A reputation is widely recognized as a valuable, intangible asset for an organization and is worth protecting. But the threat posed by a crisis extends to behavioral intentions as well. Increased attributions of organizational responsibility for a crisis result in a greater likelihood of negative word-of-mouth about the organization and reduced purchase intention from the organization.
In the post-crisis phase, the organization is returning to business as usual.
Biblical Preppers: 5 Things the Bible Can Teach Us about Preparedness
As noted earlier, reputation repair may be continued or initiated during this phase. There is important follow-up communication that is required. First, crisis managers often promise to provide additional information during the crisis phase. The crisis managers must deliver on those informational promises or risk losing the trust of publics wanting the information. The amount of follow-up communication required depends on the amount of information promised during the crisis and the length of time it takes to complete the recovery process.
If you promised a reporter a damage estimate, for example, be sure to deliver that estimate when it is ready. West Pharmaceuticals provided recovery updates for over a year because that is how long it took to build a new facility to replace the one destroyed in an explosion. As Dowling , the Corporate Leadership Counsel , and the Business Roundtable observe, Intranets are an excellent way to keep employees updated, if the employees have ways to access the site. Coombs a reports how mass notification systems can be used as well to deliver update messages to employees and other publics via phones, text messages, voice messages, and e-mail.
Personal e-mails and phone calls can be used too. Crisis managers agree that a crisis should be a learning experience. The crisis management effort needs to be evaluated to see what is working and what needs improvement. The same holds true for exercises. Coombs recommends every crisis management exercise be carefully dissected as a learning experience.
As most books on crisis management note, those lessons are then integrated into the pre-crisis and crisis response phases. That is how management learns and improves its crisis management process.
It is difficult to distill all that is known about crisis management into one, concise entry. I have tried to identify the best practices and lessons created by crisis management researchers and analysts. However, crises are not the ideal way to improve an organization. But no organization is immune from a crisis so all must do their best to prepare for one. This entry provides a number of ideas that can be incorporated into an effective crisis management program.
At the end of this entry is an annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography provides short summaries of key writings in crisis management highlighting. Each entry identifies the main topics found in that entry and provides citations to help you locate those sources. Argenti, P. Harvard Business Review, 80 12 , This article provides insights into working with employees during a crisis.
Arpan, L. Stealing thunder: An analysis of the effects of proactive disclosure of crisis information. Public Relations Review 31 3 , This article discusses an experiment that studies the idea of stealing thunder. Stealing thunder is when an organization releases information about a crisis before the news media or others release the information. The results found that stealing thunder results in higher credibility ratings for a company than allowing others to report the crisis information first. Augustine, N. Managing the crisis you tried to prevent.
Harvard Business Review, 73 6 , The article reinforces the need to have a crisis management plan and to test both the crisis management plan and team through exercises. It also reinforces the need to learn profit from the crisis. Barton, L. Crisis in organizations II 2nd ed. This is a very practice-oriented book that provides a number of useful insights into crisis management.
The book provides excellent information on crisis management plans a template is in Appendix D pp. Benoit, W. Accounts, excuses, and apologies: A theory of image restoration. This book has a scholarly focus on image restoration not crisis manage. However, his discussion of image restoration strategies is very thorough pp. These strategies have been used as reputation repair strategies after a crisis. Image repair discourse and crisis communication.
Public Relations Review, 23 2 , The article is based on his book Accounts, excuses, and apologies: A theory of image restoration and provides a review of image restoration strategies. The image restoration strategies are reputation repair strategies that can be used after a crisis. It is a quicker and easiest to use resource than the book.
This is a very user-friendly PDF files that takes a person through the crisis management process. There is helpful information on web-based communication pp. There is an explanation of templates, what are called holding statements or fill-in-the-blank media statements including a sample statement pp.
It also provides information of the crisis management plan pp. Carney, A. Prepare for business-related crises. Public Relations Journal 49, This article emphasize the need for a message strategy during crisis communication. Developing and sharing a strategy helps an organization to speak with one voice during the crisis. Cohen, J. Advising clients to apologize. This article examines expressions of concern and full apologies from a legal perspective.
He notes that California, Massachusetts, and Florida have laws that prevent expressions of concern from being used as evidence against someone in a court case. The evidence from court cases suggests that expressions of concern are helpful because they help to reduce the amount of damages sought and the number of claims filed. Coombs, W. Management Communication Quarterly, 8, This article is the foundation for Situational Crisis Communication Theory.
It uses a decision tree to guide the selection of crisis response strategies. The guidelines are based on matching the response to nature of the crisis situation. A number of studies have tested the guidelines in the decision tree and found them to be reliable. Impact of past crises on current crisis communications: Insights from situational crisis communication theory.
Journal of Business Communication, 41, This article documents that past crises intensify the reputational threat to a current crisis. Since the news media reminds people of past crises, it is common for organizations in crisis to face past crises as well. Crisis managers need to adjust their reputation repair strategies if there are past crises-crisis managers will need to use more accommodative strategies than they normally would.
Accidents are a good example. Past accidents indicate a pattern of problems so people will view the organization as much more responsible for the crisis than if the accident were isolated. Greater responsibility means the crisis is more of a threat to the reputation and the organization must focus the response more on addressing victim concerns. Structuring crisis discourse knowledge: The West Pharmaceutics case. Public Relations Review, 30, This article is a case analysis of the West Pharmaceutical explosion at its Kinston, NC facility.
The case documents the extensive use of the Internet to keep employees and other stakeholders informed. It also develops a list of crisis communication standards based on SCCT. The crisis communication standards offer suggestions for how crisis managers can match their crisis response to the nature of the crisis situation. Code red in the boardroom: Crisis management as organizational DNA. Westport, CN: Praeger. This is a book written for a practitioner audience.
There are also detailed discussions of how crisis management plans must be a living document pp. This book is designed to teach students and managers about the crisis management process. There is a detailed discussion of spokesperson training pp. The book emphasizes the value of follow-up information and updates pp. There is also a discussion of the utility of mass notification systems during a crisis pp. Protecting organization reputations during a crisis:The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate Reputation Review, 10, The article includes a discussion how the research can go beyond reputation to include behavioral intentions such as purchase intention and negative word-of-mouth.
The information in the article is based on experimental studies rather than case studies. Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study of crisis communication. Journal of Public Relations Research, 8 4 , The research also establishes that the type of reputation repair strategies managers use does make a difference on perceptions of the organization. An extended examination of the crisis situation: A fusion of the relational management and symbolic approaches.
Journal of Public Relations Research, 13, This study reports on an experiment designed to test how prior reputation influenced the attributions of crisis responsibility. The study found that an unfavorable prior reputation had the biggest effect. People rated an organization as having much greater responsibility for a crisis when the prior reputation was negative than if the prior reputation was neutral or positive. Similar results were found for the effects of prior reputation on the post-crisis reputation.
Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: Initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 16, This article begins to map how stakeholders respond to some very common crises. The article recommends different crisis response strategies depending upon the attributions of crisis responsibility. Journal of Communication Management, 10 2 , This article examines if and when a favorable pre-crisis reputation can protect an organization with a halo effect.
The halo effect says that strong positive feelings will allow people to overlook a negative event-it can shield an organization from reputational damage during a crisis. The study found that only in a very specific situation does a halo effect occur. In most crises, the reputation is damaged suggesting reputational capital is a better way to view a strong, positive pre-crisis reputation. An organization accumulates reputational capital by positively engaging publics. A crisis causes an organization to loss some reputational capital. The more pre-crisis reputational capital, the stronger the reputation will be after the crisis and the easier it should be to repair.
Corporate Leadership Council. Crisis management strategies. The topics include the value and elements of a crisis management plan pp , structure of a crisis management team pp. The file is an excellent overview to key elements of crisis management with an emphasis on using new technology. Dean, D. This article reports an experimental study that included a comparison how people reacted to expressions of concern verses no expression of concern.
Post-crisis reputations were stronger when an organization provided an expression of concern. Dilenschneider, R. The corporate communications bible: Everything you need to know to become a public relations expert. Beverly Hills: New Millennium. This book has a strong chapter of crisis communication pp. Downing, J. The article also comments on the use of employee assistance programs after a traumatic event. Fearn-Banks, K. Crisis communications: A casebook approach 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. This book is more a textbook for students using case studies.
Chapter 2 pp. Chapter 4 has some tips on media relations pp. Hearit, K. Apologies and public relations crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo. Public Relations Review, 20 2 , This article provides a strong rationale for the value of quick but accurate crisis response. The focus is on how a quick response helps an organization to control the crisis situation.
This book is a detailed, scholarly treatment of apologies that has direct application to crisis management. Chapter 1 helps to explain the different ways the term apology is used and concentrates on how it should be treated as a public acceptance of responsibility pp. Chapter 3 details the legal and liability issues involved when an organization chooses to use an apology.
Kellerman, B. When should a leader apologize and when not? Harvard Business Review, 84 4 , This article defines an apology as accepting responsibility for a crisis and expressing regret. The value of apologies is highlighted along with suggestions for when an apology is appropriate and inappropriate. An apology should be used when it will serve an important purpose, the crisis has serious consequences, and the cost of an apology will be lower than the cost of being silent. Klein, J. International Journal of Marketing, 21, This article reports on an experimental study that compared how prior information about corporate social responsibility a dimension of prior reputation affected attributions of crisis responsibility.
People attribute much greater responsibility to the negative corporate social responsibility condition than to the neutral or positive conditions. There was no difference between the attributions in the positive and neutral conditions. Lackluster online PR no aid in crisis response. PR News. Lerbinger, O. The crisis manager: Facing risk and responsibility. There is a strong focus on the role of media relations in crisis management pp.
Mitroff, I. Thinking about the unthinkable. Across the Board, 33 8 , This article reinforces the value of creating and training crisis management teams by having them conduct various types of exercises. Sonnenfeld, S. Media policy—What media policy? Harvard Business Review, 72 4 , This is a short article that discusses the need for spokesperson training prior to a crisis.
Sturges, D. Communicating through crisis: A strategy for organizational survival, Management Communication Quarterly, 7, This article emphasizes how communication needs shift during a crisis. The first need is for instructing information, the information that tells people how to protect themselves physically from a crisis. The next need is adjusting information, the information that helps people to cope psychologically with the crisis.
The initial crisis response demands a focus on instructing and adjusting information. The third and final type of communication is reputation repair. Reputation repair is only used once the instructing and adjusting information have been provided. Taylor, M. Taxonomy of mediated crisis responses. Public Relations Review, 33, This article summarizes the best practices for using the Internet during a crisis and advocates more organizations should be using the Internet, especially web sites, during a crisis.
Tyler, L. Management Communication Quarterly, 11 1 , This article discusses the legal constraints that prevent apologies during a crisis. It is a hard look at the choices crisis managers must make between addressing victims in a particular way and financial constraints. The article is a reminder that crisis management occurs within the larger context of organizational operations and is subject to financial constraints.
Ulmer, R. Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks: Sage. This book is mix of lessons and case studies. Many of the cases focus on large scale crises or what some would call disasters. Chapter 12 pp. Renewal focuses on optimism and an emphasis on moving to some new and better state after the crisis. Not all organizations can engage in renewal after a crisis. Renewal requires that an organization have performed ethically before the crisis and have had strong stakeholder relationships before the crisis.
Share this:. Follow on Twitter. Certainly, client demand for advance preparation has increased dramatically in the past half-decade, at least for my consultancy. But I fear there is, in fact, little change in what I have said in the past — that 95 percent of American organizations remain either completely unprepared or significantly under-prepared for crises. And my colleagues overseas report little better, and sometimes worse statistics. For the success of any organization, there should be a strategic plan for handling crises so as to maintain good relations between that particular organization and its publics because it is the reputation of an institution that creates the actual picture of that particular institution thus I do recommend this material to such organizations which are in need of strengthening their ties with their publics as I also urge all of the Public relation officers to take this material seriously as it contains the ingredients which can give their profession undisputed taste.
Mwalimu Jeffkass, Chuka University. Dear Author this article gives an insight in to the practices of management crisis. But the article makes it very clear that corrective measures can be easily taken to handle risk in a comfortable manner. This article is quite informative.
As previously stated, a clearer distinction needs to be made regarding Management of Communication of a Crisis.
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Well done, very great work but clear distinction between Crisis management and Crisis communication its not obvious as the two concepts are mis-used. Crisis must be handled properly because it involves and affects many people — stakeholders like the employees, owners, and suppliers. Businesses should always disclose accurate and relevant information to the public. This is a great article, but I wish it were more precise in its labeling and definitions.
The terms crisis management and crisis communications often are misused and over-used. True crises are usually the result of a management failure to respond appropriately to an issue, emergency or accident that requires a timely response and communication. Organizations that respond appropriately to issues, accidents or emergencies rarely experience a crisis.
In fact, such organizations have traditionally enhanced their reputations and strengthened their brands and share price when a public company after the dust settles. Defining and understanding the differences between issues, emergencies, accidents and crises is vital — not everything is a crisis. An issue is a point in question, a matter in dispute or a sensitive topic within any given organization, industry or society. Failure to manage these risks — i. An accident is an unexpected and undesirable event, especially one resulting in damage to property or injury to people.
The potential for an accident to escalate to a crisis depends upon its scale and the number of those affected. Unlike issues, accidents have defined starting and ending points. Not every accident is a crisis. An emergency is a serious situation or occurrence that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action and communication. Emergencies can take many forms — ranging from criminal activities, lawsuits and bomb threats to snow storms and power outages that affect the ability of employees to perform business-essential functions.
Like accidents, most emergencies can be anticipated and planned for to minimize their effect on operations. A crisis is very different. Unfortunately, it is much easier to recognize a crisis than it is to prevent one, but that is the job of successful PR and corporate communications professionals. Organizations that do not have professionals in the PR or corporate communicators department who understand these distinctions are at risk. One-way asymmetrical model One-way communication Uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audience to behave as the organization desires.
Two-way symmetrical model Two-way communication Uses communication to negotiate with publics,resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its public s. Thanks alot for the provided material. Actually i am undergoing a Professional Master Degree in English and i am intrested in knowing more about Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector and the major effects of political unstability on the tourism sector, especially the case of Tunisia and the other arab countries facing similar revolutions. I was just wondering if you can suggest a crisis managent plan for such a case.
Thanks again for your efforts to provide us with the useful information as usual. Outstanding Article, Great insight. This is a major issue the industry is facing. A very useful document clearly put and gives great insight into managing a crisis to minimise alround impact — well done. The topic is very useful not only to PR Practitioners but also to the other professionals because gives the insights of how they can get involved in managing crisis in the organization.
It further offers a framework of handling crisis and reminds and refreshes PR Professional on their day to day activities. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Crisis Management and Communications. It was studied how Adam was the first vice regent king and the high priest over the territory of Eden on earth in fellowship and under the Lordship of God the creator of all.
In part three we examined how the tabernacle was designed to also demonstrate the relational purposes and components of Gods plan for uniting with us using male and female forms as illustrative tools. The tabernacle was about God dwelling with his people. In part four we started at the very beginning of the instructions for the construction of the "Wilderness Tabernacle" and it all began with giving. In part five we learned that giving is not random. God asks specifically for certain things and lying resident within the symbols of each is a rich lesson concerning God's lavish provision.
The three requested metals of gold, silver, and copper and their meanings were discussed. Today's lesson, the sixth portion of this series, will concern the next four items on God's requested items to donate. Much like the metals, the colors and fabric have much to say as it concerns the details of salvation. The colors are to be understood as the color of threads that are woven on to the white fine linen background which will be explained throughout the study and all taken together will illustrate a unified message that we will pull together at the end.
The very first color mentioned is blue. Blue in Bible typology is understood to be the color of heaven and eternal things. It is the rarest color in nature and most often not the result of pigment. Most things in nature that appear blue comes from the refracting of light through designed structures that will reflect this color.
For this portion of the study, we are going to borrow our imagery from the unmistakably blue sapphire gemstone, as does the Bible itself, in relation to heaven, and Gods throne. In an online article "The Blue Stone," David Asscherick points out how the scriptures reveal this connection in Exodus chapter And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity The literal translation of "I will give you tablets of stone" should read, "I will give you tablets of "the stone", "the", implying a particular stone not random rock from the mount.
Could it be the tablets were taken from the sapphire stone of God's throne in the heavens? Ezekiel, even twice, envisions the throne of God in connection with heaven and sapphire in his cryptic like experience in Gods presence. Blue is connected with the heavenly qualities of love, loyalty, and the faithfulness of God, and as it concerns us, it is exhibited in listening and obeying God's heavenly commands.
If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God. Set your mind on things above, not on things on the earth. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is our life appears, then you also will appear with Him in glory. Therefore put to death your members which are on the earth: fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. The book of Numbers includes the command that God gave to Moses to instruct every Israelite male to wear tassels on the corners of their garments.
These tassels included a blue thread that was to remind them to be loyal to their faithful heavenly Father in response to His already proven faithfulness to them. And you shall have the tassel, that you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord and do them, and that you may not follow the harlotry to which your own heart and your own eyes are inclined, and that you may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy for your God.
Mid 's Bible scholar and commenter Henry Soltau provides the believer's application of these concepts. He should gaze continually on the face of Him, who has manifested the love of God in giving His life for his redemption. God, in the gift of Jesus, has proved that love is inseparable from holiness The heart first and the eye next, can only be kept from lusting after the things of the world and the flesh, by being fixed on heavenly things. The origin of the Biblical blue dye is significant.
It was produced from the yellow secretions found in the glands of a sea mollusk. The secretions turn purple when exposed to the air, then it turns blue when exposed to sunlight during a certain phase of its color development. A heavenly body is necessary to process this color. The video above provides a complete demonstration of this ancient process.
It was a painstaking task to obtain and produce. It is said to be worth its weight in gold. This connects us with the gold that was the heavenly metal studied in the last part of this series. The gold and blue together will, interestingly, connect and loop together throughout the instructions of the Tabernacle construction, as well as the priestly garments as we shall see later in another part of the series. Purple, the center color, is a combination of both blue and scarlet and we will discuss the significance of this after the section on scarlet.
But let's first lay a good foundation for each color so it all makes sense when taken together. In the ancient world purple was the color of royalty, wealth, and power. Like the blue, it was difficult to obtain and therefore rare and costly. The rich man in Luke 19, in Jesus parable, was recorded to have been clothed in purple. This dye, like the blue, was also obtained from a sea mollusk. Experts believe it was possibly a related species to the one that produced blue.
The purple was said to be worth its weight in silver. Historical mythological literature affirms these symbolic connections of the ancient world as is recorded in ancient Greek writings. And a store of such stuff by the gods' grace, king, is here for us to have; the palace does not know poverty. The Bible also makes this connection with purple, power, and position in the book of Daniel after Daniel reveals the hidden message of the handwriting on the wall for the king. The king makes good on his lavish promise to Daniel for doing so.
Then Belshazzar gave the command, and they clothed Daniel with purple and put a chain of gold around his neck, and made a proclamation concerning him that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.
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There is another King not of this world that was clothed in purple but displayed a different type of wealth and power that could only be achieved by humility. And when they had mocked Him, they took the purple off Him, put His own clothes on Him, and led Him out to crucify Him. Purples connection with power is actually illustrated In the visible light spectrum purple is the most powerful and energetic color from a wavelength, frequency, and photon energy perspective as shown in the chart above.
He who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see, to whom be honor and everlasting power. It is also observed from the chart above that purple is at the top of the visible light spectrum containing the highest frequency. The symbolism of scarlet concerns man and blood. Notice that man and red are the same and both contain the word for blood. A tolah is actually a worm or maggot known as the Crimson worm.
The life cycle of this lowly creature uniquely illustrates man's salvation through the sacrifice of another as described by Christian Apologist Henry Morris. The eggs deposited beneath her body were thus protected until the larvae were hatched and able to enter their own life cycle. One source noted that the not only does the mother give her life to protect her babies with her own body but she also fed them with it.
As the mother died, the crimson fluid stained her body and the surrounding wood. From the dead bodies of such female scarlet worms, the commercial scarlet dyes of antiquity were extracted. What a picture this gives of Christ, dying on the tree, shedding his precious blood that he might 'bring many sons unto glory' Hbr ! He died for us, that we might live through him! Psa describes such a worm and gives us this picture of Christ.
There are a lot of ideas what Jesus might have meant, but nobody really knows for sure. However, it is very interesting that, just like the Crimson worm, Jesus sacrificed or gave up his life on a tree so that his children might be washed with his crimson blood and their sins cleaned white as snow. In the book of Joshua, a harlot named Rahab seeks salvation from a coming destruction of her city Jericho.
She stakes no righteous claim based on her deservedness, but only faith in a promise secured and evidenced by a scarlet thread she was instructed to hang from her window. Behold, when we come into the land, thou shalt bind this line of scarlet thread in the window which thou didst let us down by: and thou shalt bring thy father, and thy mother, and thy brethren, and all thy father's household, home unto thee. And it shall be, that whosoever shall go out of the doors of thy house into the street, his blood shall be upon his head, and we will be guiltless: and whosoever shall be with thee in the house, his blood shall be on our head, if any hand be upon him And Joshua saved Rahab the harlot alive, and her father's household, and all that she had; and she dwelleth in Israel even unto this day.
Like Rahab, the harlotry of all humanity has no righteous claim to salvation but only through faith in the shed blood of Christ, the scarlet thread, are we saved from destruction. In the next section, we will tie all three colors of thread together and discover their entire message as a whole. This symphony of colors, taken together, produces a joyous melody of revelation pertaining to the message of salvation.
The combination of the two outer items produces the center one. Blue mixed with red makes purple. All of these threads are interlaced and woven throughout the tapestry of John's account of the passion. And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus out and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha. Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, and about the sixth hour.
Linen is a plant based textile and it was used for the curtains that surrounded the entire structure, veils that concealed and protected sacred spaces, and the priestly garments. Its predominant characteristic is that it was white. This makes an obvious connection with purity and righteousness. This crisp white fabric provided the backdrop for the above-studied colors, in terms of the righteous Jesus Christ who came down from heaven clothed in human flesh and became the only righteous one qualified to secure the redemption through His sacrificial death.
My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the whole world. Which is in stark contrast to the worthless filthy garments of fallen man. No other human being qualified. Oh, that You would rend the heavens! That You would come down! But we are all like an unclean thing, And all our righteousnesses are like filthy rags; We all fade as a leaf, And our iniquities, like the wind, Have taken us away.
Now Joshua the high priest was clothed with filthy garments, and was standing before the Angel. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. We have no righteousness in and of ourselves.
It is the righteousness of Christ that God desires to clothe His beloved believers in. I will greatly rejoice in the Lord , My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He has clothed me with the garments of salvation, He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, As a bridegroom decks himself with ornaments, And as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.
We will look at the specific usages of this material and how this connection applies to them when we get to those instructions in the Bible text. I hope by now that it's becoming evident that there is nothing in God's Word that is without significance. Every word, every color, every number, and every name is rich with meaning and can be used for connecting the dots of God's big picture of dwelling with His created ones through a necessary means of a sacrificial salvation.