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In , the guilder was replaced by the euro at an exchange rate of 2. Coins remained exchangeable for euros at branches of the Netherlands Central Bank until 1 January Banknotes valid at the time of conversion to the euro may be exchanged there until 1 January In the 18th century, coins were issued by the various provinces. Gold 1 and 2-ducat trade coins were also minted.
Coins from the Netherlands
Between and , the Batavian Republic issued coins in similar denominations to the earlier provincial issues. Before decimalization, the Kingdom of the Netherlands briefly issued some 1 rijksdaalder coins. The gold 1 and 2 ducat and silver ducat rijksdaalder are still minted today as bullion coins. In , the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilders.
The remaining denominations were introduced in In , gold 5-guilder coins were introduced. The gold coinage was completely suspended in , five years after the suspension of the gold standard. By , production of silver coins greater in value than 10 cents had ceased, to be only fully resumed in the s. Gold 10 guilder coins were struck again from In , silver 5 cent coins were replaced by round, cupro-nickel pieces. These were later replaced in by square shaped 5 cent pieces. In , gold 5 guilder coins were reintroduced but the gold coinage was ended in Throughout the Wilhelmina period, a number of infrequent changes were made to the 10 and 25 cent coins as well, with the largest changes being periodic updates of the Queen's effigy and smaller changes to designs on the reverse back.
Large quantities of pre-war type silver 10 and 25 cents and 1-guilder coins were minted in the United States between and for use following liberation. Afterwards, the zinc coins were quickly demonetized and melted. New bronze 1 and 5 cent coins featuring Queen Wilhelmina on the obverse were issued, phasing out previous types.
At the same time, new nickel 10 and 25 cent coins were introduced. The silver coins were demonetized in In , Queen Juliana 's profile replaced the image of Wilhelmina on the obverse front of all coins. In , production of the one cent coin ceased and was demonetized three years later. Soon after, it was decided to replace the 5 guilder banknote with a coin of the same value. However, it wasn't until that a bronze-coated nickel 5 guilder coin was finally introduced.
The 5-guilder banknote remained legal tender until All circulating coins went through a complete redesign in , a short while after Queen Beatrix's coronation. They depict abstract designs featuring grids and a layered silhouette profile of the Queen as opposed to the more formal designs of the previous generation of coins. Production of these coins ceased after All the coins carried a profile image of the Queen on the obverse and a simple grid on the other side. Between and , The Dutch Bank issued notes in denominations of 25, 40, 60, 80, , , , and guilders.
These were followed, from by state notes muntbiljetten in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, , , guilders, with the 10 and 50 guilders issued until In , the Netherlands Bank recommenced the issuance of paper money. By , it was issuing notes for 10, 25, 40, 60, , , and guilders. After the Napoleonic era the Gulden was reintroduced in , but now in a decimalised form consisting of Cents. However, older coins remained in circulation until the 's. Many of these coins are therefore very worn.
Coins Coins of the Dutch Republic are catalogued per mint. Some designs were used across various mints, only differenfiating in coat of arms and the legend.
Holland Holland was the largest of the Seven Provinces. Its mint was in the city of Dordrecht, but occasionally Hollandic coins were minted in Amsterdam. Coins of Holland usually depict a rampant lion. The mints took turns when minting West-Frisian coins every 6 years.
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Its Latin name is Traiectum, referring to the place where the river Vecht could be traversed. It started minting coins from the Dutch Republic from The mint was in Nijmegen, but it was moved to Zutphen after the Spanish conquest in From all coins in the name of Gelre were minted in Harderwijk. Gelre coins were minted throughout the existence of the Dutch Republic. Other cities in Gelre produced coins in their own name, such as Zutphen and Arnhem, but were forced to close down their activities after a monetary reform at the end of the 17th century.
Harderwijk was a coastal town which made the supply of metal a lot easier. Zeeland Zeeland is a coastal province south of Holland. It was always under influence of the more powerful Holland but it had its own states parliament and was one the seven provinces that formed the Union of Utrecht in Zeeland started its own mint in Middelburg in The opening of the mint, which was a profitable activity, infuriated the authorities from Holland and even imprisoned the mint master.
The states of Zeeland refused to give in and claimed equal rights under the Union of Utrecht.
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Holland, realizing it needed allies against Spain rather than a quarrel over minting rights, let the Zeelandes go along and let the mint master go in liberty. Zeelandic coins often featured the province's coat of arms, a lion emerging from the sea, with the motto 'Luctor et Emergo' which means 'I struggle and overcome'. Zeeland was also the province to differ from the norm by minting silver Ducats and fractions of Ducats rather than Gulden coinage in the late 18th century. The Middelburg mint remained active until the French period.
Overijssel Overijssel or Overyssel is a province that lies across the river IJssel. The Latin name of the province is Transisulania, which often features on earlier coinage of Overijssel. The mints of Overijssel alternated between Deventer, Zwolle and Kampen, with Kampen becoming the permanent mint in the 18th century. The three cities also produced coins in name of the city next to the provincial coinage.
Groningen Groningen is a city and province in the north east of the Netherlands, and one of the Seven Provinces of the Union of Utrecht that founded the Dutch Republic. The city had minting rights from the 15th century and from provincial coinage was minted in name of Groningen and Ommelanden, which is the name of the lands surrounding the city.
Coins from Groningen were only minted sporadically, mostly during the period the mint was actually located in the city from until Later 18th century coins with the province's name were actually minted in Harderwijk, the mint of Gelre. It was the only region that remained outside the Burgundian sphere of influence in the 15th century, and still has a local language quite distinct from standard Dutch.
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The provincial mint was located in Leeuwarden. Not connected to the sea, the mint at Leeuwarden had more dufficulties to find affordable supplies of metal. This explains why Frisian coins are quite rare. Mintage ceased in Many of these coins, including Spanish Dollars were frequently used by Asian merchants. The main provinces minted these coins up to the end of the 19th century. The copper coins are frequently found in Indonesia, and are easier to find than the Dutch Republic's copper Duits.
Still work in progress on this topic. Amazing how complex this part of Europe actually was during the 16th and 17th century. Its coin history is also quite hard to grasp but I hope it clarifies some of the observations in the catalogue.
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Will add some maps later, and also some more detailed explanations on the coins of the Dutch Republic. This site is solely focused on copper coins of the Low Countries but features a ton of information, provided that you can read Dutch or that Google Translate does not make a total mess out of it. I updated the article with more information on provincial coinage.
Posted: Feb, PM. From the Verkade book Muntboek, I obtained the following values: Gold: Rozenobel: 7 fl 10 st Nobel: 6 fl 7 st Ducat: 3 fl 8 st , in 17th century approx. Thank you for the information. Last few weeks I added almost 70 new coins to the Dutch Republic. On our way to a complete catalog! Special interest in Coins from the Low countries Feudal-present.