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Cite Share. Cited by. Bibliographie p. Full text. Read Open Access. Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition. Buy Print version Place des libraires amazon. ISBN: DOI: The amount of space available in newspapers grew rapidly. The Boston Transcript published in 19, "agate lines" Of advertising in , 87, in , and , in By , two thirds of the top advertisers came from just five industries: 14 food producers, 13 in automobiles and tires, nine in soap and cosmetics, and four in tobacco. Agencies were forever breaking up and reforming, especially when one executive would split taking with him a major client and his team of copywriters.
In the late 19th century in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. Advertising in the developing world was dominated by agencies in the imperial powers, especially from London and Paris.
Walter Thompson became the first American agency to expand internationally with the opening of J. Walter Thompson London in It expanded across the globe, becoming one of the first American agencies in Egypt, South Africa and Asia.
Much of the pressure to expand came from General Motors, which wanted to export its automobiles worldwide. Ayer, which began its expansion in Europe and Latin America in the s. The typical policy was to put an American manager in charge, and hire a staff drawn from locals who had a better understanding of the language and the culture.
In , however, Ayer closed its foreign offices and decided to concentrate on the American market. Today, internationally, the largest "big four" advertising conglomerates are Interpublic , Omnicom , Publicis , and WPP. Advertising increased dramatically in the United States after as industrialization expanded the supply of manufactured products to a very large market. In order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed to recruit workers as consumers of factory products. It did so through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the population's economic behavior on a larger scale.
In the s and s, many ad men believed that human instincts could be targeted and harnessed — " sublimated " into the desire to purchase commodities. Glantz argues, "it was really the tobacco industry, from the beginning, that was at the forefront of the development of modern, innovative, advertising techniques. In the s, under Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover , the American government promoted advertising. Advertising was a vehicle for cultural assimilation , encouraging immigrants to exchange their traditional habits and tastes in favor of a modern American lifestyle.
The AAFLN was primarily an advertising agency but also gained heavily centralized control over much of the immigrant press. In , most Canadian newspapers were local affairs, designed primarily to inform local partisans about the provincial and national political scene. The publishers depended on loyal partisan subscribers, as well as contracts for public printing controlled by the political parties. With the rise of national advertising agencies after , a major transformation was underway. The advertisers wanted them to reach the maximum possible circulation, regardless of partisanship.
The result was a series of consolidations yielding much larger, largely nonpartisan newspapers, which depended more heavily on advertising revenue than on subscriptions from loyal party members.
By , three-fourths of the revenue of Toronto newspapers came from advertising. About two thirds of the newspapers' editorial pages loyally supported either the Conservative or the Liberal party, while the remainder were more independent. Across the board, the news pages increasingly featured more objectivity and bipartisanship, and the publishers were mostly focused on advertising revenues that were proportionate to overall circulation.
A newspaper that appealed only to one party cut its potential audience in half. Simultaneously, the rapid growth of industry in Ontario and Quebec, coupled with the rapid settlement of the prairies, produced a large more affluent newspaper-reading population. The result was a golden age for Canadian newspapers peaking about Many papers failed during the war era.
Advertising agencies in gained a major advantage with the arrival of the Audit Bureau of Circulations , which for the first-time provided reliable data on circulation, as opposed to the partisan boasting and exaggeration that had been the norm.
The s became a time of consolidation, budget-cutting and dropping of traditional party affiliation. At the turn of the 20th century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process. Helen Lansdowne Resor at J.
Walter Thompson Agency, was one of the pioneers. In , the Woodbury Soap Company became the first to use images of sexual contact to sell a product. Her copy promised the soap would increase the beauty of one's skin; it offered a color print and a week's supply of the soap for 10 cents. The slogan became so popular that Woodbury used it until the s. Albert Lasker said the ad's use of sex appeal made it one of three great landmarks in advertising history. It was ranked 31st on Advertising Age's list of the top campaigns of the 20th century. In , Woodbury was one of the first companies to use nudity in its advertisements.
The ad, known as "The Sun Bath", was photographed by Edward Steichen and showed a nude woman lying on stairs on her side with her back to the camera. The text advertised that Woodbury Soap was now enriched with "filter sunshine". In international perspective, a comparison of nudity in advertising in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, South Korea, Thailand, and the United States reveals that China and the United States have the most demure ads, while Germany and Thailand exposed more of the female body. There is little variation in male undress.
In the early 20th century, psychologists Walter D. Scott and John B. Watson contributed applied psychological theory to the field of advertising. Scott said, "Man has been called the reasoning animal but he could with greater truthfulness be called the creature of suggestion.
He is reasonable, but he is to a greater extent suggestible".
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Watson was a highly recognized psychologist in the s. After leaving the field of academia he turned his attention towards advertising where he implemented the concepts of behaviorism into advertising.
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This focused on appealing to the basic emotions of the consumer: love, hate, and fear. This type of advertising proved to be extremely effective as it suited the changing social context which led to heavy influence of future advertising strategy and cemented the place of psychology in advertising. Chicago, along with New York, was the center of the nation's advertising industry. Albert Lasker, known as the "father of modern advertising," made Chicago his base — As head of the Lord and Thomas agency , Lasker devised a copywriting technique that appealed directly to the psychology of the consumer.
Women seldom smoked cigarettes; he told them if they smoked Lucky Strikes they could stay slender. Lasker's use of radio, particularly with his campaigns for Palmolive soap, Pepsodent toothpaste, Kotex products, and Lucky Strike cigarettes, not only revolutionized the advertising industry but also significantly changed popular culture. Lasker had an inquiring mind about what advertising was and how it worked. Lasker believed that advertising consisted of news and information was news, He changed his mind when a colleague Johnny Kennedy told him, "News is a technique of presentation, but advertising is a very simple thing.
I can give it to you in three words, it is 'salesmanship in print'". Within six months, their firm was one of the three or four largest advertisers in the nation. In Lasker recruited Claude C.
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The relationship lasted for 17 years. Lasker helped create America's infatuation with orange juice. Lasker created campaigns that not only encouraged consumers to eat oranges, but also to drink orange juice. Among Lasker's pioneering contributions was the introduction into public schools of classes that explained to young girls about puberty and menstruation done to promote Kotex tampons. He is also credited as the creator of the soap opera genre, and using radio and television as media driven by advertising. In the early s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers.
Madison Avenue early on recognized the importance of radio as a new advertising medium. Advertising provided the major funding for most stations in the United States, which never had a licensing fee for set users. However, the British government permitted commercial television in and commercial radio in Public service advertising , non-commercial advertising , public interest advertising, cause marketing , and social marketing are different terms for or aspects of the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques generally associated with commercial enterprise on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.
Public service advertising in the United States reached its height during the world wars. Advertising came under heavy pressure in the s. The Great Depression forced businesses to drastically cut back on their advertising spending. Layoffs and reductions were common at all agencies. The New Deal furthermore aggressively promoted consumerism , and minimized the value or need of advertising.
Historian Jackson Lears argues that "By the late s, though, corporate advertisers had begun a successful counterattack against their critics. George Gallup , the vice president of Young and Rubicam , and numerous other advertising experts, led the way. Moving into the s, the industry played a leading role in the ideological mobilization of the American people for fighting the Nazis and Japanese in World War II.
As part of that effort, they redefined the "American Way of Life" in terms of a commitment to free enterprise. In the prosperous postwar era, millions of Americans moved into new housing, especially in the rapidly growing suburbs. They spent heavily on housing, appliances, furniture, clothing and automobiles. The coming of television in the s dramatically enlarged the arena for advertising. With most families having automobiles, and more leisure time, travel holidays became much more common, and the motel and tourism industries eagerly supported large-scale advertising. The new Brand Names Foundation sponsored conferences, local campaigns, and educational programs to promote brand loyalty, as well as free enterprise.
In The Hidden Persuaders popular writer Vance Packard exposes the use of consumer motivational research and other psychological techniques, including depth psychology and subliminal tactics.
They had been used to manipulate expectations and induce desire for products since the s, but the popular audience was caught by surprise. He identified eight "compelling needs" that advertisers promise products will fulfill. According to Packard these needs are so strong that people are compelled to buy products to satisfy them. The book questions the morality of using these techniques. Before the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s, black people were largely missing from mainstream white advertising.
Those who did appear typically followed the long-standing "hierarchy of skin color" whereby those with lighter skin tones were seen as being more socially and culturally acceptable than dark-skinned black people. Most national corporations before the s ignored the black market, and paid little attention to working with black merchants or hiring blacks for responsible positions. Pepsi-Cola was a major exception, as the number two brand fought for parity with Coca-Cola. The upstart soda brand hired black promoters who penetrated into black markets across the South and the urban North.
Journalist Stephanie Capparell interviewed six men who were on the team in the late s:. Pepsi advertisements avoided the stereotypical images common in the major media that depicted one-dimensional Aunt Jemimas and Uncle Bens whose role was to draw a smile from white customers. Instead it portrayed black customers as self-confident middle-class citizens who showed very good taste in their soft drinks.
They were economical too, as Pepsi bottles were twice the size. By the late s, more than a few token blacks were hired at advertising agencies, and the sensitivity to the problem increased. The leading black magazines Essence and Jet routinely deplored racism in mainstream media, especially in the negative depictions of black men and women. However Essence and Jet in the 21st century themselves ran about a dozen ads a year, especially for skin lighteners, that were pervaded with "racism and White supremacy.
By the s, fears of cancer from tobacco smoking caused consternation in the tobacco industry , which turned to advertisers for help in avoiding falling consumer demand and increased regulation. British and American agencies separately arrived at similar solutions. The Tobacco Industry Research Committee in the United States and the Tobacco Manufacturers' Standing Committee in Britain each assuaged public anxieties and encouraged the misperception that the cigarette makers were resolving the issues through filters and low tar formulations.
The public relations approach was successful in the short run, but the accumulation of medical evidence led to a fall in smoking, heavier taxation, and increased regulation. The agencies responded with sophisticated advertising strategies designed to encourage adolescent smokers as well as to recruit new smokers in less-developed foreign markets. The late s and early s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for the advertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought.
As cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising , such as QVC , Home Shopping Network , and ShopTV Canada. With the advent of the ad server , marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to the " dot-com " boom of the s.
Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a number of websites, including the search engine Google , started a change in online advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant ads based on an individual's browsing interests. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.
The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. For example, in the US in , the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars , and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2. By , television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower — about 2.
The advertising business model has also been adapted since the s. In media for equity , advertising is not sold, but provided to start-up companies in return for equity. If the company grows and is sold, the media companies receive cash for their shares. Chinese advertising is moving heavily to the smartphone, leaving television behind. Companies in China are increasingly more focused on mobile advertisements than on television advertisements. Central roles are played by Chinese-based social networking sites Weixin also known as WeChat , and Sina Weibo, and the efforts of Western companies, including Coca-Cola, Burberry, and North Face, to market to Chinese consumers through their smartphones.
Since the s, the industry itself, or the government, has imposed some restrictions on advertising certain types of products, especially liquor and cigarettes. Tobacco bans exist in many major countries across the world and cover 2. The restrictions have hindered competition in the breakfast cereal market when compared with the rest of Canada. Marcel Bleustein-Blanchet was the most prominent leader of French advertising in the 20th century. He founded Publicis. After his little-known Paris-based advertising agency grew rapidly, becoming the world's fourth largest agency.
It was a leader in promoting France's post-war economic boom, especially the expansion of the advertising industry. It was successful because of its close ties with top officials of the French government, its clever use of symbols to promote itself, and its ability to attract clients from widely diverse growing industries. The question of whether advertising reflects society or shapes society, can be seen in European models that diverged from the American style.
In France, Michelin dominated the tire industry and was one of the leading advertisers; to this day its famous guidebooks are very widely used by upscale travelers. From to the present its symbol was Bibendum the "Michelin Man" made of tires. He was a lord of industry, a master of all he surveyed, and a patriotic expounder of the French spirit. In the s, Bibendum urged Frenchmen to adopt America's superior factory system, but to patriotically avoid using the "inferior" products of those factories. As automobiles diffused to the middle classes, Michelin advertising likewise shifted downscale, and its restaurant and hotel guides covered a broader range of price categories.
J Walter Thompson expanded successfully in many countries, but France was not one of them. French businessmen did not like the American tone, and were fearful of Americanization. The French market was heavily regulated and protected to repel foreign interests, and the American admen in Paris were not good at hiding their condescension and insensitivity.
As millions of American soldiers passed through Britain during the Second World War, there were fearsof an "Americanization" of British commerce and culture. The Marshall Plan explicitly required and upgrading of the marketing and organizational skills of British industry. There were fears among the leaders of the London advertising world of what the brash, rich Americans would do to them. Radio and television was off limits to advertising, because BBC relied on fees paid by owners of radio receivers. The question was whether the heavily funded American methods would prove irresistible.
Walter Thompson in New York City. JWT London avoided being the bold apostle of the American style. Instead it is relied on soft persuasion, shedding its Americanness to adapt to the British understated style. In the s, most advertising was handled by manufacturing companies in-house. Numerous small advertising agencies handled purchase of space in the media, but did not design campaigns or the ads themselves.
An important role was played by travelling salesmen in promoting products to wholesalers and retailers and providing feedback from the market to the producer. During the Nazi era —45 , the advertising industry expelled its Jews, and came under the supervision of the "Ad Council for the German Economy," a department of the propaganda ministry of Joseph Goebbels. The relationship was friendly, For the industry learned a great deal from the Nazi propaganda techniques.
The industry promoted Hitler's favorite products, such as the promised Volkswagen automobile for the people, and the construction of autobahns. It emphasized the availability of trusted brands despite growing shortages after the war began in It helped support the regime, articulating a vision of consumption that was well aligned with the Nazi spirit. In some environments and social movements, such as with post-WW2 East Germany Stasi's zersetzung , criminology theorists estimated advertisement was used as a means to crime, the nature of the crime was the intentional exploitation of an individual to cause damage to the individual's ability to form social bonds and appropriate perceptions of the world.
This is especially true in the case of manipulation, people take advantage of their underdeveloped social skills and exploit them for selfish gain, this was later criticized to be adopted by turpitude agents of modern advertising. Many major brands were off the market by , because of severe shortages.
When they returned after the war, they were welcomed as an index of normality and were not associated with Nazism. By the s, German advertising agencies were starting to mimic American methods. The American influence became strong in Italy after The high risk of communist success led the American government to invest heavily in propaganda activities. Italian graphic designers, most prominently Armando Testa , were inspired by modernist aesthetics and thinking brought in by the American advertising agencies and techniques in Italy.