Matricia (Icares) (French Edition)

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In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Affiliations 1. No matching affiliation detected. Find all citations in this journal default. Or filter your current search. BMJ Open [09 Jan , 7 1 :e]. Guests at the accommodation can enjoy ping pong on site, or go hiking or snorkeling in the surrounding areas. This property also has one of the top-rated locations in Bormes-les-Mimosas!

Guests are happier about it compared to other properties in the area. Couples in particular like the location — they rated it 9. This homestay is also rated as the best value in Bormes-les-Mimosas! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city. HomeStay Bormes has been welcoming Booking. We're sorry, but there was an error submitting your comment.

Please try again. Good for couples — they rated the facilities 9. Perfect Coffee! Free parking. This studio has a soundproofing, stovetop and washing machine. Sorry — there was an error submitting your response. This studio features a microwave, electric kettle and air conditioning. This studio has a kitchen, soundproofing and kitchenware.

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This studio features a barbecue, kitchenware and soundproofing. Prices you can't beat! WiFi is available in the hotel rooms and is free of charge. Free private parking is available on site reservation is not needed. It looks like something went wrong submitting this. Try again? Cancellation and prepayment policies vary according to accommodations type.

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This property might pay Booking. Airport shuttle. Airport shuttle available at an additional charge. You can request this in the next step. HomeStay Bormes Reserve now. Excellent accueil, appartement tout neuf avec vue sur la piscine. Free WiFi Previous image of the property Next image of the property. Lifestyle habits and occupational history were collected for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx, and controls, using a standardized questionnaire.

Occupational exposure to leather dust was assessed using a job-exposure matrix. Some tasks performed and the use of some glues were associated with elevated, although non-significant, risks of HNC. No dose-response relationships were observed. Our study did not provide enough evidence for an increased risk of HNC related to occupational exposure to leather dust.

Further studies are needed to understand the risks of specific tasks in the leather industry. Head and neck cancers HNC; excluding sinonasal cancers accounted for an estimated 11, new cases of cancer in France in ; this is the third-highest incidence rate and the fourth most frequent cancer among men in Europe [ 1 ]. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are well-known major risk factors for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers [ 2 , 3 ]. There is also evidence that other factors may contribute to these diseases, including oropharyngeal infection with human papillomavirus HPV [ 4 , 5 ], unbalanced diet [ 6 ], poor oral health [ 7 ], and low socioeconomic position [ 8 — 10 ].

Exposures to asbestos and strong acid mists are known to be occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer [ 11 , 12 ]. Furthermore, risk of laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, engine exhaust, textile dust, and working in the rubber industry [ 13 ]. Exposures to asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be related to an increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers [ 14 ]. Indeed, there is consistent and strong evidence from epidemiological studies that exposure to leather dust causes cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, particularly in workers employed in the boot and shoe industry [ 15 ].

However, studies on occupational exposure to leather dust causing other HNC are conflicting. Only two studies reported results for employment in the leather and leather product industries alone: a case control-study observed slightly more cases of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx than expected [ 16 ]; a cohort study reported no increased risk of laryngeal cancer [ 17 ].

Other studies have explored associations between the risk of HNC and exposure to leather dust, or occupations related to leather work; a case-control study observed a significant excess risk of pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma associated with exposure to leather dust [ 18 ]; two case-control studies reported significantly higher risks of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer for shoe finishers, but not for shoe makers or repairers [ 19 ], or for leather workers in general [ 20 ]. Conversely, several studies did not find increased risks of HNC associated with exposure to leather dust, or occupations related to the leather work [ 17 , 22 — 25 ].

Using the data from the ICARE study I nvestigation of occupational and environmental CA uses of RE spiratory cancers study , we aimed to: i examine the association between the risk of HNC and occupational exposure to leather dust, overall and by subsite; ii analyze this association through materials used, tasks performed, and co-exposure to glues. The design of the study has already been reported [ 26 ]. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with the French cancer registries in 10 geographical areas. Controls were selected from the general population of the geographical areas included in the study by list-assisted random digit dialing sampling and an incidence density sampling method.

They were frequency-matched to all cases lung cancer and HNC by sex and age. Additional stratification was used to achieve a socioeconomic status SES distribution among the controls comparable to that of the general population. Using a standardized questionnaire, subjects were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, personal and familial history of cancer, lifetime tobacco and alcohol consumption, and entire occupational history. An occupational history questionnaire was designed with the collaboration of industrial hygienists.

It included general questions on occupational history. Specific questionnaires covering 20 job titles, including work in the leather industry were also designed with more technical questioning. A shorter version of the general questionnaire was used for subjects who were too sick to answer the complete questionnaire This shorter questionnaire answered by the subjects themselves or by their next-of-kin included mainly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, and occupational history, without detailed questions on each job held or tasks performed.

Therefore, for these subjects, occupations and industries were recovered from the analyses of the general questionnaire. However, they were excluded from the analysis of the leather work questionnaire due to a lack of response to this questionnaire. Participation rates were Each subject gave written informed consent.

Among the cases of HNC, The maximum probability and level of exposure were the highest probability and level measured over the entire occupational history of each subject. The cumulative duration of exposure was calculated by summing the periods in which the subject was exposed. For each job period involving leather work shoemaking, and manufacture of leather clothes and other leather goods , a specific questionnaire was administered only to subjects that filled out a complete general questionnaire; it included questions about the materials handled, tasks performed, and exposure to several types of glues.

Information from this specific questionnaire was analyzed in addition to the exposure assessment with the JEM. ORs were also estimated for each cancer subsite using multinomial polytomous logistic regression. Categories for tobacco and alcohol consumption were based on the distribution of exposed controls, with quartiles used as cutoff points. Categories for the duration of exposure to leather dust and the CEI were based on the distribution of exposed controls, with medians used as cutoff points.

Dose-response relationships between each variable of exposure to leather dust and HNC risk were explored using tests for linear trends by modelling the median of each category as a continuous variable. Analyses were also stratified on sex, and alcohol and tobacco status. Interactions between exposure to leather dust and sex, tobacco smoking, or alcohol drinking were tested using the test of maximum likelihood.


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Analyses by age at first exposure, time since first exposure and time since last exposure were also performed. Main characteristics of subjects included in the analysis and cancer subsites. Association between the risk of head and neck cancer, globally and by subsite, and exposure to leather dust assessed using a job-exposure matrix.

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Results from the general questionnaire. No significant associations were found regarding the maximum probability of exposure, the maximum level of exposure and the cumulative duration of exposure, either for the HNC globally or for its subsites. Generally, the ORs were higher for the lower category of exposure. No dose-response patterns were observed. Additional analyses conducted in those most exposed to leather dust e. When all parameters were combined to define a category of subjects presenting the highest exposure profile, there were not enough subjects to conduct further analyses 0 cases and 2 controls.

The analysis stratified by sex revealed that 2. Even if the ORs were slightly higher among men than among women, no significant differences were observed see Additional file 1 : Table S2. The analysis stratified by tobacco and alcohol consumption revealed that 2. Although ORs were slightly higher for smokers and drinkers compared to non-consumers, no significant associations were observed see Additional file 1 : Table S3 and Table S4.

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Interactions between gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure to leather dust were not significant. Associations between the risk of head and neck cancer and materials handled, tasks performed, and glues used. Results from the specific questionnaire on leather work. Held at least one job exposed to leather dust and filled out at least one specific questionnaire.

Exposure to other materials i.


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Exposure was assessed using a JEM and a specific questionnaire, making it possible to analyze the type of materials, tasks performed, and the concomitant exposure to several glues. Exposure to some materials soft leather, crepe rubber, and synthetic leather , tasks scouring, roughing, grinding, trimming and buffing of leather, and dyeing , and glues neoprene glues, and strong or animal skin glues was associated with elevated, although non-significant, risks of HNC.

No dose-response relationships were observed, neither in the JEM analyses nor in the specific questionnaire analyses. The majority of subjects had short-term and distant exposure to leather dust generally, they were young apprentices, performing multiple tasks. We were unable to analyze associations for exclusive exposure to materials or glues, or exclusive tasks, because the majority of subjects had multiple occupational exposures and tasks throughout their employment. While IARC considers leather dust to be causally related to sinonasal cancers, the literature remains sparse and inconsistent for other HNC sites.

Two cohort studies in shoe-manufacturing workers [ 31 , 32 ] observed slightly more cases of death by oral and pharyngeal cancer than expected, contrary to two others that observed either slightly fewer cases than expected [ 33 ] or no excess risk [ 34 ]. The results of case-control studies are also inconsistent. One study [ 23 ] observed non-significantly increased risks for both oral cavity and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas associated with exposure to leather dust, while another [ 25 ] found no association with hypopharynx cancers. A pooled analysis of four European studies found a non-significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharynx and larynx group together among shoe finishers, with no association with duration of employment [ 19 ].

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Concerning laryngeal cancer alone, cohort studies did not find excess risks in shoe-manufacturing workers [ 31 — 33 , 35 ]. Two case-control studies [ 16 , 23 ] observed an increased risk of laryngeal carcinoma associated with exposure to leather dust, while one study [ 25 ] did not find any association. An American case-control study observed significant risks for head and neck overall, and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas increasing with each decade of exposure to leather dust.

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Although not significant, point estimates were also elevated for cancers of the oral cavity and larynx for each successive decade of exposure [ 18 ].



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