Croix [ 99 ] Fig. The rate of RSL rise slowed in the mid- to late Holocene to 0. The absence of a highstand in St. Croix is attributed to glacio-isostatic subsidence from LIS forebulge collapse [ 5 , 99 ]. Moving south to Suriname and Guyana [ ] Fig. Faster rates of RSL rise are found in the early Holocene 5. Because Suriname and Guyana are located beyond the southern limit of LIS forebulge collapse, hydro-isostatic loading of the shelf becomes the dominant process and causes uplift of the continent to produce a highstand in the mid- to late Holocene [ 5 ].
Rio Grande do Norte State in northeast Brazil shows a similar form in RSL to Suriname and Guyana, and although the timing of the initiation of the highstand is comparable, the magnitude of the highstand at Rio Grande do Norte State is greater at 2. Angulo et al. Further south, Rostami et al. Rostami et al. The presence of a highstand of the observed magnitude in southern Argentina may be related to local hydro-isostatic loading of the broad continental shelf or proximity to the subduction zone on the Chilean trench [ 5, 98 ].
RSL data from Antarctica can constrain its ice sheet history [ , , , ] in this near-field region where large glacio-isostatic gradients occur [ ]. Watcham et al. To overcome the large uncertainties that exist in the 14 C reservoir age [ ], Simms et al. Trends of RSL from near- and intermediate-field sites in Europe are characterized by glacio-isostatic uplift e. Despite its relatively small size, the British ice sheet created large variations in RSL trends from the north to south of the UK [ 95 ].
RSL trends from the southern coast of Sweden reveal evidence for rapid sea-level rise following the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet [ ]. Sea-level index points from isolation basins reveal relatively high rates of RSL rise during the early to mid-Holocene with rates of 4. From 6. RSL rose rapidly in the early Holocene at a rate of 5. This rapid rise included a 2. The observed trends were attributed to meltwater release from proglacial Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway through the Hudson Strait into the North Atlantic [ ].
During the mid to late Holocene, there was a gradual decline in the rate of RSL rise to 1. The microtidal regime and presence of numerous remains of coastal archeological structures have made the intermediate- to far-field Mediterranean region a focus for sea-level studies [ 34 , , ]. Regional compilations of RSL data have been produced for both the eastern [ , , ] and western [ , , ] Mediterranean coast.
Due to its complex tectonic setting [ ], RSL histories in the eastern Mediterranean were influenced by the Holocene activity of major faults [ , , ]. In this region, RSL rise slowed significantly in the last 7. In southern France, RSL rose at RSL in the mid-Holocene 7. RSL reached a maximum highstand of 1. According to Mauz et al. Recently, Marriner et al. In the far-field location of mainland southeastern Africa e.
Part of these uncertainties results from the large distances between field sites e. In South Africa, Compton [ 44 ] studied Langebaan Lagoon, a salt-marsh lagoon on the southwest coast to produce a year Holocene RSL record, which is in general agreement with a previous study of beach rock by Ramsay [ ]. Investigations of Holocene RSL in the far-field region of Asia are concentrated in southeast Asia [ , , , ], although studies have expanded in recent years to include South Korea [ ], the Philippines [ ], China [ , , , ], the Malay-Thai peninsula [ , , , , ], and Japan [ ].
These records are characterized by a mid-Holocene highstand attributed to hydro-isostatic processes [ , ], which varies in magnitude and timing of initiation. RSL may also be influenced by active subduction zone tectonics from collision of the Eurasian, Indian, Philippine, and Pacific plates [ 44 , ] or sediment loading from large river deltas [ ]. Within large river deltas, RSL did not reach higher than present due to local subsidence and sediment consolidation.
In stable coastal sites e. RSL remained stable from this time to present with a slight fall between 6. Bird et al.
High rates of RSL rise 4. Their far-field location and relative tectonic stability have made the coastal margins of Australia an important setting for studies of deglacial sea-level changes [ , , , , ]. This region is characterized by a mid-Holocene highstand. Both smooth and oscillating sea-level trends have been recorded since the highstand [ , ]. This discrepancy in part reflects differences in the sea-level indicators used and their interpretation [ ].
Woodroffe [ ] investigated Holocene sea-level changes from northern Queensland Fig. RSL reached above present level between 8. A mid-Holocene highstand at 5. Woodroffe [ ] did not find any evidence for an oscillatory trend in RSL. In southeastern Australia, Sloss et al. Gehrels et al. RSL data reveal spatial and temporal changes caused by the varying dominance of eustatic and glacio- and hydro- isostatic factors over the Holocene. Near-field regions e. In intermediate-field regions e. Croix isostatic and eustatic effects collectively produced RSL rise.
We thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. The authors have no conflict of interest or financial interest to report. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Changes in RSL, which is defined as the height of the ocean surface relative to the land surface or ocean floor [ 13 ], are driven by the net effect of eustatic, isostatic glacio- and hydro- , ocean dynamic, tectonic, and local e.
This transfer of mass from land ice to the global ocean both increased ocean volume and triggered a large, ongoing isostatic response of the solid Earth [ 4 , 13 , 18 , 19 ]. In near-field regions i. Depression of land beneath LGM ice sheets caused migration of mantle material away from ice load centers, resulting in uplift of a forebulge in intermediate-field regions adjacent to ice sheets [ 1 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ].
As land-based ice diminished and mantle material returned to the former load centers, the forebulge collapsed and retreated glacio-isostatic subsidence. Thus, isostatic and eustatic effects worked in tandem to cause RSL rise. Transitional zones occur at LGM ice-sheet margins e. Atlantic coast where initial glacio-isostatic uplift was followed by subsidence from forebulge migration [ 29 ]. In far-field regions at increasing distances from major ice centers, eustatic contributions to RSL change exceeded glacio-isostatic contributions [ 4 , 5 , 15 , 16 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 ].
The RSL signal of many far-field locations is characterized by a mid-Holocene sea-level maximum, or highstand, at the time meltwater production decreased [ 37 ]. These processes occur during the deglacial period but are not manifested in far-field RSL records until the early to mid-Holocene because the eustatic signal is dominant prior to this time [ 5 ]. Open image in new window.
Here, we present local RSL data that are representative of regional trends to show deglacial patterns of change and identify processes that may have caused these changes. Each study has sea-level data from the early to late Holocene and minimal influence from tectonic or local factors although if the influence from tectonic or local factors is apparent, these factors are discussed in the text. We note that while we have chosen sites representative of regional trends, they do no account for the full variability present in RSL histories within a region.
We assume that RSL over time at each site, indicated by f t , can be characterized by a Gaussian process prior [ 51 ]. The prior mean is taken as either the maximum or the mean of all of the RSL data at the given site maximum if near-field and mean if intermediate- or far-field.
Atlantic Coast Near- and intermediate-field sites along the North American Atlantic coast exhibit spatially variable RSL histories due to deglaciation of the LIS and movement towards isostatic equilibrium [ 68 , 69 ]. Pacific Coast The Pacific coast of North America includes near- and intermediate-field regions [ 49 ]. Sea-level change, glacial rebound and mantle viscosity fornorthern Europe. Geophys J Int. Google Scholar. Holocene relative sea-level changes and glacial isostatic adjustment of the U.
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Rasch M, Jensen JF. Polar Res. Examensarbeten Geol. Vid Lunds Univ. Nr Late Weichselian relative sea-level changes and ice sheet history in southeast Greenland. In one version, in , during his third voyage to North America and after exploring Florida, the Bahamas , and the Lesser Antilles , Verrazzano anchored out to sea and rowed ashore, probably on the island of Guadeloupe. He was killed and eaten by the native Carib inhabitants.
Despite his discoveries, Verrazzano's reputation did not proliferate as much as other explorers of that era; for example, Verrazzano gave the European name Francesca to the new land which he had seen, in accordance with the practices of the time, after the French king in whose name he sailed.
This and other names have not survived, which he bestowed on features that he discovered. He had the bad luck of making major discoveries within the same three-year period to when the dramatic Conquest of Mexico and Ferdinand Magellan 's circumnavigation of the world occurred; Magellan himself did not complete the voyage, yet it brought him undying fame. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a great debate in the United States about the authenticity of the letters that he wrote to Francis I describing the geography, flora, fauna, and native population of the east coast of North America.
Verrazzano's reputation was particularly obscure in New York City , where the voyage of Henry Hudson came to be regarded as the de facto start of European exploration of New York, since he sailed for the Dutch, not the French. It was only with great effort in the s and s that Verrazzano's name and reputation were re-established as the European discoverer of the harbor, during an effort to name the newly built Narrows bridge after him.
A native of Val Di Greve in the Tuscany region of Italy, he studied navigation as a young man and became a master mariner. He was engaged by the King of France to lead a voyage to North America in The purpose of Verrazzano's journey was to learn more about the continent. Traveling in a small ship known as the Dauphine, he explored coastal areas from the present-day State of North Carolina to Canada, observing the natural abundance of the land and the vibrant culture of its native peoples.
His voyage is the earliest documented European exploration of this part of the Atlantic Coast. This monument rests upon stone from Castello di Verrazzano, the explorer's ancestral home. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 5 July For other uses, see Verrazano disambiguation. Val di Greve , Republic of Florence now Italy. South face of Verrazzano's monument in Rehoboth Beach , Delaware. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June 14, , "Some See the Verrazano Bridge. Others See a Big Typo. Retrieved The Life and Voyages of Verrazzano. Cambridge University: Folsom, Wells, and Thurston. Retrieved 18 August — via Google Books. He made several excursions up Narragansett Bay, and examined it with considerable attention.
New York: Oxford University Press. La vie et les voyages de Jean de Verrazane. Lyon: University Claude Bernard Lyon Love, Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, — , Greenwood Publishing Group, , p. Whatever the case, Verrazano always considered himself to be Florentine".
Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Discoverers and Explorers. American Book Company. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved January 18, His final voyage began in the spring of , when he sailed with his brother, Girolamo, from Dieppe with two or three ships. The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano, —