Bea and Joe are suddenly swept into the water, and must use Noah's dad is sure that the owner of the Coral Queen casino boat is flushing raw sewage into the Make a Splash! All water is connected. Every raindrop, lake, underground river and glacier is part of a single The California-based River of Words trains teachers, park naturalists, and others to incorporate A poem about the well-known Great White begins this handsomely illustrated collection of poems From hippo attacks on the Okavango River to Chitina headwaters in Alaska, this chapter book is Build on what you're learning together through books with these family-friendly activities, experiments, and crafts.
Give kids a chance to flex their writing muscles all summer long. Try one of these prompts, selected from our writing contest archives and other literacy organizations. Simple activities for parents and kids to do together to build reading, writing, and critical thinking skills. Read online or print the PDF. Life deep down in the sea. Skip to main content. Children's books and activities Oceans, Rivers and Ponds Do you know any kids who are happiest swimming in a freshwater lake, body surfing in the ocean, or launching a homemade boat down a stream?
Age Level: years old Print List. All the Water in the World By: George Ella Lyon Age Level: years old Rich, rhythmic language combines with lush illustration to poetically describe the water cycle Morris Age Level: years old Once there was a river flowing through a forest.
The river didn't know it was capable of Crustacean Vacation By: Brian Benoit Age Level: years old Humans are sure to see themselves in the beach vacation taken by a crab family. From playing in the Have You Seen My Duckling? By: Nancy Tafuri Age Level: years old An anxious mother duck leads her brood around the pond as she searches for one missing duckling She experiences Here Come the Humpbacks! Hey, Water! By: Antoinette Portis Age Level: years old An introduction to the water cycle and water conservation for the youngest readers. Look closely What do you see?
Mallard was sure that the pond in the Boston Public Gardens would be a perfect place for Gumpy lives by a river. One sunny day he decides to take a ride in his small boat. It is On the Way to the Beach By: Henry Cole Age Level: years old Young readers are invited to look and listen as they join a girl on a summer morning walk to the Out of the Ocean By: Debra Frasier Age Level: years old Open this book and you'll be walking along the ocean shore, looking for all kinds of special things Those who visit the Northeast coast of the Swamp Chomp By: Lola Schaefer Age Level: years old As swamp residents move, water ripples and the creatures munch, gulp, swallow and more.
The Seashore Book By: Charlotte Zolotow Age Level: years old A young boy who lives in the mountains and has never seen the sea, asks his mother to describe it Wave By: Suzy Lee Age Level: years old No words are needed to share a child's seaside adventure as she plays with the waves, is knocked Where the River Begins By: Thomas Locker Age Level: years old Nature is the star in this affecting tale of a boy and his grandfather who journey to a waterway's Ocean By: Robert Neubecker Age Level: years old Izzy and her sister were mountain girls, so one summer the family decided to go see something new Coral Reefs By: Jason Chin Age Level: years old A girl is transported from the library to an underwater world where she observes coral reefs and Deep Sea Floor By: Sneed Collard Age Level: years old Rich, realistic illustrations accompany clear text as readers explore what lives in the ocean, Dolphins By: Penelope Arlon Age Level: years old Splendid photographs are used along with a crisp, easier to read narrative to introduce dolphins How do we know that we are in a drought?
Why is rainfall important? Everglades By: Jean Craighead George Age Level: years old As an Indian storyteller guides a boat of children down the sea of grass, he reveals the story Explore Rivers and Ponds! By: Carla Mooney Age Level: years old From puddles to lakes, streams to rivers, and bogs to swamps, each body of water contains an Face to Face with Manatees By: Brian Skerry Age Level: years old Two different environments, two different authors, one goal achieved: to bring alive the process of Flotsam By: David Wiesner Age Level: years old A bright, science-minded boy goes to the beach equipped to collect and examine flotsam — Read and find out more It cools her when the summer One day, when a village Marshes and Swamps By: Gail Gibbons Age Level: years old Get an introduction to the concept of wetlands swamps have trees, and marshes do not and learn McElligot's Pool By: Dr.
Seuss Age Level: years old A small boy is fishing in the tiny, unpromising McElligot's Pool, a puddle that is nothing but a Yezerski Age Level: years old The 20, acres of wetlands in New Jersey now known as the Meadowlands were once home to He includes Oil Spill By: Melvin Berger Age Level: years old Did you know that an oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year? Otters Love to Play By: Jonathan London Age Level: years old Head to the river, where a frolicsome bunch of otters plays all year round in a nonfiction story Over and Under the Pond By: Kate Messner Age Level: years old Discover the plants and animals that make up the rich, interconnected ecosystem of a mountain Pond and River By: Steve Parker Age Level: years old This Eyewitness book examines the relationship between ponds, rivers, and the larger bodies of River By: Debby Atwell Age Level: years old Explore the changes that occur through the centuries along a riverbank, from the arrival of the Castaldo Age Level: years old Learn about the formation of rivers, the water cycle, and the variety of habitats that exist Rivers of Sunlight By: Molly Bang Age Level: years old How does the sun keep ocean currents moving and lift fresh water from the seas?
Frizzle drives the Magic School Bus full speed ahead into the ocean, the class takes a Find out with a lift of a flap. Examine a close-up, lift the tab and up Viewing Unmet Subsistence Needs in context as being one of several syndromes helps frame infrastructure deficiency as only one of several factors contributing to chronic scarcity.
We did not attempt to trace causation further for this syndrome because the underlying reasons tend to be rooted in the unique history of each as described in the case studies. For instance in the Jaguaribe Basin in Brazil, an oligarchic society associated with a military regime resulted in constructing the vast majority of public infrastructure to benefit a very small number of families.
In this latter case, the highly unequal distribution of water rights was rooted in the colonial history of white settlers in the region. Fifteen of the 22 regional cases exhibited only a single syndrome, and only a single case was dominated by more than two syndromes Table 4. The most common syndrome was Ecological Destruction, which described crises throughout the globe: in India, China, Pakistan, Australia, Jordan, and Turkey. First, water is accessed by multiple stakeholder groups who have different quality and timing needs.
The perspective of a single stakeholder regarding water vulnerability or unsustainability of water supply is inadequate. Water is often made available to one stakeholder group at the expense of another, making it necessary to understand tradeoffs across stakeholder groups.
The syndromes explicitly address this by distinguishing between trends in human water use and water left in natural ecosystems and between current and future generations' wellbeing. In many industrialized countries, populations are increasingly becoming ecologically conscious. Increasing demand for water by nature is typically met by decreasing consumptive water use in agriculture, as was observed in the Water Reallocation to Nature syndrome cases. The reallocation may have occurred by retirement of water rights via government buyouts, agricultural—urban water transfers, or water conservation programs.
In addition to biophysical differences e. Technologies that access either state differ in monitoring costs and enforcement costs. For example, surface water is typically stored, controlled, and distributed in a centralized manner, while groundwater abstraction and control is often decentralized. However, overutilizing surface water and groundwater resources may have very different outcomes.
Overutilization of surface water resources may occur at the expense of ecosystem and downstream users Ecologic Destruction or may manifest only during multiyear droughts Drought Conflict. Finally, the syndromes recognize that water crises could arise both from too little water being abstracted by humans Unmet Subsistence Needs as well as too much Groundwater Depletion, Ecologic Destruction.
The list of syndromes is undoubtedly incomplete. Based on our familiarity with other regional water crises and literature describing more focused and disciplinary studies, we suggest the existence of at least two additional syndromes: Open Basins and Contaminated Basins.
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We define Open Basins as regions that meet new needs by successfully reallocating water across regions or across sectors within the same basin with relatively little conflict. We define Contaminated Basins as regions suffering from widespread contamination of surface water and groundwater from both natural and anthropogenic origins, to the extent that the utility of a regional water resource has been reduced or eliminated for some or all purposes. For instance, arsenic contamination is a major problem in many parts of the world: Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Nepal. In many other regions of the world, human use has severely degraded or destroyed shallow aquifer systems by agricultural chemical, septic waste, and industrial fuels, solvents, and metals.
The development and management of water resources in these regions is greatly influenced by the need to mitigate human health risks created by the presence of these contaminants. Although some studies have included human activity into hydrologic studies, most have been predictive models seeking to establish optimal cropping patterns or optimal institutions rather than retrospective efforts trying to better understand the causal drivers of change.
Very few hydrologic studies link institutions, particularly informal institutions such as social norms and lack of enforcement or monitoring, to water resource availability and human wellbeing. These linkages are increasingly being recognized and formalized in the emerging fields of sociohydrology [ Sivapalan et al.
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Causal factors could be classified into four categories: 1 the nature of the demand, i. A major challenge in the water sector has been how to effectively implement initiatives founded on a set of general principles participation, integration, coordination, gender equity in a heterogeneous world made up of different cultures, social norms, physical attributes, availability of renewable and nonrenewable resources, investment funds, management capacities, and institutional arrangements.
The absence of rigorous comparative water research frameworks has affected the success of major global water initiatives such as IWRM, the current dominant paradigm for funding water sectors. In the absence of a unifying framework, it has been difficult to diagnose what the objective of an IWRM intervention should be, which tools might be suitable for a specific region, and whether the implementation has been successful [ Biswas , ; Franks and Cleaver , ]. First, the classification of regions into syndromes identifies both differences and similarities among regions.
Syndrome analysis offers a means to better inform policy interventions in the water sector.
However, in the absence of a unified framework, crafting solutions tailored to specific regions has remained a challenge. By grouping regions based on the syndromes and focusing on likely causal pathways of water crises, water managers and policy makers can begin to guide water resource development on the basis of relevant experiences across regions facing common problems.
They can better articulate the broad objectives, causal pathways, and possible solutions that might be applicable in a given region. For instance, regions facing groundwater depletion where ineffective control over groundwater is driven by poor enforcement of groundwater rules could be amenable to new monitoring technology or to participatory groundwater management programs.
Regions where groundwater is controlled but underpriced may be candidates for innovative pricing policy experiments. Improved predictability of an uncertain future depends on fully characterizing the behavior space of the coupled human—environment system [ Kumar , ]. Despite the fact that behavior of coupled human—water systems have been shown to be controlled by broader societal choices on culture, economy, and infrastructure [ IWMI , ] and institutions [ Ostrom , ], these latter are rarely factored into regional water resources models.
By exogenously setting such factors as demand, cropping patterns, land use, property rights, and prices, many models constrain their results artificially. Major policy analysis briefs [ The Water Resources Group , ] continue to frame the problem in terms of meeting the demand—supply gap, that is, the idea that demand for water is driven by other underlying factors.
Water resources problems are particularly hard to characterize. A dual objective of meeting basic human needs but still leaving enough for the environment and future generations must be achieved under uncertainty for both surface water and groundwater blue water and soil water green water hydrologic components. As a result, efforts to link water to the literature on food security, the ecosystem, and human health have proved challenging [ Kajikawa et al.
This has occurred for two reasons. Research in water has been fragmented both by discipline and by region. Without a common framework to organize relevant variables identified from theories and empirical research, diverse studies merely give rise to fragmented knowledge. We analyzed 22 interdisciplinary, water resources, subnational, regional studies from around the world. The case studies indicate that although there is no universal metric that definitely captures every type of water crises, different regions of the world show a limited suite of distinct resource utilization patterns by urban, agricultural, and ecosystem uses.
This suite comprises six syndromes:.
Each of these categories was associated with a set of causal factors that could be broadly classified into demand and supply changes, governance systems, and infrastructure. Our study suggests that each syndrome is generated by a limited set of causal pathways. Societies make choices on how to harness water resources, how much to leave to nature, and how to distribute water resources among sectors and agents in ways that reflect inherent resource limitations, cultural values, historical context, and political realities.
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Each case was completed by looking for additional papers by the same research team by searching both by author names and basin names in the four databases as well as Google Scholar. Calibrated models, statistical studies, or qualitative discussions are all allowable if supported with data. Using past data or documents in attempts to find links between outcomes and causal factors. Thus, purely normative scenario analyses that compared policies or management options into the future were not included.
Associated with a specific time period.
Because humans adapt to crises by modifying policies and laws or building new infrastructure, a water resource system could change quite dramatically with one new legal ruling or interbasin transfer project. As a result, it is necessary to specify a particular period for the case study. Largely confined to a single country. Several excellent case studies on the Nile, Jordan, Danube, and the Mekong were excluded from our analysis.
The problems facing international river basins were fundamentally different from domestic river basins. These cases were dominated by geopolitical factors and the relative negotiating positions of the different parties [ Wolf , ]. Auxiliary material files may require downloading to a local drive depending on platform, browser, configuration, and size. To open auxiliary materials in a browser, click on the label. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
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Srinivasan Corresponding Author E-mail address: veena. Srinivasan, Pacific Institute, 13th St.
Carrying Capacity and Ecological Footprints
Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract  Freshwater scarcity has been cited as the major crisis of the 21st century, but it is surprisingly hard to describe the nature of the global water crisis.
Qualitative Comparison Analysis  In addressing these analytical and methodological problems faced by scientists concerned with the study of complex human—environment interactions at regional to global scales, Young et al. Implementation of QCA  To address the research questions laid out in this study, we first had to clarify the systems and outcomes of interest. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
The region numbers are grouped and colored on the basis of the symptoms they exhibit as discussed in section 5.
Independent Variable or Outcome Coding  To meet our goal of developing a typology and tracing the causes of water problems, defining the dependent variable proved to be challenging. Dependent Variable or Causal Factor Coding  We identified and dichotomized explanatory or causal variables factors because QCA relies on principles of Boolean algebra to simplify complex sets of binary data in a logical way [ Ragin , ].
Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Example showing causal variable effective control over groundwater. Thus, either groundwater was overallocated i. The underlying factors were the ones that were actually coded in the case study; they were aggregated to the proximate factor using an OR operator; i. Corruption Minimum flow laws or cap on diversions Laws that protect specific species, areas.
Infusion of federal or state funds to protect specific species or areas. Mandated releases for downstream users e. Tracing Causation  Once the complete list of outcome variables syndromes and causal variables or factors was determined, we applied the QCA algorithm to trace the causes of each of the observed resource utilization patterns. Results 5. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Typology of basin syndromes.
Caveat: This typology does not focus primarily on processes, but rather on outcomes: resource sustainability, vulnerability, and scarcity. It does not account of transparency of process. Moreover, the categories are applicable in aggregate, and smaller regions or communities may be particularly vulnerable even if the basin as a whole is not. The underlying drivers were inadequate controls over groundwater use and the absence of reallocation mechanisms to buy out farmers or import water across basins.
Conflicts are driven by the inability of the aquifer to act as an effective buffer or by increased demand. In all cases, reallocation mechanisms and control over groundwater and surface water were weak. Some portions of the population may not have enough access to meet their subsistence needs. Ruaha Basin Volta Basin These cases are characteristics of underdeveloped economies with little irrigated agriculture, little surface water or groundwater abstraction infrastructure, and typically weak controls over water resources.
Demand is stable or increasing very slowly. The average water use may be sufficient to meet the needs of the entire population, but some segments of the population suffer from chronic scarcity. Jaguaribe Basin Olifants Basin Sadah Basin These cases are characterized by a highly skewed initial distribution of water rights. Adaptation Syndromes Water Reallocation to Nature Increasing demand is met by reallocation to higher value uses, usually from agriculture to ecosystems or urban uses. This syndrome is driven by decreasing demand for human uses and increasing demand for ecosystem uses.
Multiple Causal Pathways  Each syndrome exhibited multiple causal pathways Table 3. Ecologic Destruction  This syndrome occurred via two causal pathways. Unmet Subsistence Needs  This syndrome occurred in regions where agriculture was not yet developed, so there was very little irrigation or urban demand. Resource Capture by Elite  This syndrome occurred in regions with historical inequalities, e.
Discussion  This study provides insights both into the nature and causes of water crises, as well as into interdisciplinary water resources research. Syndrome Analysis  Although water crises are multifaceted, the review pointed to six underlying syndromes. Summary and Conclusions  Despite decades of research, the nature of the global freshwater crisis remains poorly defined and characterized, making it difficult both to prioritize and to design useful solutions.
Appendix C:: Criteria Used in Coding Factors  Table C1 lists the codes used, what each describes, and whether or not their usage is significant. No effective protections against upstream diversions The basin is unable to control upstream diversions usually out of jurisdiction. Decrease in recharge due to plantations Data are provided to show that transboundary flows have declined significantly over time.
Hydrologic studies show that plantations reduced recharge significantly or to zero. Vote bank politics. Clientalist politics. Rule of capture no extraction limits. Overallocation of groundwater. Poor enforcement of groundwater abstraction Inadequate administrative capacity.
Corruption Specific mention of instances of corruption and bribery to payoff local enforcers Mechanisms to measure and independently monitor groundwater extraction either do not exist at all or have been tampered with. Laws that protect specific species or areas; infusion of federal or state funds to protect specific species or areas There are strong protections for species, such as the U. Endangered Species Act, which shape administrative actions by the water agencies. If interbasin projects are built, flows are reliable. Reservoirs are cited as going dry frequently. Inadequate distribution leaky or incomplete canals and pipes.
Inadequate administrative capacity. Canal system is mentioned as being poorly constructed e. Conversely, the absence of electric or diesel wells may indicate a lack or unaffordability of rural electrification. Additional file information is provided in the readme. Filename Description wrcrsupreadme. Abebe, H. Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Wiley Online Library Google Scholar. CAS Google Scholar. Citing Literature.
Volume 48 , Issue 10 October Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Log in with your society membership Log in with AGU. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user.
Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. Persistent lack of access to minimum quantity of water for drinking and hygiene needs for much of the population. Persistent lack of access to minimum quantity of water to satisfy subsistence livelihood needs for much of the population, resulting in extreme poverty. Highly unequal distribution of access to water: some have plentiful water supply while others have none.
Temporary lack of access to minimum quantity of water for drinking and hygiene needs. Temporary lack of water for livelihood needs, resulting in sudden but temporary declines in income and wellbeing. Consistently high quality and sufficient drinking water supply for most of the population. External drivers decreasing surface water resource availability SUPP. Decrease in water available due to prolonged drought or climate change Upstream diversions Decrease in recharge.