Terror in Frankreich - Analyse einiger Bilder der Ausstellung Hitlers Verbrechen (German Edition)

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Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany. Bremen, Germany. Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany. Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Texas, USA. Tokyo, Japan. Brussels, Belgium. Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Bristol, England, UK. Brandenburg, Germany. Devon, England, UK. Prussia, Germany. Dover, Kent, England, UK. Central America. Illinois, USA. Vatican City. Hiroshima, Japan. Arizona, USA. North Sea. Weimar, Thuringia, Germany. Weimar Republic. Athens, Greece. El Salvador. Pennsylvania, USA. Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Hesse, Germany.

Verdun, Grand-Est, France. Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany. Cairo, Egypt. Nagasaki, Japan. Baghdad, Iraq. Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Western Europe. Southern Germany. Dorset, England, UK. Calais, Hauts-de-France, France. Detroit, Michigan, USA. Saudi Arabia. Prague, Czechoslovakia. Dublin, Ireland. Buchenwald concentration camp, Weimar, Thuringia, Germany. Dachau, Bavaria, Germany. Berlin Wall, Berlin, Germany. Paris, Frankreich. Massachusetts, USA. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Milan, Lombardy, Italy. Cornwall, England, UK. Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany. Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Leipzig, Saxony, Germany. Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Hamburg, Deutschland. Glasgow, Scotland, UK. South Holland, Netherlands. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Tennessee, USA. Louis, Missouri, USA. United States of America. Transylvania, Romania. Alexandria, Egypt. Monaco di Baviera. Budapest, Hungary. Southeast Asia. Louisiana, USA. Dominican Republic. British Empire. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kiev, Ukraine. South Carolina, USA. Ancient Greece. Ardennes, Belgium. United Provinces. Plymouth, Devon, England, UK.

Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. North Carolina, USA. Kingdom of Bavaria. Costa Rica. English Channel. Naples, Campania, Italy. Hamburg, Duitsland. Concord, Massachusetts, USA. Petersburg, Russia. Parigi, Francia. Asia Minor. Suez Canal, Egypt. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Hampshire, England, UK. Parijs, Frankrijk.

Michigan, USA. Dessau, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Northern Germany. Puerto Rico. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Mediterranean Region. Lower Saxony, Germany. Wales, UK. Beieren, Duitsland. Berlin, Allemagne. Lancashire, England, UK. Auschwitz, Klein-Polen, Polen. Central Europe. Exeter, Devon, England, UK. Oklahoma, USA. Virginia, USA. The Hague, South Holland, Netherlands. Ohio, USA. Helsinki, Finland. Deutsche Demokratische Republik. South Korea.

Algiers, Algeria. Derbyshire, England, UK. Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Holy Land. Kansas, USA. Cape Town, South Africa. East Africa. Balkan States. Alaska, USA. Balearic Islands, Spain. Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Saxony, Germany. Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Braunschweig, Lower Saxony, Germany.

Genoa, Liguria, Italy. Dunkirk, Hauts-de-France, France. Iowa, USA. Wisconsin, USA. Delaware, USA. O'ahu, Hawai'i, USA. Grand Duchy of Baden. Mississippi River, USA. Vientiane, Laos. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany. Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Varna, Bulgaria. Bukovina, Romania. Alsace-Lorraine, France. Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland. Braintree, Massachusetts, USA. Mosca, Russia. Turin, Piedmont, Italy. Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mexico City, Mexico. Bremen, Deutschland. Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Arkansas, USA. Connecticut, USA.

Kingdom of Prussia. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Kensington, London, England, UK. New Hampshire, USA. Idaho, USA. East Berlin, German Democratic Republic. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Vermont, USA. Northern Ireland, UK. Berchtesgaden, Beieren, Duitsland. Paddington, London, England, UK. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Marshall Islands. Central Asia. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

Black Sea. Teutoburg Forest, Germania. Westminster, London, England, UK. Baghdad Railway. Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. Istanbul, Turkey. Sumatra, Indonesia. Saigon, Vietnam. Monticello, Virginia, USA. East Asia. South Asia. Maine, USA. Falkland Islands. Beijing, China. Dallas, Texas, USA. Kingman, California, USA. Braunschweig, Niedersachsen, Deutschland. Fundu Moldovei, Suceava, Romania. Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA. Castle Dracula. Rusty Pelican. Nevada, USA. Wimbledon, London, England, UK.

Malibu, California, USA. Ancient Egypt. Utah, USA. Maryland, USA. West Indies. Yorkshire, England, UK. Graf Zeppelin. Londra, Inghilterra, Regno Unito. Newfoundland, Canada. East Prussia. Liverpool, England, UK. Obersalzberg, Bavaria, Germany. New Brunswick, Canada. Duitsland, DDR. Leeds, England, UK. Regno Unito. Federal Republic of Germany. Hotel Raphael, Paris, France. Launceston, Cornwall, England, UK. Harwich, Essex, England, UK. Stressa, Paris, France.

Monte Carlo, Monaco. Mount Pleasant. Carolingian Empire. Strasbourg, Grand-Est, France. Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Antioch, Turkey. Purfleet, Essex, England, UK. Piedmont, Italy. Bahnhof Zoo. Mauthausen concentration camp, Mauthausen, Upper Austria, Austria. Sweetwater, Texas, USA. Londres, Anglaterra, Regne Unit. Drenthe, Netherlands. Westerbork, Drenthe, Netherlands. Carpathian Mountains, Romania. Sparta, Greece. Washington, EUA. Danube River Region. Elbe River. Adriatic Sea.

Deutsches Reich. Mariana Islands. Okinawa, Japan. Monte Cassino, Lazio, Italy. Altaussee, Salzkammergut, Austria. New England, USA. Vosges Mountains, France. Braunau, Austria. Andes Mountains. Shanghai, China. The Moon. Bucharest, Romania. Sussex, England, UK. West-Berlijn, Bondsrepubliek Duitsland. Torquay, Devon, England, UK. Worms, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Far East. Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Deutschland. Kingston, Jamaica. Oost-Berlijn, DDR. Wenen, Oostenrijk. New Jersey, USA.

Lincolnshire, England, UK. Flores, Azores, Portugal. Fayal, Azores, Portugal. Falmouth, Cornwall, England, UK. Somme, Hauts-de-France, France. Hillingham, England, UK. Veneto, Italy. Foix, Occitanie, France. Alsace, Grand-Est, France. Ganges River, India. Castle Dracula, Wallachia, Romania.

San Sebastian, Basque Country, Spain. Siberia, Russia. El Ferrol, Galicia, Spain. Maidstone, Kent, England, UK. Castile, Spain. Norfolk, England, UK. Castres, Occitanie, France. Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, UK. Cartagena, Murcia, Spain. Cabo Verde. Caribbean Sea. Cheapside, London, England, UK. River Cher, France. Manchester, England, UK. Delhi, India. Delft, South Holland, Netherlands. Cognac, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. Yalta, Ukraine. Kent, England, UK.

Grimsby, Lincolnshire, England, UK. Greenwich, London, England, UK. Derby, Derbyshire, England, UK. Guildford, Surrey, England, UK. Constantinople, Turkey. Rhine River. Spandau Prison, Berlin, Germany.


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Majdanek concentration camp, Lublin, Lublin, Poland. Blazing World. Airstrip One. Brielle, South Holland, Netherlands. Arkham, Massachusetts, USA. Greyfriars School. New Troy, Albion. Southern Ocean. Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. Kingdom of Aragon. Waterloo, Walloon Brabant, Belgium. Andalusia, Spain. Kingdom of Andalusia. Corsica, France. Amstel River, Netherlands. Berkshire, England, UK. Montana, USA. Alcazarquivir, Morocco. Arras, Hauts-de-France, France. Algeciras, Andalusia, Spain. Emirgan, İstanbul: Borsa İstanbul. A geographic and demographic gazetteer. Baden-Baden: Ergon Verlag in Kommission.

SEp Blumi, Isa : Publishers, hitmen, diplomats, and dreamers. Brezilya seyahatnamesi. An annotated edition of his Italian report.


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  8. London: Gingko Library. An urban history of Istanbul since the Ottomans. Dinar: Dinar Belediyesi. Quartiere levantino. Antakya: Antakya Belediyesi. Tarihi kentler ve Ermeniler. Kayseri: [Verlag nicht ermittelbar]. İstanbul: Renk Ajans. Ankara: Kent Hizmetleri Merkezi. İstanbul: T. Wien, Berlin: LIT. Okur Akademi. Die Rekonstruktion der ersten Weltreligion. Leipzig: Eudora-Verl. Darmstadt: WBG, Wiss. İstanbul: GDK. İstanbul: Biografi Net. Humanity at the intersection of body, mind and soul. Geschichte — Gegenwart — Rituale.

    Stuttgart [u. Leuven [u. Traditional culture and modern medicine. İstanbul: Kuramer. İstanbul: Kor Kitap. Tarih ve sembolizm. Explorations in science, Islam, and the uncanny. The ecumenical patriarchate in the modern age. Legal and social problems of Protestants in Turkey, Kurdisch und seine Diaspora. Constantinople: Impr. Funktionen, Konstruktionen, Entwicklungswege. Freiburg: HochschulVerl. Frankfurt am Main: Landeck.

    İstanbul: Bilgin. Wiesbaden: Reichert, L. Studies on Turkic Structures and Language Contacts. Adana: Karahan Kitabevi. Discourse and the emerging internet. Leipzig: Brockhaus. İndividualization of traditional music on the eve of Kemalist Turkey. Zur Politisierung der Islamforschung in Europa.

    Bielefeld: Transcipt Verlag. Andelfinger, Volker P. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Milton: Routledge. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Bayramoglu, Yener : Queere Un- Sichtbarkeiten. Brockliss, Laurence W. Basingstoke [u. Brophy, David : Uyghur Nation. Reform and Revolution on the Russia-China Frontier. Conrad, Sebastian : Globalgeschichte. Conrad, Sebastian : What is global history? Princeton: Princeton University Press. Crossings between this world and the otherworld. Militarism, Masculinities, and 15 July in Turkey. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

    Issues of Contention. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. Participation and Reaction in Turkey. Geschichte — Grammatik — Texte — Glossar. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Gedik, Ali C. Studies in Popular Music. London: Taylor and Francis. Florence: Taylor and Francis. Magie im Islam zwischen Glaube und Wissenschaft. Immig, Nicole : Zwischen Partizipation und Emigration. Muslime in Griechenland Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, O. Voices of migration, culture and identity. Abingdon, New York: Taylor and Francis. Jasanoff, Sheila : Designs on nature. Science and democracy in Europe and the United States. Princeton, N.

    J, Woodstock: Princeton University Press. Jones, Mari C. Documentation, Pedagogy and Revitalization. Khanbagi, Ramin : Islamic Manuscripts. A Bibliography. Abingdon, Oxon, New York: Routledge. Lahdo, Ablahad : A Traitor among us. Gesundheit im digitalen Zeitalter. Hamburg: Murmann Publishers GmbH. Lupton, Deborah : The quantified self. A sociology of self-tracking. Wiesbaden: Springer. Reluctant Capitalists. The history of an s Armenian revolt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Urban Processes in Unofficial Cultural Spaces. Mortenson, Erik : Translating the Counterculture. The Reception of the Beats in Turkey. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Actors, Discourses and Textual Corpora Nafus, Dawn : Quantified. Biosensing Technologies in Everyday Life. Neff, Gina; Nafus, Dawn : Self-tracking.

    Peacock, Andrew C. Comparative perspectives from history. Reda, Ayman : Prophecy, Piety, and Profits. Ritter, Markus; Scheiwiller, Staci G. Early photography in the Near and Middle East. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. Glimpses on Ottoman print culture. Safa : Nineteenth-century local governance in Ottoman Bulgaria. Politics in Provincial Councils. Konzepte, Akteure, Perspektiven. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Oldenbourg. Selke, Stefan : Lifelogging. Digitale Selbstvermessung und Lebensprotokollierung zwischen disruptiver Technologie und kulturellem Wandel.

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    Nordhausen: Traugott Bautz. Teil 5. Teil 6. Sinan Hrsg. İstanbul: Rahmi M. İzmir: Arkas Sanat Merkezi. BK v 4 Schmidt, Jan : Minor collections. Leiden [u. Case studies on Islam. Beirut: Orient-Institut Beirut. Unter Mitarbeit von İlter Turan. FE Ayangil, Ruhi Hrsg. FE Demir, Alpaslan [Hrsg. Dilek [Hrsg. Islamic studies in honor of Stefan Reichmuth. Leiden, Boston: Brill. Unter Mitarb. İstanbul: arkeopera. A new history. İstanbul: İsis. The politics of history education.

    GEb Mirkova, Anna M. Transforming Ottoman imperial subjects into Bulgarian national citizens, İmperial Russia and Ottoman Christians, GEi Cronin, Stephanie Hrsg. New perspectives on the Iranian left. Belgelerle Muslims in the Balkans between nationalism and transnationalism. A subaltern history. Second edition. GEi Becker, Adam H. American evangelical missionaries in Iran and the origins of Assyrian nationalism. Chicago, Ill. Contemporary popular culture in the Islamic Republic. London, New York: Tauris. Transcending Islam for social, economic, and political order.

    Lanham: Lexington Books. Critical feminist and postcolonial analyses. A study of the early Caliphate. A history of the presidency from revolution to Rouhani. If you are deported, there is a narrative. Just taking care of children, you do not have a narrative. Maybe the children have a narrative of growing up.

    Other people have a narrative of working. That makes it very difficult to pull out that history or that memory. Again we have a memory that is lacking in structure. You would go to the store and there would be nothing but vinegar in the store. It is not our task to say in which ways men and women are different and in which ways they are the same. Rather our task is to really show that, historically, there have been different roles for women and men and of course this shapes different memories.

    As historians, we have to show that perceptions are different, because people have different experiences and they remember different things. Kenney: One of the things that seems to me, from this discussion, to be different about memory of economic crisis is that, broadly, and I am sure we can think of exceptions, if we ask a large number of people about memories of atrocity they may remember different things but their judgment of that thing would be largely the same. It is going to be a negative memory, and it is not even going to depend on things they have read.

    With economic crisis, we have a different situation, I think, where people can regard an experience with different emotional attachments. We have a few examples that gender actually helps us to get at. We might take a period of crisis, and on the one hand, the man who has lost his job would remember it with deep shame, so much so that it would be difficult to talk about such a shameful event. I finally had my car and I had these various opportunities. Am I correct in saying that economic crisis is a different kind of event, because people would actually disagree even about whether it was bad?

    Gender might not be the only way in which things are remembered differently, but it might be one of the ways that memory of the economic crisis could be differentiated even from a qualitative point of view. If you take other war experiences or post-WWII experiences like forced expulsion, these memories too depend on the positions of people at that time.

    Memories of those who were expelled would differ from those who were offered the house of someone who was expelled. There were probably many people who, as late as the 40s or 50s, continued to remember the early 40s or late 30s and the Aryanisation of property as a great time, because they got rich. But you cannot say that today, so memory is silenced because of the contemporary value system. Again, any difference in remembering does not depend on whether what is remembered is an economic crisis or some other event, but rather on the common values present in a given time and place.

    Thinking about what makes the memory of economic crisis different from the memory of war or atrocities, it seems that we have many statues for war victims or war heroes, but we do not generally commemorate economic disasters or hardship. Professor Kenney mentioned the woman with the drawers of nicely folded aluminium foil, and I visualised a statue of a woman pulling this neatly folded aluminium out of a drawer.

    Kenney: That would be a powerful image. Anthropological museums try to recover life of the s, for example, or the communist period. And there might be a drawer that is full of the folded tinfoil. There is a monument to the Irish famine in New York, and there are several in Ireland. There are also monuments to the Ukrainian famine. These are exceptions that prove the rule because they are then recast as atrocities.

    They are not only memories of hunger but also of the intentional starvation by Stalin or by the British. In a way it does not matter how intentional the Irish famine was or the Ukrainian famine. The most important thing is that they get commemorated as atrocities and not simply as economic crises. These existed in many towns and some are still there, but people do not know what they mean any more.

    Again, it is a question of our contemporary values, and if we historicise, we see that these monuments are commemorating victims or heroes somehow connected to economic crisis. Roszkowski: You are right that, as far as monuments are concerned, we never see an image that represents an economic event. It was a humorous redefinition of what the monument was supposed to symbolise. Kenney: That is actually a great example. You cannot have a monument of a bread line under communism. That is an excellent point. And I think it is a good point on which to end.

    Thank you all very much. The discussion took place on 23 October, in Warsaw at the offices of the European Network Remembrance and Solidarity. Pardraic Kenney. His most recent book, on political prisoners in the modern world, is forthcoming with Oxford University Press. Wojciech Roszkowski. His fields of research include modern social history, nationalism and multiethnicity in the Czech lands in the twentieth century, and the history of modern European dictatorships.

    He lectures on finance, monetary policy, banking regulation and international financial institutions. Iga Kozlowska. Her research areas of interest include trans national identity, gender, collective memory, post-communist societies, and European affairs. In her spare time she blogs about transatlantic relations at frommoscowtowashington. This article has been published in the fourth issue of Remembrance and Solidarity Studies dedicated to the memory of economic crisis. Russische Schulen wurden geschlossen.

    So gelangt man von der drei Monate existierenden Westukrainischen Volksrepublik, die am 9. Die Zusammenlegung der Helden des Nationalismus und der Opfer des Stalinismus in einem gemeinsamen Mausoleum kommt einer Sakralisierung des ukrainischen Leidens gleich. Lemberg ist von einem regelrechten Erinnerungsfieber ergriffen. Wobei eine selektive Erinnerungspolitik und Musealisierung zum Tragen kommt. Allein die ukrainische Wiedergeburt und das ukrainische Leiden werden thematisiert.

    Ihre wissenschaftlichen Interessen umfassen u. Genau an dem Tag als in Polen die ersten halbfreien Wahlen stattfanden. Sie bestanden nicht selten aus Reformkommunisten, Sozialdemokraten, liberalen Intellektuellen, Nationalisten, Marktwirtschaftlern, kirchlichen Aktivisten, Gewerkschaftlern, Pazifisten, einigen traditionellen Trotzkisten und vielen anderen. Das Neue an war das Tempo dieses Vorgangs. Besonders die Ungarn und Tschechen waren in der Lage, ihre eigene Revolution jeden Abend in den Fernsehnachrichten zu sehen. Juni , von den Leipziger Montagsdemonstrationen am 9.

    Oktober , oder die Bilder der demonstrierenden Prager Studenten am November Innerhalb von Tagen verloren die kommunistischen Regimes das, worauf sie peinlich und mit stets wiederkehrenden Restriktionen achteten — ihr Informationsmonopol. Was war geschehen? Was bleibt, sind sein Mut und seine strategische Leistung. Polnischen Republik, noch des erweiterten Europas. Peter Bender, Deutschlands Wiederkehr. Eine ungeteilte Nachkriegsgeschichte —, Stuttgart , S. Vom Fall der Mauer zum Krieg im Irak. Burkhard Olschowsky geb. Was die Interpretationen des Jahres betrifft, sind vor allem die elementaren Unterschiede zwischen Ungarn und Polen von Belang.

    Kann sich ein Kommunist patriotisch verhalten?

    SS | David R. L. Litchfield

    Oder ist ein Patriot per definitionem kein Kommunist? Januar Auf diese Weise kam es zu einer Reihe von symbolischen Ereignissen: Der am Juni feierlich bestattet. Oktober , dem Juni Dezember Bezug genommen wird. Die historische Bedeutung dieses Jahres betrifft hingegen nicht zuletzt die dritte Welt. XX wieku. Te trafne dla lat Po czwarte, historia zintegrowanego ew. W r. Od maja pracownik naukowy w Federalnym Instytucie ds. In: Ders. Frankfurt a. Die Deutschen, der verlorene Osten und Mitteleuropa.

    Berlin Berlin , S. In: Richter, Olschowsky Hg. In: Kommune 7 , S. Traum oder Trauma? Hermann Rudolph: Ein Stellvertreterkrieg am falschen Platz. Zur Mitteleuropa-Diskussion in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Amsterdam, Atlanta , S. In: Ebd. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 7. Deutsche und polnische Vergangenheiten. In: Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 49 , S. Reinbek Erinnerungskultur und Zeitgeschichte im Konflikt. Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge , S. Lanham , S. Michael G. Marburg , S. Neuordnungskonzepte und Umsiedlungspolitik im Stuttgart , S.

    Eric D. Weitz: A Century of Genocide. Utopias of Race and Nation. Princeton , S. Hamburg , S. In: Anja Kruke Hg. Bonn , S. In: Comparativ 6 , S. Mainz im Druck. Katowice , S. Essen , S. In: Thomas Brose Hg. Leipzig , S. Adam Boniecki. In: Tygodnik Powszechny, Warszawa , S.

    Eine Polnische Bibliothek. Wiesbaden , S. Ein Kalendarium. In: Transodra 23 , S. In: Leipziger Volkszeitung, In: Frankfurter Rundschau, Die Geschichte meiner Familie. In: Tagesspiegel, 1. In: tazMagazin, In: Die Welt, In: Joachim Tauber Hg. Erscheinungsformen und Deutungen im In: Kafka. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 3. Europas langer Weg zu einem gemeinsamen Bild vom Jahrhundert der Extreme.

    In: Kauffmann, Kerski Hg. In: Dialog, H. In: Osteuropa, 3 , S. In: Kruke Hg. Der Kommunismus im London ; alltagsgeschichtlich: David Crowley, Susan E. Reid Hg. Sites of Everyday Life in the Eastern Bloc.

    Unlikely History

    Chapel Hill u. Origins of Civil Society and Democratic Transition. Freiburg DDR-Forschung — weitgehend isoliert und zumeist um sich selbst kreisend. In: Deutschland Archiv 36 , S. Poland and East Germany before New York In: Gerald Stourzh Hg. Wien , S. Paris —; Mario Isnenghi Hg.

    Amsterdam Die neue polnische Rechtsregierung und ihre historischen Wurzeln. In: Osteuropa 11 , S. Teaching about the Holocaust and the role of the Romanian state in these events is still a recent happening in Romania: the process has followed a tortuous path, between denial and distortion.

    In an official change to school syllabuses and the publication of a report by the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania aimed to improve teaching about the Shoah in Romanian schools. This article aims to determine to what extent the national identity of Romania is built in relation to its past, especially to the Holocaust. The research focuses on four Romanian history textbooks used in the tenth class ages sixteen to seventeen at secondary school. Our research analyses the discursive strategies used in history textbooks published since It concentrates on the roles assigned to different actors involved in these events.

    Who are the victims? Who are those responsible? How are their actions depicted? Are they underplayed or exaggerated? This institute aimed to investigate the facts related to the Holocaust in Romania and subsequently to publish a report on the subject, which was to include recommendations on how to better educate the public on this topic Friling, Ioanid and Ionescu Teaching about the Shoah had been officially included in the syllabuses since ; however, until the facts were presented in an incomplete and distorted way and anti-Semitism was hardly mentioned International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance The majority of textbooks followed the earlier, communist line of teaching, which had avoided the subject of the Holocaust Livezeanu , Certain authors have shown that revisionist currents existed among the Romanian elite and academic circles Geissbuhler , , and have made a connection between these attitudes and school education Padeanu The link existing between education and the construction of identity is crucial, insofar as historians, and by extension history teachers, hold a special place in society, and are often seen as the bearers of historical truth Anderson , The processes of producing and teaching historical knowledge can then be influenced by the visions of these researchers and teachers, so creating a double hierarchy — production and transmission Anderson , ; this double hierarchy is coupled with a lack of critical thought on the part of pupils when receiving content, often encouraged by their teachers Anderson , This research belongs to the constructivist approach.

    Our readings on the themes of memory and historical narrative both place the accent on the changing Hodgkin and Radstone , 23 and created character of memory and narrative Gillis , , as well as on the central role of memory in the building of historical narratives of identity Hodgkin and Radstone , Because of this, national identities are ideological constructs taken from the historical processes of nationhood Billig , These conceptions of foreign elements are formed historically and socially, passed on to individual members and shared through social channels of influence Tajfel , And so the notion of identity ought then to be understood as the product, perpetually changing, of a collective action, and not as a fixed and immutable concept Brubaker , 9.

    Romania is no exception to this process of national construction. Starting from the 18th century, the Romanian national identity forged itself insisting on several elements, such as rurality, its Latin roots, the direct link with Dacians, the common origins of Romanian citizens and, as a consequence, the homogeneity of the Romanian nation Mihailescu , 82; Capelle-Pogacean , This construction proceeded under the union of Greater Romania, 1 and in the following years, the element of ethnic purity was added to a centralizing logic Mihailescu , —7.

    The communist regime reinforced these trends of national union, homogenization and centralization, while institutionalizing Romanian nationalism — via a classification of ethnic citizenship Brubaker , The latter was used in favour or, on the contrary, against some groups, such as Jews or Roma Brubaker , Moreover, the Romanian national historiographies stressed the narratives presenting Romanians as being the victims of other nations Verdery , — a victimization process that prevented collective accountability Capelle-Pogacean , The fall of the communist regime led to a loss of identity reference points, and opened the way for the use of myths about origins, of the Romanian national memory Mihailescu , 85 , as well as to the rise of nationalism and anti-Semitic trends Florian , Indeed, the political discourse in post-communist Romania seems to still be focused on the nation and its characteristics Capelle-Pogacean , Indeed, in Romania it was portrayed that the Holocaust was only a result of external causes and not inherent to the Romanian state; a concept deeply linked to the nationalistic communism in Romania, whereby all problems had foreign causes Florian , In contemporary Romania, the denial of the Holocaust still occupies an important part of public belief Florian , This denial is visible in mass-media and TV shows Eskenazy , 10 , but also in more subtle ways.

    For instance, when young producers are denied the funds for projects dealing with the Holocaust in Romania, the refusal comes from well-regarded institutions and organizations — including the Romanian Television Eskenazy , Generally, it is hard to measure the impact of shows or documentaries about the Shoah on the public Eskenazy , Historian Victor Eskenazy argues that this constant denial can be attributed to three factors. First, anti-Semitic attitudes are still deeply rooted in Romanian society — historian Andrei Oisteanu published a detailed study of the stereotypes attributed to Jews in Romanian, some of which are still in use today Oisteanu Secondly, the enduring refusal of popular intellectuals to take part in debates on television, when it comes to the Shoah; when they do take part however, the trend is to question any proven historical piece of information.

    Thirdly, the limited access to books on this topic as well as their high cost for the average citizen impede the spread of new information Eskenazy , 10— As regards history teaching in Romania, several studies have also been carried out linking the teaching of history and identity. Catalina Mihalache and Speranta Nalin have examined the teaching of history in Romania. The former notes that the teaching method encourages pupils to conform to the official historical truths Mihalache , — The latter examines the problems linked to educational reforms and school syllabuses for the teaching of history.

    She shows what impact the centralization of the educational system can have on the presentation of historical facts in textbooks Dumitru Nalin , 40— Thomas Misco has studied how the Shoah is taught in Romania, as well as the relationship between this teaching and the construction of a Romanian national identity.

    Beyond the optional courses that are solely focused on the Holocaust, Misco argues that it is hard for a history teacher to discuss in detail all the aspects and implications of the Shoah, considering their short time frame Misco , 6— However, figures show that the number of teachers attending such training sessions is low, compared to the total number of history teachers — around 10 per cent Misco , 4. Moreover, some teachers are still in denial about the Holocaust, which affects the sources they choose and the way they teach.

    However, statements about how to teach about the Holocaust do exist. One of them includes practical aspects — how to create a positive teaching environment, why and how to use direct testimonies, etc. Yet, this statement is notably a general one and does not go into detail about how the state is addressing its past, in relation to the Shoah.

    We proceed in a deductive fashion, by first setting out our hypotheses before applying them to our case study. On the basis of our first observations, carried out during exploratory readings on the links between the construction of identity and education in the post-communist period, we establish as a first hypothesis that the Shoah is hardly or not mentioned at all in secondary school history textbooks in Romania. Thus the way Romanian identity has been constructed can either integrate this episode into its history, or, on the contrary, show a tendency to hide it.

    Our hypotheses establish from these facts a link between the representation of past events — here, the Shoah — and the construction of the identity of the Romanian nation, which does not appear in the studies and exploratory readings that we had consulted beforehand. In order to answer our research question, we chose to apply a method inspired by authors who use critical discourse analysis CDA approaches — and by Ruth Wodak in particular Wodak , 63— CDA, with its focus on a problem, and in the case of this article, using a discourse-historical approach, allows several elements to be shown, such as the creation, preservation and change of contextual constraints — like dominance, power or ethnocentrism within a discourse Van Dijk , 5.

    These discourses are interpreted historically, and placed spatially and temporally. As for the structures of domination, they are justified by the ideologies of the most influential groups Wodak , 3. In our present case study, we identify these influential groups as the authors of textbooks, who are often teachers within the secondary or higher education system, and therefore keepers of knowledge.

    We can further state that knowledge and the control of knowledge shape our interpretation of the world Van Dijk , This justifies our wish to analyse the discourses found in the textbooks, which have as their main purpose the construction of this knowledge and its transmission to pupils. We apply this method to a corpus of four textbooks of Romanian history for secondary schools clasa a X-a [tenth year — ages sixteen to seventeen] , published in or after Three of them are meant for general teaching Balutoiu ; Barnea et al.

    In these four textbooks we want to analyse how the Holocaust is represented, concentrating on the discursive strategies used by the authors to present the facts relating to the Shoah in Romania. Specifically, we analyse which decisive events are mentioned or concealed: who is held to be responsible for these events and how their actions are presented — exaggerated or understated; how the victims are presented, and whether they are portrayed as an integral or separate part of the Romanian nation.

    While the events studied are the same in each of these textbooks, there are considerable variations as to how they are presented, through the syntactical structures, the importance given to certain protagonists and the inclusion or exclusion of the victims of the Romanian nation. We have been able to identify four elements common to all four textbooks. First, with few exceptions, all present the same events, generally in chronological order — anti-Jewish legislation —42 , policy of Romanianization 2 and national homogenization —44 , the pogroms of Dorohoi July and Iasi June , deportation, extermination in Transnistria, the case of the Jews of Transylvania, etc.

    However, the way in which these events are presented differs. For example, only one textbook — that is intended for use within the special optional course — mentions the policy of Romanianization in its entirety Petrescu , 78—81 , while two others focus only on the economic aspect of this policy Balutoiu , ; Barnea et al. The fourth textbook does not mention this policy at all Selevet et al. Moreover, only one of the textbooks intended for general teaching makes a reference to the Bucharest pogrom of January Balutoiu , , although the context in which this pogrom took place is mentioned in all three general textbooks Selevet et al.

    Only the textbook for the optional course deals with this topic and includes photographs of it Petrescu , 78—79 , but the involvement of a certain number of Bucharest citizens in this event is not mentioned. The way in which the events are presented is equally varied when it comes to the case of Transylvania. Three of the textbooks refer to it in a neutral and somewhat superficial way. Secondly, we would like to underscore an important point.

    The choice of language and grammatical structure plays an important role in the presentation of historical facts. We have found in all the textbooks that sentences are constructed actively for those responsible, and passively when talking of the victims; these constructions tend, on the one hand, to accentuate the responsibility of the guilty, and, on the other, to accentuate the victim status of the deported. Thirdly, we have also found in the textbooks that quotation marks are used extensively, distancing the authors from the statements or actions cited.

    Fourthly, all the textbooks analysed make reference to the positive actions of the Romanian people, leading some of them to receive the title of Righteous among the Nations. However, the way in which these actions are presented differs from one textbook to another. In the textbook for the special optional course, a whole chapter is devoted to Romanian individuals who helped save Jews, in a detailed and unbiased way. In the three textbooks meant for general teaching, these people are mentioned briefly — five lines more or less for them all Barnea et al. Implicitly, the textbooks that do not deal with this subject reject the notion of individual responsibility.

    The affirmative and imperative tone of this sentence leaves no room for either reflection or debate on questions of responsibility, particularly for those episodes where it has been claimed that part of the civilian population of different countries is guilty of crimes against the Jews Dean , — Paradoxically, the only textbook that invites pupils to reflect on this notion of responsibility — national, state — is precisely the one among them that makes no mention of the involvement of Romanian civilians Balutoiu , It is in the same textbook that the syntactical separation between the Jews and the Romanian nation is most evident.

    As regards the integration of victims in the nation, the three general textbooks, without exception, marginalize the Roma people, their deportation and extermination, literally and figuratively. Only about one to four lines are given to what happened to the Roma people during the Second World War. Only one textbook includes the description of the events in the main text Selevet et al.

    Only the textbook for the optional course gives them a larger place in the presentation of the facts by including extracts about them, which are nonexistent in the other three textbooks. The selected extracts include a history of their population in Romania, photographs and a final exercise referring exclusively to the Roma people Petrescu , —7, — In addition, all the textbooks analysed point to the responsibility of the state and the personal responsibility of Ion Antonescu for the events unfolding during the Shoah.

    Antonescu often appears as the subject of phrases given in these textbooks that reinforce his guilt.

    Albert Einstein's Big Idea HD Documentary (With 17 Subtitles)

    Clearly all the textbooks follow the conclusions made by the same commission concerning the principal actors responsible for the events taking place during the Holocaust, namely the Romanian authorities and the leader Ion Antonescu Friling, Ioanid and Ionescu , The report of the commission does, however, present the facts relative to the involvement of civilians Friling, Ioanid and Ionescu , , which some of the textbooks conceal, as we have already mentioned.

    Following our analyses and comparisons, we can say that, as for our first hypothesis, the Shoah is indeed mentioned in the history textbooks in Romania. In fact, each of the four textbooks analysed includes three to four pages on the Holocaust in Europe and in Romania — two whole chapters in the case of the optional textbook.

    The Romanian history textbooks reveal an ambivalence in the construction of present-day Romanian identity in relation to the episode of the Shoah in Romania. While all the textbooks tackle the Holocaust, we have been able to show that the presentation of the facts varies, between distancing, concealing or giving an unbiased view as possible. We have shown in this article that this construction of identity can either integrate or conceal the episode of the Shoah in Romanian history. Our results can fit into the existing literature on the study of the formation of identity through education and school textbooks, in a general sense, as well as those that focus on the study of the Shoah in Romania.

    This is when the Romanian school syllabuses were changed, with the aim of giving greater importance to the study of the Shoah in the classroom. However, no study, to our knowledge, links these elements to the construction of a national identity in Romania, as we have proposed to do in the body of this paper. Our article allows us to bring to light the differing representations existing within a sample of Romanian school textbooks as well as linking these to the construction of Romanian identity.

    Our article allows us to establish that ambivalences exist in the way facts linked to the Romanian past, in particular the Shoah, are presented and as a result the way the facts are transmitted and taught to Romanian secondary school pupils. We have aslo made evident the interconnections between teaching, school textbooks and the construction of a national identity.

    This allows us to state that these different representations and ambivalences are assimilated by Romanian pupils during their education, and that this assimilation becomes an integral part of their identity as Romanian nationals. Maria-Philippa Wieckowski was born in Her centres of interest include the construction of identity and the relation to memory and the past in Romania after She divides her time between France and Romania. Greater Romania existed until Anderson, E. Balutoiu, V. Manual pentru clasa a X-a [History.

    Tenth grade textbook]. Bucharest: Editura Didactica si Pedagogica. Brubaker, R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, — Capelle-Pogacean, A. Eskenazy, V. Glajar and J. Friling, T.

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