National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Indian J Anaesth v. Indian J Anaesth. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Prof. E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Literature search is a key step in performing good authentic research. Key words: Literature, methods, research planning. In this case scenario: Patients P — What is the important group of patients?
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Primary literature Primary sources are the authentic publication of an expert's new evidence, conclusions and proposals case reports, clinical trials, etc and are usually published in a peer-reviewed journal. Secondary literature Secondary sources are systematic review articles or meta-analyses where material derived from primary source literature are infererred and evaluated.
Tertiary literature Tertiary literature consists of collections that compile information from primary or secondary literature eg. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Web based methods of literature search.
What is a database?
Table 3 Electronic source of Evidence-Based Database. Translating research question to keywords This will provide results based on any of the words specified; hence, they are the cornerstone of an effective search. Phrase search This will provide pages with only the words typed in the phrase, in that exact order and with no words in between them.
Filters Filters can also be used to refine the search, for example, article types, text availability, language, age, sex and journal categories. Overall, the recommendations for methodology of literature search can be as below Creswell [ 19 ] Identify keywords and use them to search articles from library and internet resources as described above Search several databases to search articles related to your topic Use thesaurus to identify terms to locate your articles Find an article that is similar to your topic; then look at the terms used to describe it, and use them for your search Use databases that provide full-text articles free through academic libraries, Internet or for a fee as much as possible so that you can save time searching for your articles If you are examining a topic for the first time and unaware of the research on it, start with broad syntheses of the literature, such as overviews, summaries of the literature on your topic or review articles Start with the most recent issues of the journals, and look for studies about your topic and then work backward in time.
Follow-up on references at the end of the articles for more sources to examine Refer books on a single topic by a single author or group of authors or books that contain chapters written by different authors Next look for recent conference papers. Write or phone them, asking if they know of studies related to your area of interest The easy access and ability to capture entire articles from the web make it attractive. Figure 1. SUMMARY Literature search provides not only an opportunity to learn more about a given topic but provides insight on how the topic was studied by previous analysts.
Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Rau JL. Searching the literature and selecting the right references. Respir Care.
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Undertaking a literature review: A step-by-step approach. Br J Nurs. Indrayan A.
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Elements of medical research. Indian J Med Res. Searching the medical literature using PubMed: A tutorial. Mayo Clin Proc. Aslam S, Emmanuel P. Formulating a researchable question: A critical step for facilitating good clinical research. Indian J Sex Transm Dis.
Edinburgh: Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone; Users' guides to the medical literature. How to get started. Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials. Outcomes research resources in India: Current status, need and way forward. Greenhalgh T, Peacock R. Effectiveness and efficiency of search methods in systematic reviews of complex evidence: Audit of primary sources.
Semi-automating the manual literature search for systematic reviews increases efficiency. Health Info Libr J. Jain V, Raut DK. What We Study NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. View our page to search various areas of interest and methodology.
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Newsletters Explore Newsletters. Explore Podcasts. Video Explore Video. Description Table of Contents Reviews. Summary This book's purpose is to enable educational researchers to make better use of the huge longitudinal and cross-sectional data files that are now readily available.
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Of value to experienced researchers and undergraduates alike, the book focuses primarily on the planning and design of research rather than implementation of data base information. This text clearly demonstrates what can be done with large national data bases and, perhaps equally important, what cannot be done -- or done only if certain precautions are taken. Table of Contents Contents: Preface. Hilton, Introduction. Schrader, T. Beaton, T. Hilton, W. Schrader, A.
Hilton, J. Hilton, Summary and Conclusions. Reviews "