Tribe of the Aquene (Aquene Trilogy Book 2)

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Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. An Ill-Timed Hideaway. A splendid twist on an ethereal theme, An Ill-Timed Hideaway throws convention to the wind. Death, tired of eternal work, switches places with a mortal and looks forward to a weekend of peace and quiet - or so he has View Product. This is the printed version of his on line journal, which he kept during his deployment.

By My Side provides a unique perspective of his ministry Fortune's Favor: Scott In Antarctica. The award winning author's fourth book of poetry finds her meditating on the heroic journey The award winning author's fourth book of poetry finds her meditating on the heroic journey of famed polar explorer Robert Falcon Scott The poems are adapted from Scott's journals of the doomed Terra Nova expedition of Through disciplined, How Your Doctor Sees You. Forget for now how you pronounce this monster-word. Forget for now that volcano is a noun referring to a person, place, thing or idea.

Forget all technical matters dealing with grammar. Lets focus only on the meaning of this word. Now if we take the word elements in the left hand column of the table we created and string them together we get a clue to the meaning of. A knowledge of 14 Greek and Latin roots would help readers to recognize over 14, words in the English language. Stringing the meanings together, and clumping the meaning of each part into larger whole units of meaning, and imposing an ordering that students learn tells us how you get the essential meaning from the list.

Now we know a very big word. But we also learned something else because the roots and other combining elements pneumono, etc. So if you now see the word pneumonia, you have a good clue that pneumonia has something to do with the lungs. The beginning student of medical terminology who is taught these eight roots has knowledge of all words using them. Thats what makes doctors so smart and rich. The words, ideas, thoughts, feelings expressed in the Algonquian Indian languages present the same challenge to understanding them that pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis presents to the medical student.

Interestingly, in medical courses students are taught their Latin and Greek roots etymology first before they learn the language of medicine. Without the roots, students would never remember the language of their profession. So, pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis can be understood by word-analysis. Now, to spill another one, take the following hyphenated word from the Indian language Massachusett:.

This letter word means our well-skilled looking-glass makers Trumbull, , p. Such a word can be analyzed with the tools learned in this book. Our approach is the same basic one used to understand pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis. Algonquian Languages Now suppose you give yourself the challenge of learning another dead language such as any of the extinct American Indian languages in southern New England Narragansett, Massachusett no s on end or Pequot-Mohegan, among others.

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There are several types of books and other materials on the Indian languages of New England called Algonquian languages particularly those dealing with the extinct languages of southern New England. Some of the books are more than years old. These books can tell you something about how the language sounded, the meanings of the words, and the syntax grammatical rules for making words, phrases and sentences.

But you dont really know how the musical spoken word really sounded or how hand gestures and other body language was used to communicate thoughts and feelings. Most of these books are not available to most people. Some books are available in scholarly libraries but are understandable to only a handful of people in the world.

(New England)-revised ed.

Other books are phrase books with no instruction on how to make new words, phrases or sentences. Still others are place name listings of towns, cities and so on in New England. Such Indian place name books tell you something about the roots and other important word elements of Algonquian words. But they are not readily available either in our public libraries. You are frustrated! The language experts must make a living also.

Some seem too busy to help you to the extent you need, or are helpless themselves because they are like the Latin or ancient Greek teachers -they have some knowledge, but not certain knowledge. Also, Algonquian languages are very strange, very complicated and most beautiful, almost like poems. You are almost afraid to try to pronounce them, either for fear of making mistakes or out of reverence for the ancient ones. Let us tell you some background about this project. As mentioned, one major Indian language group of southeastern New England is referred to by linguists as Massachusett.

The Massachusett Language Revival Project is designed to assist in the reconstruction and revival of this extinct American Indian language to the extent humanly possible. We must start with the basics and proceed carefully and slowly. Our task is like micro-surgery on a language, and like micro-surgery, one needs skill, patience and love for what one is doing. The Massachusett language was once spoken fluently in what are now the States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island as well as other places in New England.

According to linguists and historians, the Indians speaking the Massachusett language are called by scholars the Massachusett Indians, the Pokanoket Indians, The Nipmuck Indians and the Pawtucket Indians see Trigger, , or Goddard and Bragdon, , or Bragdon, , for other information [sometimes not always clear to the non specialist].

Thousands of Indians spoke this language before the coming of the bacilli and the Bible, plus an untold number who spoke different dialects of Massachusett or could understand it to some degree. Go to our Figure 1 in the Introduction to the book for a map showing these peoples aboriginal general locations along the coast of southern and middle New England. Various dialects of Massachusett were once spoken in Rhode Island and Massachusetts by peoples of different Tribes, each showing regional variation, but together constituting a single language -Massachusett of the Eastern Algonquian language family.

One dialect of Massachusett called Natick was extensively studied and documented by the missionary The Reverend John Eliot in the s. It seems that he learned to speak the local oral language from Job Nesutan, a devoted Indian tutor and servant for 35 years, and he studied its grammatical structure.

Eliot began preaching to the Indians in their language which very much impressed them. Later he and Job Nesutan and other Indians undertook an ambitious project designed to convert Indians to Christianity. Eliot and Job Nesutan and other Indians? Eliot is considered by some as one of historys most gifted linguists. Job Nesutan and the other Indians must not be forgotten either, for they taught and assisted Eliot. Although Natick was the dialect of the language Massachusett that was documented by Eliot, and given that no two dialects of the same language are completely interchangeable, nonetheless NatickMassachusett is the logical place to begin in reconstructing and reviving some the Indian languages of southeastern New England.

Bragdon Because the very small number of surviving Indians were discouraged, by love or by force, from using their mother tongue, it died out. It is believed that the language Massachusett and all Indian languages of southern New England became extinct sometime in the s Huden, ; Goddard, Today, among most of the descendants of the ancient American Indians of southern New England, all that survives of this unwritten Indian tongue are a handful of phrases handed down over the generations Good morning, Peace be to you, I love you, and the like; some can recite the Lords Prayer in the language.

Heated debates are heard at powwows over the roots and derivations of New England place names derived from Algonquian languages. However, what little they have of this language, they do not want to lose. They are keenly aware of what has been lost, and are very desirous of reconstructing and reviving all aspects of their culture excluding the War Dance and related activities , including the language s of their ancestors.

Narragansett is an Algonquian language once spoken by Narragansett Indians in present-day Rhode Island and understood throughout New England. Narragansett is also extinct, and shares many features with Massachusett. Roger Williams wrote a famous Narragansett language phrase book in A technical problem is that Narragansett does not enjoy the linguistic knowledge we have from Eliots missionary work, and the subsequent technical work done on Massachusett.

Thus we have some information about parts of this language, not only from Eliot, but also from scholars, both remote and proximate, who wrote dictionaries, etc. There exists today an elite band of scholars who work in this subset of a subset of theoretical and applied linguistics. Well-known scholars in the field helped us. They feel sure of the technical feasibility of reconstructing and reviving parts of the language with a great deal of painstaking work and cooperation among Native Americans, Indian language experts and funding agencies.

Indians and language scholars are beginning to work together on this revival project. With the right assistance from Indian language experts and funding agencies, we expect to see in the future a degree of fluency in the language which will be a significant improvement over what now exists. Many people agree with us. Now, allow us to quote one of the many consulting scholars to our project, Professor Kenneth L. Quoting Prof. Just as Hebrew was revived as a spoken language in the nineteenth century, extinct native languages might return in the twenty-first century. Take Mohican, he says.

There arent any speakers in that language, but you could take books and deeds published back in the s, and from what we know about comparative Algonquian, you could figure out pretty closely what it sounded like. People could learn it and begin to use it and revive it. How much of this ancient tongue Massachusett can be brought back is an open question.

Can Indians in New England speak, read and write Massachusett as fluently as they speak English today? The Aquidneck Indian Council and its brothers and sisters and friends are committed to trying to do what can be done. Only time will tell and only the Creator knows for sure what will happen. Aquidneck Indian Council Our involvement is based on ancient Indian spiritual religious tradition -- if you have something to share, you are obligated to share because moral and social standing is derived from how much you give. No one must go hungry for lack of food or language.

In principal, all men are brothers and fathers, all women are sisters and mothers. The Native American community supports our efforts and counts on us to complete our tasks. Our book is by Indians for Indians and others. This is a very important point. The Aquidneck Indian Council is an independent, non profit, tax-exempt corporation. Our purposes are educational and cultural. We are committed to reviving and preserving the ancient traditions of New England Indians. We believe very strongly that American Indian heritage has much to offer to all peoples of the earth.

We share our proud traditions and customs with all. The founding leaders of the Council are all descendants of the aboriginal peoples of North America. Understanding Algonquian Indian Words New England Understanding Algonquian Indian Words New England is the first in a planned series of non technical works designed to introduce the languages of southeastern New England at an elementary level with emphasis on the language Massachusett.

The first volume is a primer very elementary and introductory.

We trust that others will be motivated to take up the torch light and help bring back the living languages of New England Indians heard in these woods, fields, lakes and mountains for thousands of years. Our financial funding came from three sources. Chairman Richard Skip Hayward and The Council of Elders of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation were the first to give us a grant to purchase books and other supplies for us to begin our long journey.

Nwomantam kehchisog kah kehchissquaog A great deal of acknowledgment must also go to the Rhode Island Committee for the Humanities, a state run program of the National Endowment for the Humanities. The entire committee of R. Civens believed in our project, encouraged us, funded us, and helped in many other ways. Kuttabotomish, n etomppauog Many of our friends in the Native American community of New England as well as recognized scholars have helped us in one way or another to make this book a reality. Kathleen J. Bragdon noted ethnohistorian and Massachusett language expert.

Bragdon offered much valuable technical assistance and stressed the importance of the project and gave us much needed encouragement. Tall Oak, who served as one of our Principal Humanities Scholars on the project, has encouraged us and helped us immensely from the beginning.

Tall Oak serves as one of our Councils wauontam wise man, councilor. Our heart-felt thanks to Tall Oak for his kindness and love. Karl V. Teeter helped in many ways on the technical linguistic matters. His assistance was invaluable, and his friendship is cherished. This book is our legacy to them. Others who have helped us in one way or another include the following institutions and individuals:. Word-analysis means the breaking down of a word into its parts and the recognition of the original meaning of each part.

Hale, the late Ferrari P. Any errors remain solely those of the authors. We would appreciate hearing from readers who spot errors in the book or otherwise desire to improve this book in future editions. We are very proud of our heritage. Our ancestors were born on this land. Nttauke, Nissa Wnawkamuck. We want to share our gifts with others so that New England Indian culture and language will continue to exist. The language of a people is very important because it tells us how people thought of their world and lived in it.

May the Indian People live! Roots such as min or uhq are not hyphenated. Dont confuse the symbol with the symbol accent mark such as seen in the word wtu. In Part I, we give a short list of words, phrases, sentences along with their roots and stems, references to other words, some examples, and sometimes additional information.

Each entry has some information like this, but not all entries have all the information because it doesnt exist, or would take up too much space. Reading Entries in Part I We want to make sure you know how to read the entries when you look up a word. We try to keep it simple. Here are three examples just as they appear in Part I of the book: agwe agwu, ogwu under, below e. The Algonquian words are on the left-side of the page, and the English translations are on the rightside of the page.

Algonquian words are always written in the slanted-italic-style like agwe. The Algonquian word agwe is given in the first example. In parentheses we show that two variant spellings of agwe may be seen in other written sources agwu, ogwu. Next we know that agwe is a Massachusett language word because we dont give the Narr. The meanings of the word agwe are under, below.

The second example shows a singular and plural word for the noun tree. The Massachusett language entry is mituck-quash mehtug-quash. In parenthesis is an alternate spelling of the words which may show the pronunciation of a different dialect? Now we say see mtugk, -quash where we give roots for tree and tell you about the plural marker -quash. No examples are given here. The third example shows a Narragansett word misqu meaning red.

If you look up misqushim, youll see that misqushim literally means red animal. No accent mark means that the word is pronounced as written with an equal emphasis on each syllable. In this book we dont concentrate on accurate pronunciation a difficult matter when no fluent speakers exist. The Index should be used to find roots, phrases and sentences for Part I. For example, to find the Massachusett phrase for good morning, the reader finds good morning in the alphabetical Index in the back of the book where the page number is given for finding the phrase in Part I. Turning to the indicated page number the reader searches the page until mohtompan wunne good morning is located.

There the roots are given and the reader is told to see related terms to help understand as much as possible about the words. Want to know the word for red? The Index shows that red can be found in many places of the book by itself, in another word like red-fox, in a phrase, or in a sentence.

Look in all places of the book until satisfied. Write down notes, page numbers etc. Thats how we all learn new words. The main thing is: be patient, have fun, and grow. When you speak your mother tongue you are worshipping the ways of your ancestors.

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Note that very few derivations of Narragansett words seem to have been passed down. Lastly, to supplement the vocabulary in Part I, we give the meanings for about other words, phrases, sentences. These terms are defined in the Index itself e. One other reason for giving this listing is so that readers may further practice word analysis; after you have read something about the grammar in Part III, you should be able to recognize parts of some of the words, etc. Since this book is not meant to replace existing dictionaries, but give only a small number of words with which to start off with, we give only a very modest amount of the vocabulary.

The Massachusett Language Revival Project will help make available the extensive dictionaries people need for learning their language. Most Massachusett words seem to have no stress marks indicating that no special stress on any one syllable exists [e. When in doubt about stress, the following rules of thumb may be used :. These are only rules of thumb or tongue and do not apply for all words. More complicted rules exist for accent structure see Goddard, Some think that at the beginning of some words, a u was a whistling sound see w u in rude or a in sofa.

The symbols and 8 are seen in modern writings to stand for Eliots special character oo. To the west were Blackfoot, Arapaho and Atsina or Gros Ventre , Cheyenne, and several other languages which are now extinct. We have records of about three dozen Algonquian languages all told, but it is almost certain that there were several more that died out before they could be recorded Pentland, See the two maps of the region.

The earliest recorded information we have on the Indians of the s says that all the Indians seemed to speak the same language. Lets quote in Modern English one of the best European sources, Mr. Daniel Gookin, The Indians of the parts of New England, especially upon the sea coasts, use the same sort of language, only with some differences in the expressions, as they differ in several countries [counties? Their speech is a distinct speech from any of the those used in Europe, Asia, or Africa, that I ever heard.

Modern linguists seem to agree generally with Gookin. The recent book by K. Bragdon is a comprehensive reference work on the culture and language of southeastern New England Indians. Also, this book, while scholarly in nature, is centered on the Indian perspective. It is recommended, for it includes much information on the languages of Massachusett and Narragansett.

In Fig. John Eliot learned Natick-Massachusett, and recorded much of what we know today about Massachusett. Figure 1. The broad white lines show tribal territories ancestral homelands. A black square indicates a modern non Indian town. A large bold-type name refers to an Indian Nation e.

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Source: Bruce G. Used with permission. Figure 2. Black squares indicate a modern non Indian town, present day State boundaries are indicated by dashed lines - - and State names are capitalized e. Trigger Volume Editor. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. The Massachusett Language Algonquian Indian languages are described by linguists as polysynthetic. For example, take the word Massachusetts, the name of a New England State.

The original word, massachuset, is from the Massachusett or Natick Indian language. Thus Massachusetts massachuset means "at or near the great hills and referred to a specific geographical location the Blue Hills , not to the entire present State of Massachusetts. Notice how the four elements massa, wadchu, ash, et were abbreviated or contracted to form the final word; this is the essence of the language.

A knowledge of the roots and other elements of a word is very important in deciphering the original meaning when it can be reconstructed. But, because Algonquian languages like Massachusett are logical, rule-bound communication systems with complicated grammatical structures, the reader should not form the mistaken impression that simply stringing along a handful of prefix-root-suffix terms to form a polysyllabic mouthful of a word, is all that these languages can offer.

These examples suggest that the elemental pronoun markers n-, k-, w- and other variations and the pluralization stem ash for inanimate objects must be combined with the noun in special ways to form words that appear in writing to be very different from the base noun wtu. Using wtu in whole sentences is even more complicated. Thus, grammar and composition are separate topics that need to be taken up slowly.

An adequate treatment requires a separate volume. Understanding Algonquian Indian Words New England is not meant to be a comprehensive vocabulary book or a grammar book or a phrase book, for such are topics for future works. Only limited grammatical forms are given such as pronoun, noun, verb inflections. The most comprehensive source we know of on the grammar of Massachusett is the two-volume monumental work by Ives Goddard and Kathleen Bragdon One must have specialized training in linguistics to understand their book.

We intend to use their book to provide a nontechnical grammar textbook on Massachusett. Another major league Algonquianist is the late and great Prof. James H. Trumbull whose dictionary of the Massachusett Natick language is a major reliable source for the reader interested in the written word. Trumbull's page book contains extensive discussion of words, giving words from other Algonquian languages and relating them to ancient world-wide languages, a most precious book.

Another major source for the Massachusett vocabulary is the dictionary by Cotton Cotton, , Nichols, The works by the Rev. John Eliot "The Apostle to the Indians" in the s are the ultimate original written sources for the Natick dialect of the Massachusett language. Unfortunately, as we mentioned earlier, the works of Trumbull, Cotton, Eliot, and others are all but impossible for most people to obtain. The word wtu is a fascinating word, as are all words given to Indians by the Creator. If you go through an Algonquian dictionary e.

Trumbulls book you can piece together the different shades of meaning of wtu. Our analysis showed wtu related to other Massachusett words or concepts such as family, growth, love, land and wood. So, remembering that a house a structure is not a home where family and love exist and grow , wtu seems to us to mean roughly a wooden home our family moves about our land. All Algonquian Indian words seem to weave these deep, interconnected, primitive notions of biotropism.

Thus, the reader of our book should know that our word listing merely scratches the surface of meaning, because each word could fill a book by itself. They showed a great deal of individual differences in how they spelled words, used grammatical rules, etc. Indians value freedom and independence above all else. Goddard and Bragdon try to systematize these linguistic phenomena and come up with their own grammatical sketch which includes John Eliots system from the s.

Approach to Language Revival Learning a new language is very difficult for most people. When there are no fluent speakers of a language, but only written sources on the semantics word meanings, such as in Trumbulls dictionary and syntax rules for forming sentences, the grammar, such as in Eliots works, and others , then students are facing tremendous obstacles to language fluency. Such is the case for those who want to learn a language such as Massachusett, extinct since the early s. Where to begin in reviving such a language poses many questions. The reader may know that almost all American Indian languages had no writing system as we know it.

The cultures were oral. You learned everything from family and friends by listening to their words and thoughts and remembering what you were told. The hand gestures and other body language were also very important since they added meaning to the words. Compare this situation to American children learning the English language in the United States.

Learning English usually involves learning how to speak it, read it and write it. Children have available their parents, teachers in schools, and many others from whom to learn the oral and written language. They also have books, tapes, music, their friends and playmates, TV, movies, etc. Some people have learned English from watching TV over an extended period of time.

Language teachers tells us that one of the most important aspects of language learning is knowing the meanings of the words in the language the semantics. Remembering the many words of a new language is difficult, especially when one doesnt have all the help needed to learn the language. The Massachusett Language Revival Project starts with the approach of basic word recognition, and the unique aspect of Indian languages -- their rootedness in nature, expressing very complex ideas, thoughts, feelings in complicated-looking words that combine many simple elements to form a complete idea, thought, feeling.

Many of the Indian words for living things, especially animals, are onomatopoetic imitative of nature -- word based on sound associated with object. For example, the Narragansett word for goose-geese hnck- hnckock is based on how Indians heard the honking sounds geese make. The word for tree htugk is what a tree sounds like when you strike it with a rock or club. To us, this practice attests to the intelligence of Indians because the word is easier to remember. It also shows the respect "to look at objectively" Indians have for their brothers and sisters of the forest from whom they have learned so much about survival, and living in harmony and balance with nature.

Our approach to teaching Massachusett and some other related Algonquian languages starts with the belief that learning the root words and other word parts of the language can provide knowledge of Massachusett and other related Algonquian languages more quickly. So, weve written this book with this belief in mind. The book consists of three major chapters. A handful of terms in Part I come from the Narragansett language, and are so identified.

Each of the entries in Part I shows the word element and some of the variant spellings of the same term, and the meaning or various meanings of the Algonquian term. A Natick dictionary such as Trumbulls book should be consulted for a more complete definition of the terms.


Sometimes one finds a single word with more than one meaning or spelling, or there exists five or six words for the same thing. Included are selected whole words,. The derivations of words in some cases are suppositive based on our own oral traditional reconstruction which amounts to saying we could be wrong, but heres our educated guess. It seems better to give the reader an hypothesis from which to launch ones own analysis "nature abhors a vacuum".

The reader will not see the so-called grammatical classification for a word such as noun, adverb that one sees ordinarily in a dictionary. Our belief is that such information comes latter in language revival. Such knowledge, intimately tied-up with learning rules for word, phrase and sentence construction, is too burdensome now.

Future works, as mentioned earlier, will take up such matters in detail, in conjunction with experts. Part III provides information on the pronunciation. Several examples from Part I will give an idea of the contents. Lets say the reader looks up the phrase good morning. Turning to the right page, we see the entry:. Here weve given you some other ways to spell wunni, and you may want to see what is said about them.

Now, you can go back to montup. In this way, we have you go to as many places as we think you might go to get a feel for the underlying meanings of the words we provide in this book. The reader is given the experience of the interrelated structure of this complex, fascinating language. The original guttural sounds, the euphonic, metrical beauty of the language are, however, lost through the harsh lessons of American history, and we cannot enter into pronunciation, tempo and the like now.

The English language Index locates these roots, words, phrases for the reader. The separate Englishlanguage index has been prepared to facilitate locating specific Algonquian terms. The Index also contains a small number of words, phrases, sentences about whose meanings are given there e. This small list will supplement the main vocabulary of Part I. Also this list allow readers to practice word analysis; after you have read something about the grammar in Part III, you should be able to recognize parts of some of the words, etc.

Different sorts of examples are provided such as place names, poems, conversational lesson sheets. For example, in Part II we give some corrupted place names and show their etymological derivation to give the reader experience in struggling with this linguistic art of word reconstruction, and cite references for further practice. The contemporary places are analyzed with the word elements given in the beginning of the book. A more extensive listing of Algonquian place names with derivations can be found in Trumbull , or Huden An elementary conversational language lesson is provided in Part II.

You will also be tested from timeto-time to get you actively involved in learning. All of these are given for the reader to practice word recognition skills to be used to build upon in the future. For additional practice, the reader may want to read some of the native writings in Massachusett in the book by Goddard and Bragdon , Part 1 , of which a sample is provided in Part II, and which readers can apply all they have learned. According to Eliot, about one-quarter of the grammar, as he understood it, is contained in those 16 pages that we provide in Part III.

His pronunciation-information is based on what he was taught by his Massachusett Indian tutor and servant of 35 years Job Nesutan, and what is humanly possible to write on paper. Eliot was a gifted language learner. He impressed the New England Indians with his knowledge of their language, no doubt one reason for his success in converting to Christianity so many New England Indians. So, Eliot is a reliable source for written Massachusett Natick. A careful reading of Rev. Eliots essay will be of benefit to the reader. In our workshops and seminars held with the general public and Indian tribal councils, we presented many more lessons under the title Know It By Its Indian Name by Strong Woman and Moondancer.

Ake is a very important word, and is related to concept for mother. An American Indian tribe is an Indian people all interrelated by blood, marriage or by adoption. In pre-historic times pre-European days , a tribe lived in one or more villages. See Trumbull , pages for some idea of the many terms under god. Oral tradition has it that The Great Spirit is called.

I have seen you e. Three different words are known for "eat". Meech is used as a transitive, inanimate verb "he eats it". Second, the root moowhau or mohowau means, "he eats that which has life" including cannibalism ; used as a transitive animate verb "he eats him". Lastly, the root metesi, meetzu means "eats food in general "; used as an intransitive, inanimate verb.

War Captain title of head Paneese warrior of Pokanoket Confederacy in historic times; e. This root found in many words. Nickmmo is a complex spiritual term. The essential meaning of nickmmo is to give away. See Roger Williams , pages Authors not sure of the roots, but n I and m go seem to be in the word, and nohkeau down to the earth may be related. A very important root meaning origin, source, causation; basis for word ohke. The main ones are as follows see each entry : maeu. The reader must distinguish among three similar root words for "come": peeyau or peyau meaning "come from some place", and pe, pee to be present and petite to come, go into an enclosed structurelike a wetu.

Sagamore was used by Europeans to refer to a village subchief less than village sachem From Winslow , perhaps one of the first written recordings of the Wampanoag language of Massasoits people. See Ind. Gram Dictionary Appendix , Moondancer, exist, dwell, in, at, of, there, maybe, perhaps.

Also used as a preposition e. Wampam is a general term for beautiful, handmade, artwork from coastal seashells and strung onto belts of sinew. Wampum was used for trade, treaties, status, occurrence of important events, jewelry, ceremonies, rituals, and many other reasons. Europeans converted its Indian uses into European concepts of money, capital and the like. A word prefixed before a verb preverb to mean an accusation, demand, judgment; e. The word wtu most nearly means a wooden home our family moves about our land. Some cultures call these buildings moon lodges.

Very, much; e. What follows is a partial reprint of the last portion of his book--a list of the words and phrases he picked up from the Native Americans living in north-shore Massachusetts. This nomenclator as he called it is a vocabulary listing of words from the dialect on the north shore of Boston Naumkeag region , and represents perhaps the first extensive vocabulary listing of regional Algonquian words and phrases. The impression one gets of Woods work is a remarkable similarity to Natick, Narragansett.

Look for words close to those in Understanding Algonquian Indian Words. Aberginian - an Indian Abamocho - the Devil Aunum - a dog Ausupp - a raccoon Au so hau nouc hoc - lobster Assawog - will you play A saw upp - tomorrow Ascoscoi - green Ausomma petuc quanocke - give me some bread Appepes naw aug - when I see it I will tell you my mind Anno ke nugge - a sieve An nu ocke - a bed Autchu wompocke - today Appause - the morn Ascom quom pauputchim - thanks be given to God.

Et chossucke - a knife Eat chumnis - Indian corn Eans causuacke - four fathoms Easu tommoc quocke - half a skin of beaver Epimetsis - much good may your meat do you. Chesco kean - you lie Commouton kean - you steal Cram - to kill Chickachava - osculari podicem6 Cowimms - sleeps Cocam - the navel Cos - the nails Conomma - a spoon Cossaquot - bows and arrows Cone - the sun Cotattup - I drink7 to you Coetop - will you drink tobacco Connucke sommona - it is almost night Connu - good night to you Cowompanu sin - Good morrow Coepot - ice.

Gettoquaset - the great toe Genehuncke - the forefinger Gettoquacke - the knees Gettoquun - the knuckles Gettoquan - the thumb Gegnewaw og - let me see H. Haha - yes Hoc - the body Hamucke - almost Hub hub hub - come come come Haddo quo dunna moquonash - where did you buy that Haddogoe weage - who lives here I. Isattonaneise - the bread Icattop - faint with hunger Icattoquam - very sleepy K. Kean - I [you? Matchet - it is naught Mattamoi - to die Mitchin - meat Misquantum - very angry Mauncheake - be gone Matta - no Meseig - hair. Latin for "kiss my ass". In 17th c. Mamanock - the eyebrows Matchanne - the nose Mattone - the lips Mepeiteis - the teeth Mattickeis - the shoulders Mettosowset - the little toe Metosaunige - the little finger Misquish - the veins Mohoc - the waist Menisowhock - the genitals Mocossa - the black of the nail Matchanni - very sick Monacus - bows and arrows Manehops - sits down Monakinne - a coat Mawcus sinnus - a pair of shoes Matchemauquot - it stinketh Muskanai - a bone Menota - a basket Meatchis - be merry Mawpaw - it snows Mawnaucoi - very strong Mutcheou - a very poor man Monosketenog - what's this Mouskett - the breech Matchet wequon - very blunt Matta ka tau caushana - will you not trade Mowhacheis - Indian gold.

Noei pauketan - by and by kill Nenetah ha - I'll fight with you Noei comquocke - a codfish Nepaupe - stand by No ottut - a great journey Necautauh hau - no such matter Noewamma - he laugheth Noeshow - a father Nitka - a mother Netchaw - a brother Notonquous - a kinsman Nenomous - a kinswoman Nau mau nais - my son Taunais - my daughter No einshom - give me corn Nemnis - take it Nenimma nequitta ta auchu - give me a span of anything Nees nis ca su acke - two fathom 8 Notchumoi - a little strong Negacawgh hi - lend me Nebuks quam - adieu Noe winyah - come in Naut seam - much weary Noe wammaw ause - I love you Net noe whaw missu - a man of a middle stature.

Ottucke - a deer Occone - a deerskin Oquan - the heel Ottump - a bow Ottommaocke - tobacco Ottannapeake - the chin Occotucke - the throat Unquagh saw au - you are cunning Ontoquos - a wolf. Nancompees - a boy Nickesquaw - a maid Nean - you [I, me? Pow-wow - a conjurer or wizard Petta sinna - give me a pipe of tobacco Pooke - colt's foot9 Pappouse - a child 8. One fathom is 6 ft.

Petucquanocke - bread Picke - a pipe Ponesanto - make a fire Papowne - winter Pequas - a fox Pausochu - a little journey Peamissin - a little Peacumshis - work hard Pokitta - smoke Petogge - a bag Paucasn - a quarter Pausawniscosu - half a fathom Peunctaumocke - much pray Pesissu - a little man Pausepissoi - the sun is rising Pouckshaa - it is broken Poebugketaas - you burn Poussu - a big-bellied woman Q.

Quequas nummos - what cheer Quequas nim - it is almost day Quog quosh - make haste Quenobpuuncke - a stool Quenops - be quiet S. Sagamore - a king Sachem - idem Sannup - a man Squaw - a woman Squitta - a fire spark Suggig - a bass Seasicke - a rattlesnake Shannucke - a squirrel Skesicos - the eyes Supskinge - the wrist bones Socottocanus - the breastbone Squehincke - blood Siccaw quant - the hams Suppiske - ankle bones Seat - the foot Seaseap - a duck Suckis suacke - a clam Sequan - the summer Soekepup - he will bite Sis - come out Squi - red Swanscaw suacko - three fathoms Sawawampeage - very weak.

Taubut ne an hee - thanks heartily Tantacum - beat him Tap in - go in Titta - I cannot tell Tahanyah - what news Tonagus - the ears Tannicke - a cranny Thaw - the calf of the leg Tahaseat - the sole of the foot Tasseche quonuck - the instep Tonokete naum - whither go you Tannissin may - which is the way Tunketappin - where live you Tonocco wam - where have you been Tasis - a pair of stockings Tockucke - a hatchet Towwow - a sister Tom maushew - a husband Tookesin - enough sleep Titto kean I catoquam - do you nod and sleep Tau kequam - very heavy Tauh coi - it is very cold W.

Wampompeage - Indian money Winnet - very good Web - a wife Wigwam - a house Wawmott - enough Whenan - the tongue Whauksis - a fox Wawpatucke - a goose Wawpiske - the belly Whoe nuncke - a ditch Wappinne - the wind Wawtom - understand you Wompey - white Wa aoy - the sun is down Waacoh - the day breaks Wekemawquot - it smells sweet Weneikinne - it is very handsome Whissu hochuck - the kettle boileth Waawnew - you have lost your way Woenaunta - it is a warm summer Wompoca - tomorrow Wawmauseu - an honest man.

Yeips - sit down Yaus - the sides Yaugh - there Yough yough - now Yoakes - lice. Selected New England Place Names The place name selections given below are based on proximity of the name with the original term. This simplifies the etymological derivation for the beginning student. Be aware that most present-day place names derived from Algonquian languages are very hard to reconstruct; e. You need to consult a reference such as Huden for the meanings. The meanings are obtained by hard detective work. Some of the original names of places where Indians lived for 10, years are lost forever.

In the left hand column of the table below we give the present name of a town, city, etc. On the right side is the translation. For example, the place now called Nepaug, which means the place of fresh water, comes from Algonquian nipaug. The meanings we assign are based purely on a literal meaning of the Algonquian roots, and are not the most elegant or full-bodied translations one finds, for instance, in the book by Trumbull , The hyphens used in the Algonquian terms show the basic root-elements of the place names. Now we will test your knowledge. Try to decipher the following words.

Answer given in footnote. Reconstructing the ancient names of places where Indians dwelled for over 10, years and still do! For the roots of the words, you must go to Part I of the book. You have to try pronouncing the words just as they are written. The words are written phonetically--what you see is what you say. The stress is indicated by and oo is pronounced like moody.

Note that two same-letter consonants blend into one sound; for example nuk-kon. In English we do the same thing in words like supper, butter, middle, winner, etc. Lastly the letters om an represent nasal sounds as in pomp or French blanc. In our seminars held with Indian Councils throughout the area, many more lessons were provided. Mot-tomp-an wu-nee Good morning Toh kut-in-uk-keet-te-am? How are you? Wun-nik-keet-e-am tau-bot-nee Fine, thank you Kah keen? And You? Mut-t-e wun-nee Very Good Ke-sukw wun-eeg-in It is a beautiful day Nux wun-nee-noo--onk Yes, I agree good talk Poh-she-qu -e-u ah-quom-pee Its noon time Ah-quom-pee ne-wut-chee meet-suonk It is time to eat Qut-tuk-quaw-quaw wun-nee Good Afternoon Mat kun-nun-o-us ne-wut-chee pas-uk no-ad-tuk I havent seen you for a long time Toh wut-teeg-in?

Where keep you? Nut-tay-ee ut on-kat-og o-tan-neem-es I dwell in another village Wun-non-quay-ee wun-nee Good evening Nuk-kon wun-neeg-in It is a beautiful night. An-nock-suck mon-at-tash There are many stars Kah nux poh-kok And yes, clear skies Mat pas-suck mat-toks Not one cloud Kah pas-suck o-koo-muss ne-poz-shad wun-neeg-in And a beautiful Grand Mother moon A-queen-ee kah nah-hon-nush-shagk Peace and farewell. The next page contains the poem in the original English and our Natick-Massachusett translation.

Analysis of the lines will give the reader some more practice in word-analysis. Nuppeantam Keihtanit, nummag ne wuttamauog Ohke, nummag ne wuttamauog Okummus nepauzshad, nummag ne wuttamauog Wutttch i kk i nneasin nippawus, nummag ne wuttamauog Taubot neanawayean Nummag ne wuttamauog adt yau ut nashik ohke: wompanniyeu sowanniyeu pahtatunniyeu nannummiyeu Taubot neanawayean newutche wame netomppauog: neg pamunenutcheg neg pamompakecheg puppinashimwog mehtugquash kah moskehtuash namohsog Quttianumoonk weechinnineummoncheg ahtuk mosq mukquoshim tunnuppasog sasaso Keihtanit, nummag ne wuttamauog.

I pray Great Spirit, I offer this tobacco Mother Earth, I offer this tobacco Grandmother Moon, I offer this tobacco Grandfather Sun, I offer this tobacco I thank you I offer this tobacco to the four directions to the east to the south to the west to the north I thank you for all my relations: the winged nation creeping and crawling nation the four-legged nation the green and growing nation and all things living in the water Honoring the clans: the deer the bear the wolf the turtle the snipe Great Spirit, I offer this tobacco.

The following letter word is from Natick-Massachusett. Standard pronunciation guides are included. Source: Goddard, Ives and Kathleen J. American Philosophical Society Memoir Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, [pages ]. Aprin 17 tayus qut kottumoo yu makohteae wussukquohhonk nen aspohteamuk ye nummakun nittokeim ohtag ontsonttuit nogkomae nanogquttinneiyu asuh maquomwittinneiur -- [.

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April 17, and the year This is a land-sale writing. I Aspohteamuk sell this land of mine that lies at Ontsonttuit in the un nogkom-direction southwestward or westward -- then at Ontsontuit where it sonkkuttashonk a little northwestward, the boundary goes from there along the shore of the river.

There stands a young cedar tree? Then the boundary proceeds from there towards the southwest over to Wompsukkookquoppet along the shore of the pond? There stands a pine tree. I Aspohteamuk have marked? Then the boundary turns toward the northwest where the shore of the pond runs? It follows along that onttauont until it goes into the water where lies the pond? For a little ways it runs along the water towards wutchepeapamae. Then the boundary goes towards quaquttaunuat where it sonkkuttashonk. There stands a big white oak along the shore of the pond.

Then the boundary turns towards the east, and it only follows along this river towards the southwest river over to Ontsontuit where? And I Aspohteamuk convey this land of mine to Naattomppam, or Peter Kappassuammog, because he makes satisfaction to me for it.

I convey to him every thing--land, and trees, and grass, and everything that grows there and some of the waters. This land which I Aspohteamuk sold, my children or my posterity of any kind shall not meddle with it as long as the earth exists. By this hand of mine X. Also I, Jacob Hedge, na this is my hand X. I Ropen Wapunnit, this is my hand X. I Monnoshkoog na this is my hand X. It is written in English. Translate this poem into Natick-Massachusett. There is no correct answer, only a Spiritual interpretation you give. The Elders pray for the rising of the sun The Elders pray for the setting of the sun We pray for the Elders Elders, please pray for the rising of the sun Elders, please pray for the setting of the sun The sun rises The sun sets The Elders pray.

Cambridge, MA: Marmaduke Johnson. The photocopy was illegible in a number of places. It was decided that the abridged text should be retyped since it is so important for readers to understand the bare elements of Natick grammar provided by Eliot. Adherence to the original text was maintained as much as possible.

Uninformative Latin phrases and the like were omitted and replaced by the ellipsis. A few printers errors were corrected in the reproduced text. The special digraph oo is replaced by the infinity sign,. Figure 5. There be two parts of Grammar: 1. The Art of making words. The Art of ordering words for speech.

By various articulate sounds. The art of making words, is 2. By regular composing of them. These Names and Characters do make the Alpha-bet. Because the English Language is the first, and most attainable Language which the Indians learn, he is a learned man among them, who can Speak, Reade, and Write the English Tongue. I therefore use the same Characters which are of most common use in our English Books; viz. Also our Alpha-bet. The difficulty of the Rule about the Letter [c], by reason of the change of its sound in the five sounds, ca ce ci co cu ; being sufficiently helped by the Letters [k and s.

Yet I do not put it out of the Alpha-bet, for the use of it in other Languages, but the Character [ch] next to it, and call it [chee]. I put [i] Consonant into our Alpha-bet, and give it the Character [j], and call it ji or [gi], as this Syllable soundeth in the English word [giant]; and I place it next after [i vocal]. And I have done thus, because it is a regular sound in the third person singular in the Imperative Mode of Verbs, which cannot well be distinguished without it: though I have sometimes used [gh] instead of it, but it is harder and more inconvenient. The proper sound of it is, as the English word [age] soundeth.

See it used Genes. We give v Consonant a distinct name, by putting together f or uph , and we never use it, save when it soundeth as it doth in the word save, have , and place it next after u vocal. Both these Letters u Vocal, and v Consonant are together in their proper sounds in the Latine word uva a Vine. We call w wee because our name giveth no hint of the power of its sound. The consonants l. We Massachusetts pronounce the n. The Nipmuk Indiands pronounce l. And the Northern Indians pronounce r. As instance:. Especially we have more frequent use of [o and ] than other Languages have: and our [] doth always sound as it doth in these English words moody, book.

We use onely two Accents, and but sometime. The Acute to shew which Syllable is first produced in pronouncing of the word; which if not attended, no Nation can understand their own Language This is a general rule, When two o o come together, ordinarily the first is produced; and so when two are together. All the Articulate sounds and Syllables that ever I heard with observation in their Language, are sufficiently comprehended and ordered by our Alpha-bet, and the Rules here set down.

Here be 27 Characters: The reason of increasing the number is above. And I have been thus far bold with the Alpha-bet, because it is the first time of writing this Language; and it is better to settle our Foundation right at first, than to have to mend afterwards. Musical sounds they also have, and perfect Harmony, but they differ from us in sound. There be four several sorts of sounds or Tones uttered by Mankinde 1.

Articulation in Speech. Ltation and Joy: of which kinde of sounds our Musick and Song is made. In which kinde of sound they also hallow and call, when they are most vociferous. And that it is thus, it may be perceived by this, that their Language is so full of and Nasal. They have Harmony and Tunes which they sing, but the matter is not in Meeter. They are much pleased to have their Language and Words in Meeter and Rithme, as it now is in The Singing Psalms in some poor measure, enough to begin and break the ice withall: These they sing in our Musicall Tone. So much for the Sounds and Characters.

Now follows the Consideration of Syllables, and the Art of Spelling. The formation of Syllables in their Language, doth in nothing differ from the formation of Syllables in the English, and other Languages. When I taught our Indians first to lay out a Word into Syllables, and then according to the sound of every Syllable to make it up with the right Letters, viz. They quickly apprehend and understand this Epitomie of the Art of Spelling, and could soon learn to Reade.

The Men, Women, and up-grown Youth do thus rationally learn to Reade: but the Children learn by rote and custome, as other Children do. Such as desire to learn this Language, must be attentive to pronounce right, especially to produce that syllable that is first to be produced; then they must Spell by Art, and accustome their tongues to pronounce their Syllables and Words; then learn to reade such Books as are Printed in their Language.

Legendo, Scribendo, Locquendo, are the three means to learn a Language. So Much for the Rule of Making Words. Now follows the Ordering of them for Speech. The several sorts of words are called Parts of Speech, which are in number Seven. The Pronoun. The Noun. The Adnoun, or Adjective. The Verb. The Adverb. The Conjunction. The Interjection. Touching these several kindes of Words, we are to consider, 1. The formation of them asunder by themselves. The construction of them, or the laying them together, to make Sense, or a Sentence.

And thus far Grammar goeth in concatenation with Logick: for there is a Reason of Grammar. The laying of Sentences together to make up a Speech, is performed by Logick: The adorning of that Speech with Eloquence is performed by Rhetorick. Such a use and accord there is in these general Arts. In the formation of words asunder by themselves,. The general Qualifications, or Affections of words. Consider 2. The Kindes of Words. In resepct of their Rise whence they spring.

The Qualifications are 2. In resepct of their Consorts, how they are yoked. In resepct of their Rise some are Nominals : or Verbs made out of Nouns. ChieflyVerbals : or Nouns made out of Verbs. Simple words : one alone. In respect of Consorts, some areCompounded words : when two or more are made into one. This Language doth greatly delight in Compounding of words, for Abbreviation, to speak much in few words, though they sometimes be long; which is chiefly caused by the many Syllables which the Grammar Rule requires and suppletive Syllables which are of no signification, and curious care of Euphonie.

So much for the common Affection of words. There be two kindes : 2. Such as attend upon, and belong unto the chief leading words. Independent Passions or Interjections come under no Series or order, but are of use in Speech, to express the passionate minde of man.