: Imprenta de la Santa Cruz, In Spain, however, such modern theatrical forms as the minuetta, recitative, arietta, and allegro had all been adapted for use in church music. The first was the diminution of sixteenth-note figures to those with even smaller note values—thirty-second and even sixty-fourth notes, which he believed ruined music for two reasons. Whatever the case, the odd choice of terminology is striking, as the ancient genera were not the issue for Spanish composers of theatrical music in the early eighteenth century that they had been for the Italian madrigalists of the mid-sixteenth century.
This somewhat bizarre reference to the ancient Greek genera by Feijoo may have been his way of demonstrating his erudition and thereby lending weight to his criticism of what in Italy had become a commonplace affective device in music. After all, Feijoo sometimes uses ambiguous or inaccurate terms to describe music, as when he refers to "allegro" as a formal construct.
See page 47 above. Lusitano claimed that contemporary music could be explained in terms of the diatonic genus alone whereas Vicentino argued that it should be seen as a combination of the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic genera, the last of which contained a microtone. See Henry W. Kaufmann and Robert L.
Feijoo added that since foreign composers could not write pasos, they tried to convince everyone in Spain that the genre was no longer in fashion. For him, their high-pitched sound was inappropriate because music in the church should be in a lower register in order to be majestic and religious. The fantasias were improvisatory instrumental pieces. Theatrical forms 2. Use of affects 3. Chromaticism and transitions from diatonic into chromatic genres 4.
Diminution of the sixteenth-note figures 5. Modulations 6. Violins 1. Theatrical forms In his criticism, Feijoo complained that the music of the theatre had insinuated itself into the church and that such modern theatrical forms as the minuet, recitative, arietta, and allegro had all been adapted for use in church music. The prevalent musical genre in early seventeenth-century theatrical music is the tonada, a type of song that consists of estribillos refrains and coplas stanzas. In some cases, either the copla or the estribillo will be indicated in the score while the other will be implied.
Only rarely are both indicated nos. In other cases, the tonada will include a variant such as the estribillo con violines refrain with violins in no. In addition, the a 4 can also precede or follow solo strophic songs nos. The only exception is perhaps the use of the recitado recitative. George Peabody College of Teachers, , The musical seguidilla is a quick dance in a major key and in triple meter that usually begins on the second beat.
The piece begins with an estribillo refrain in triple meter, and is followed by three coplas stanzas in duple meter. The form of the piece is ABCA, perhaps anticipating the imminent adoption of the Italian da capo aria. In fact, the choral a cuatro was used in sacred music, and the secular tonada called tonada humana human tonada had a church counterpart, the tonada divina divine tonada. The difference between the two lies not in the music but in the text.
In the opera La Guerra de los Gigantes? However, this seems logical, as the practice of beginning and ending theatrical works with a choral a cuatro applied only to Spanish theatrical genres and not to foreign genres such as the opera. Stein Kassel: Reichenberger, , In other cases, the tonada consists of only one section estribillo or copla. Also, perhaps because he was experimenting, the word tonada appears in the score to avoid any confusion or ambiguity his new approach might create. See Appendix 4, tables A. There are two minuets in the opera La Guerra de los Gigantes nos.
In strophic songs, for example, the characters take turns singing the different verses; in seguidillas or recitatives, they sing alternate lines of text. Here, the a cuatro, besides its traditional use as prelude and epilog, also appears in the body of the play no.
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In no. In addition, the a cuatro now appears as introduction to a duet no. There are only three tonadas two solo tonadas and one tonada a duo , and 58 they occur in the second act of the zarzuela nos.
In all three cases, the tonada is a synonym for coplas there are no estribillos , in direct opposition to what generally occurs in La Guerra de los Gigantes. In some cases, it is expanded and includes an aryoso no. In some instances, it is for one voice nos. Italian arias and ariettas are also completely integrated into the zarzuela. There are three formal types: those in ABA form nos.
All ariettas are in ABA form nos. However, a general rule of thumb seems to be that the ariettas are reserved for instances of great inward pain or strong emotions, such as torment lament arias nos. The only arietta that does not follow this pattern is no. But while the dramatic content in the ariettas of both works seems to be the same, the musical style is different. Feijoo complained that these new foreign theatrical genres and styles had found their way into church music.
And although great skill is necessary for this, which indeed he had, it was very poorly applied. Nevertheless, the allegation would seem to be exaggerated, for in order to vary six or eight times the affect within a single copla, a stanza of four lines, would require more than one affect per line. In his treatise, Mattheson , who was a composer as well as a music theorist, identifies the most important affects and describes how they are to be conveyed musically in order to move the listener. Thus, to express this passion in composing, it is best to use intervals of that nature.
The principal musico-rhetorical figures he cites are: pausa, repetitio, gradatio, complexio, causa finalis, contrapositio, ascensio, descensio, circulatio, fuga, assimilatio, and abruptio repentino. The two main affects in all three theatrical works are those projecting violent emotions such as anger, revenge, rage, and fury, and despair, including that originating from sadness, death, or unrequited love. Death to Cupid! And to the new flattery of the godly frown, may flaming arrows arrest his flight, may cold asps bite his soul! Death to Cupid, death to Cupid!
The stanza is set as a choral a cuatro piece that is repeated two more times following a spoken passage. The tension in the drama is conveyed musically by the use of dissonances that appear in almost every measure, but mainly in the homophonic sections. Example 1. Dissonance is also created by the use of suspensions. For example, in measure 4 there is a suspension in the first soprano f-eb ; in measure 5 there is a suspension again in the first soprano; in measure 6 there is another suspension but this time in the second soprano, and in measure 7 there is a suspension in the alto.
Example 2. The outer voices move in an ascending and descending scale of eighth notes the first scale of four consecutive eighth notes in the piece , thus depicting flight. Example 3. His attention seems to have shifted to the instruments and their potential to depict the affects, in particular violent emotions suggestive of battle and war. The rhetorical repetition produces emphasis and adds to the rising tension.
Example 4. Perhaps the terms were interchangeable. Finally, in the last four measures they each present a melodic line characterized by leaps and short rhythmic values. Example 5. Avid for war, Hercules brags about his might and enumerates his many victories and conquests.
Each stanza in which Hercules describes his battle achievements ends with a section of coloratura mm. Example 6. During the seventeenth century, the majority of Spanish actresses who performed in zarzuelas, comedias with music, and opera, had no musical training and learned their music by rote. Thus the importation of Italian musicians not only brought new foreign musical trends and compositional styles, but a new school of vocal training as well.
Cited in ibid. The importation of Italian singers in Madrid must have influenced the Spanish style of singing allowing composers to elaborate vocal lines more fully. However, his focus seems to be on mastering writing for the instruments and vocal coloratura used expressively to intensify the affects.
This is also true of El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor. Jupiter and Amor Cupid are fighting over who has the most power and decide to begin their battle: Y el cielo, la tierra, And the skies, Earth, El aire, y el mar air, and the sea testigos han de ser will be witnesses de la batalla, to the battle, en cuyo duelo, alarma for whose combat han de tocar. Repeated eighth and sixteenth notes both portray the imminent battle and increase the tension mm.
Example 7. Not only do the violins convey violent emotions in this case warlike through the use of an adaptation of the stilo concitato but they also interact with vocal coloratura 71 depicting the same affect. In measures 20 and 21 they play an ascending scale that is later repeated and elaborated upon in counterpoint by the vocal lines mm. The violins resume the unsettling repeated sixteenth notes, this time in a higher and more strident register.
Example 8. In the opening section, the affect is conveyed by the harmonic tension resulting from the delayed harmonic resolution, in the first five measures. Example 9. At first he was still composing in the tradition of his predecessors, using mainly dissonance and word painting to underline words or phrases, but later he had clearly absorbed the new style that had taken hold in Madrid.
The other extreme emotion to be analyzed here is despair originating from sadness, death, or unrequited love. The movements that project these affects are conceived as laments and as such, most of them include chromatic descending passages, which will be discussed below in the section on chromaticism. This movement, cast in ABCA form, is written for voice, biguela de arco a Spanish instrument similar to its Italian counterpart, the viola da gamba and accompaniment. It is the climactic piece of the zarzuela in terms of its dramatic content and its central position in the work see Appendix 4, tables 1.
Having escaped the Gods who wish to banish him from the world, Cupid sits down to rest in the woods and laments his fortune. Let them quiet down, quiet down, Let them put to rest, put to rest, The timid hardships, The sad toils, and may pains serve to soothe pains. Each line is set to a descending musical phrase descencio and is separated by either two consecutive quarter-note rests or one full measure rest pausa. Example The affect in the opening line is further emphasized by the use of quick modulations and brief dissonances.
While the piece opens in the key of D minor, it quickly moves through a series of brief tonicizations of scale degrees rising by a tone mm. The brief modulations, dissonances, 76 and the rising chromatic scale set up by the harmonic progression that dominate the entire first section of the movement dramatically convey the affect of despair, caused in this case from sadness and loneliness.
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After having been chased by the Gods, Cupid Amor has been cornered and the Gods are threatening to lock him up in a cave. The movement opens in the key of A minor with Cupid singing a full stanza estribillo in which he laments his fate. Then, one by one, the Gods sing a different stanza copla in which they scorn Cupid who in turn responds and ends the stanza with a short lament.
The movement is cast as a combination of estribillo one unmetrical verse and copla four heptasyllabic septets. The copla is divided in two, both poetically and musically: the first four and a half lines are sung by one deity while the last two and a half lines are sung by Cupid as a variation of his first estribillo. Table 1 indicates the sections of the song as well as the character singing each section. Minerva stabs Palante with her spear, and the tonada is interrupted by a This piece will be discussed further under the section on chromaticism.
Table 2 indicates the sections of the movement as well as the characters singing each section. In El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor, there are several movements that evoke the affect of despair. Jupiter and Cupid have been quarreling over who has the greatest power. Cupid shoots Jupiter with an arrow and leaves him wounded in the woods. Jupiter is then overcome with an intense feeling of love. I cannot resist such pain; Because of this feeling even my voice fails me.
Oh, deceitful Cupid, if only I could reduce you to pieces in my arms! But, if I cannot die, how will I be able to kill? As the last word is fragmented, the affect of despair is emphasized; it seems that Jupiter is sighing and needs to breathe between each syllable. It might stem either from political animosity or differences of opinion concerning composition. Or, it might have more to do with the turn that Spanish music was taking at the time, a turn that Feijoo felt threatened to contaminate church music.
He who refuses to believe this should consult … his ears when he listens to songs, or sonatas which abound in accidentals. Quien no lo quisiese creer, consulte, …, sus orejas, cuando oyere canciones, o sonatas, que abundan mucho de accidentales. From this statement, it seems that Feijoo tolerated only the limited use of chromaticism. See page 21 above. For his second entrance copla no. See Example 11 above. The pitches in the melody in measure 37 can be interpreted as a descending melodic minor scale g -F -e in a minor.
However, in the following measure, while the melodic line moves up to a, the bass progression is to C , suggesting an A-major chord in first inversion. The next chord is a D-minor chord in measure The f in the melody does not sound unfamiliar because we have heard it before; but in the next chord, we hear a striking g-f natural progression as the harmony moves back to A minor by measure The same occurs in coplas 2, 3, and 4.
There is one more instance of chromaticism worth noting here. The 84 chromatic pitch is, of course, the D ; however, its function is not to highlight a specific word, but rather as affective preparation for the following lament section. Something similar occurs in his opera, La Guerra de los Gigantes.
The preparation for the mood of suffering or despair takes place not in the music which leads up to the movement but rather in the chromatic ritornello which opens it. The bass line follows the progression F-G-A-B-C, which is immediately repeated varying the rhythm with a b natural, tonicizing the dominant of F minor before the resolution to the tonic.
The violins, doubling one another, present a descending chromatic scale, first beginning on the tonic — F-E-Eb-D mm. See Example 12 above. While the use of chromaticism continues to be reserved for instances of great pain, it is not always introduced so gradually into the music in the zarzuela El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor. Here chromaticism is not gradually introduced in the course of the movement as in the previous examples, but appears right away in the opening line mm. See Example 14 above. The four notes again trace a chromatic descent through a minor third — D-C -C-B, reminiscent of the chromatic descending tetrachord commonly associated with laments.
Again, this traces the same chromatic descent through the minor third — F-E-Eb-D. Diminution The first and most important distinction [between ancient and modern music] is the diminution of the figure. The smallest note value in all the three theatrical works analyzed in this chapter is the sixteenth note. La Guerra de los Gigantes, on the other hand, is more varied. Also, it is important to note that many of these pieces shift back and forth between different meters.
Example El imposible mayor en amor, le vence amor, Choral a4, mm. A genre introduced into Spanish theatrical music from Italian opera, which does modulate freely is the recitado, and a conservative like Feijoo may have been critical of its abrupt changes of key. Violins Feijoo complained in his assessment of modern music that the use of violins was improper in church music, as their high-pitched sound did not allow music to be majestic and religious: And I say that violins are inappropriate in this sacred theatre.
Their shrieks, though harmonious, are [still] shrieks, and they arouse a sort of puerile liveliness in our minds, far from the decorous attention that it is due to the majesty of the Mysteries He retained and developed indigenous forms and musical idioms a by introducing timbral contrast and formal variation into the typically Spanish tonada, copla, and estribillo, b by incorporating the Spanish a cuatro into the body of the play and expanding its function and structural potential, and c by preserving typically Spanish rhythmic techniques — hemiola, syncopation and dactylic rhythm while expanding the use of other rhythmic figures.
First, the new genres adopted, particularly the arietta, seem to be used to convey the main affects in each work. On some occasions, the 95 modulations occur in the B section of the newly adopted da capo aria. Why has Western, particularly North American, musicology paid so little attention to the study of baroque theatrical music in Spain? As various commentators have stated, both the viability of such a concept and its applicability are debatable in that both are greatly influenced by political foreign enmity or rivalry , social dislike for the Spanish Habsburg family by Spanish society , and economic factors internal turmoil caused by economic hardship.
When applied to the field of music, the concept is equally controversial. During the eighteenth century in particular, such political factors as elevating the Bourbon supremacy over the Habsburgs and the criticism of foreign influence on Spanish or rather Castilian music tended to discredit or marginalize Spanish music and musicians. As a result, Spanish music after the sixteenth century was regarded as inferior or considered to have been polluted by foreign musical fashions. What is interesting to note is that although foreign influence on Spanish music dates back to the beginning of the sixteenth century, it only became an issue after more than a century, when the political 97 hostility towards Spain and internal turmoil there had increased considerably.
But the political nature of critiques leveled at foreign influence is clear. Supporters of the Bourbon monarchy would criticize him and defame his good name. In their opinion, Spanish music was inferior because it had made slow progress and was simply an extension of Italian music. As a priest, Feijoo clearly wished to preserve church music and its tradition from what he described as modern fashions and foreign pollution.
At the same time he assimilated the new foreign style, and his music achieved an unprecedented synthesis of diverse textures, forms, and musical styles. Thus enriched, it acquired a new and profound expressivity, which propelled the development of Spanish musico-theatrical genres. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Bussey, William M.