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PCB Visualizer checks your data before order - no risk that data issues will delay delivery. Price Calculator Your Account. Tools to bring your project to market on time and on budget New value-adding visualization tools get your designs into production faster. In professional life, Badger set very high standards for himself and inspired others to meet them, too. They did, because his judgment was respected and his creativity admired. This memoir was originally published in Historical Records of Australian Science , vol. It was written by Ian D. Email: iandrae bigpond.
About this memoir
The Australian Academy of Science holds a video interview conducted with Badger, plus a transcript and two curricula vitae. I was pleased to have access to these documents and be able to draw on them in writing this Memoir. An extensive autobiographical manuscript is held by family members. I acknowledge the considerable assistance in compiling this memoir that I have received from librarians and archivists at schools and universities, especially Ms Rosanne Walker of the Australian Academy of Science.
Donate Contact us Login Register. Search website. School Education Soon after reaching the age of four, Geoffrey went off to school at North Geelong Primary School, walking each way about a kilometre through the business district. Return to Australia Towards the end of his three years in Glasgow, Badger began to explore opportunities in Australia. The only response came from Professor A. Back to Adelaide Badger accepted an invitation to become Deputy Vice-Chancellor at the University of Adelaide at a time when universities around Australia were strengthening their senior executive ranks by appointing deputy and pro-vice chancellors to share in the academic leadership of the institution and leave the vice-chancellor free to play a broader role.
Australian Science and Technology Council ASTEC The formation of a body that would be charged with providing advice to government on science and later technology was not supported by all sectors of the scientific community. Search 10, — Adelaidean 11, Daily Telegraph , London, 31 October , p. The last of these appeared in three volumes 1A, 1B and 2, occupying over pages altogether plus a page separate publication of the recommendations. Badger, D. This memoir includes an extensive Badger family genealogy.
Bayliss, N. Beckwith, A. Australian Academy of Science Annual Report — , pp. Bell, P. Best, R. Brice, C. Adelaide Advertiser, 12 October, p. Bylebyl, J. Campbell, P. Cockburn, S. Adelaide Advertiser , Saturday 5 March, p. Collis, B. Denham, D. Duncan, W. Edgeloe, V. Fenner, F. Frater, R. Gascoigne, S. Home, ed. Geelong Business The mills had been established in In , the business was sold to a group of Geelong businessmen who changed the name to Federal Woollen Mills.
Gilbert, J. Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences 67, — Johnston, R. Jones, E. Kennaway, E. Kennaway wrote this retrospective to clear up uncertainties about the process of deduction he used in reaching his conclusion in the s. Kolm, J. Luke, M. The University of Adelaide. Graduate Issue , 13 December , pp. Marginson, S. Mason, J. Matheson, L. Parbo, Sir Arvi private communication, November Rae, I. Reader, J. New Scientist No. Royal Commission on Australian Government Administration, Stott Despoja, N. Strahan, R. Search 10, Swan, J. Search 20, Varcoe, G.
Walby, B. Nature , — Watson, M. Weickhardt, L. Wilkinson, R. Williams, B. Bibliography Scientific Papers and Books G. Badger and J. Cook Synthesis of growth-inhibitory polycyclic compounds. Badger, J. Cook and F. Goulden Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cook, C. Hewett, E. Kennaway, N. Kennaway, R. Martin and A. Robinson Production of cancer by pure hydrocarbons. London B, — Badger, F. Goulden and F. Warren Badger Badger, L. Elson, A. Haddow, C. Hewett and A. Inhibition of growth by chemical compounds.
Kennaway and R. Martin Biological activity of compounds in homologous series. Nature , Molecular asymmetry and biological activity. Cook and W. Vidal Activating influence of para groups on the lability of chlorine in chlorobenzenes. Oxidations and dehydrogenations with selenium dioxide. Cook and G. Crosbie Chloromethylation of naphthalene and of tetralin. Badger and R. Reed Relative reactivities of aromatic double bonds. Cook, G. Donald, J. Graham and T. Walker Synthetic analgesics.
Modified synthesis of chrysene. Polycyclic aromatic amines. Cook and T. Synthesis of piperidine derivatives. The carcinogenic hydrocarbons: chemical constitution and carcinogenic activity. Cancer 2, — Badger, W. Carruthers, J. Cook and R. Schoental Isomerization reactions. Relative reactivity of aromatic double bonds. Badger and A. Gibb Campbell and J. The synthesis of piperidine derivatives. Carruthers and J. Isomerization in the perinaphthene series. Interpretation of some elimination reactions in disubstituted dihydro-derivatives of aromatic compounds.
Donald Aitken, G. Addition of osmium tetroxide to dinaphthylethylenes. Cook, P. Ongley and R. Chemistry of the Mitragyna genus. Badger, M. Jones and R. Pearce Substituted anthracene derivatives. Badger and K. Lynn Addition of osmium tetroxide to substituted 1,2-benzanthracenes. The relative reactivity of aromatic double bonds. The relation between double-bond character and the velocity of addition of osmium tetroxide. An example of 1,5-anionotropic rearrangement.
Further examples of 1,5-anionotropic rearrangements. Campbell, J. Cook, R. Raphael and A.
Scott Synthesis of 4,5-dimethylphenanthrene. Howard Schmidt reaction with unsymmetrical ketones. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of meso substituted 1,2-benzanthracenes. Chemical constitution and biological action. Badger and G. Lewis Rates of oxidation of azonaphthalenes. Absorption spectrum of rubrene in different solvents. Acta 4, — The aromatic bond. London 5, — Badger andA. Beecham Isolation of tetrahydroharman from Petalostyles labicheoides.
Badger, R. Pearce and R. Pettit Polynuclear heterocyclic systems. Hydroxy derivatives. Seidler and B. Thomson The 3,4-benzacridine-5,dihydro-3,4-benzacridine complex. The linear pentacyclic compounds. Cook and A. Reaction of ethyl diazoacetate with anthracene, 1,2-benzanthracene, and pyrene. Schwarz Fluorene derivatives related to amidone.
The conjugating powers of the substitution positions in 1,2-benzanthracene. Polynuclear heterocyclic system. Tetraazabenzopentaphene and related compounds. Howard and A. Simons The carcinogenic azo compounds: Chemical constitution and carcinogenic activity. Cancer 6, — Addition of ozone to aromatic bonds. Pays-Bas Belg. Derivatives of 1,2-cyclopentenophenanthrene.
Molecular asymmetry and biological action. Badger and H. McKenzie Bond orders in aromatic compounds. Buttery and G.
- Color ontology and color science life and mind philosophical issues in biology and psychology.
- Wayfaring Traveler: Call to Adventure!
- Anything But Sweet (Sweet, Texas).
Aromatic azo compounds I. Oxidation of cis- and trans-azobenzene. Aromatic azo compounds. Oxidation of substituted azobenzenes. M Badger and G. Oxidation of azonaphthalenes and phenylazonaphthalenes. Buttery Absorption spectra of azo and azoxy compounds. Syntheses using the Elbs reaction. Badger, G. Lewis and R. While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also became involved in the Linguistics wars. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman , Chomsky later articulated the propaganda model of media criticism in Manufacturing Consent and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
His defense of freedom of speech , including Holocaust denial , generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the s. Since retiring from MIT, he has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy movement. Chomsky began teaching at the University of Arizona in One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences , contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind.
In addition to continuing his scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U. His ideas have been highly influential in the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements, but have also drawn criticism, with some accusing Chomsky of " anti-Americanism ". William spoke no English upon arriving in the country and was reduced to working in a sweatshop in Baltimore.
His wife was the Belarusian -born Elsie Simonofsky — , a teacher and activist William had met while working at Mikveh Israel. Biographer Robert F. Barsky , .
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Noam was the Chomskys' first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years later, in Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats " who had a center-left position on the political spectrum; he was exposed to far-left politics through other members of the family, a number of whom were socialists involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.
Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School , an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere. From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics. In , aged 16, Chomsky began a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania , where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject. From to Chomsky was a member the Society of Fellows at Harvard University , where he undertook research on what became his doctoral dissertation.
Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. Austin of the University of Oxford , strongly influenced Chomsky. In Chomsky began a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz , whom he had known since they were toddlers, and they married in Although enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism he encountered in Israel, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend he found pervading the kibbutz's leftist community.
On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of the Yiddish anarchist journal Fraye Arbeter Shtime "The Free Voice of Labor" , becoming enamored with the ideas of contributor Rudolf Rocker , whose work introduced him to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism. Although rejecting its Marxist basis, Chomsky was heavily influenced by council communism, voraciously reading articles in Living Marxism by Antonie Pannekoek.
Chomsky befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson , the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position there in At MIT Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project and half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work. In Chomsky published a review of B.
Skinner 's book Verbal Behavior in the academic journal Language , in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior. In he was awarded tenure and became a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. Chomsky continued to receive academic recognition and honors for his work, in visiting a variety of Californian institutions, first as the Linguistics Society of America Professor at the University of California , and then as the Beckman Professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Anthony Debons, a colonel in the United States Air Force , said, "much of the research conducted at MIT by Chomsky and his colleagues [has] direct application to the efforts undertaken by military scientists to develop McCawley , triggered a series of academic debates that came to be known as the " Linguistics Wars ", although they revolved largely around philosophical issues rather than linguistics proper.
Chomsky on the Vietnam War . Chomsky first became involved in active protest against U. In addition to his writings, Chomsky also became involved in left-wing activism. Refusing to pay half his taxes, he publicly supported students who refused the draft and was arrested for being part of an antiwar teach-in outside the Pentagon. By student activists were actively campaigning to stop war research at MIT;  Chomsky was sympathetic to them but also thought it best to keep such research under MIT's oversight and proposed that it be restricted to what he called "systems of a purely defensive and deterrent character".
Chomsky remarked that MIT students suffered things that "should not have happened" but also that MIT has "quite a good record on civil liberties". Because of his antiwar activism, Chomsky was arrested on multiple occasions and included on President Richard Nixon 's political opponent master list. In the late s and s, Chomsky's linguistic publications expanded and clarified his earlier work, addressing his critics and updating his grammatical theory.
Herman , who had also published critiques of the U. Warner Modular published it in , but its parent company, Warner Communications , disapproved of the book's contents and ordered all copies destroyed. While mainstream publishing options proved elusive, Chomsky found support from Michael Albert 's South End Press , an activist-oriented publishing company. It argues that because Indonesia was a U. Summers and Robin Woodsworth Carlsen replied to the article, arguing that Lukes completely misunderstood Chomsky and Herman's work. The controversy damaged Chomsky's reputation,  and he maintains that his critics deliberately printed lies about him to defame him.
Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism and totalitarianism more generally, but his commitment to freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Faurisson to advocate a position widely characterized as Holocaust denial. The election of Republican Ronald Reagan to the U. In Chomsky and Herman published Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media , in which they outlined their propaganda model for understanding mainstream media.
They argued that even in countries without official censorship, the news is censored through four filters that have great impact on what stories are reported and how they are presented. In the s Chomsky embraced political activism to a greater degree than before. Chomsky retired from MIT in ,  although as an emeritus he continued to conduct research and seminars on campus.
Chomsky supported the Occupy movement , delivering talks at encampments and producing two works that chronicled its influence, first Occupy , a pamphlet, and then Occupy: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity His analysis included a critique that attributed Occupy's growth to a perceived abandonment of the interests of the white working class by the Democratic Party. In spring Chomsky taught a short-term politics course at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Edward Marcotte on the significance of Chomsky's linguistic theory . The basis of Chomsky's linguistic theory lies in biolinguistics , the linguistic school that holds that the principles underpinning the structure of language are biologically preset in the human mind and hence genetically inherited.
Skinner, who viewed behavior including talking and thinking as a completely learned product of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Accordingly Chomsky argues that language is a unique evolutionary development of the human species and distinguished from modes of communication used by any other animal species.
Since the s Chomsky has maintained that syntactic knowledge is at least partially inborn, implying that children need only learn certain parochial features of their native or L1 languages. He bases his argument on observations about human language acquisition , noting that there is an enormous gap between the linguistic stimuli to which children are exposed and the rich linguistic knowledge they attain the " poverty of the stimulus " argument. For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and finite subset of the allowable syntactic variants within their first language, they somehow acquire the highly organized and systematic ability to understand and produce an infinite number of sentences , including ones that have never before been uttered, in that language.
Furthermore, while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning , if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks the language acquisition device LAD , and suggested that one of linguists' tasks should be to determine what the LAD is and what constraints it imposes on the range of possible human languages.
The universal features that result from these constraints would constitute "universal grammar". Beginning with his Syntactic Structures , a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory , Chomsky challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar.
Chomsky's theory posits that language consists of both deep structures and surface structures. Surface structure "faces out" and is represented by spoken utterances, while deep structure "faces inward" and expresses the underlying relations between words and conceptual meaning. Transformational grammar is a generative grammar which dictates that the syntax , or word order, of surface structures adheres to certain principles and parameters that consists of a limited series of rules, expressed in mathematical notation, that transform deep structures into well-formed surface structures.
The transformational grammar thus relates meaning and sound. It imposes a logical structure across different language classes and provides a basis for understanding the relationship between grammars devices that determine the valid sentences within languages. In order of increasing expressive power it includes regular or Type-3 grammars , context-free or Type-2 grammars , context-sensitive or Type-1 grammars , and recursively enumerable or Type-0 grammars. Each class is a strict subset of the class above it — i.
The Chomsky hierarchy is relevant in theoretical computer science , especially programming language theory ,  compiler construction, and automata theory. Since the s Chomsky's research has focused on what he calls the Minimalist Program MP , in which he departs from much of his past research and instead attempts to simplify language into a system that relates meaning and sound using the minimum possible faculties, given certain external conditions independently imposed on us.
Chomsky dispenses with concepts such as "deep structure" and "surface structure" and instead places emphasis on the plasticity of the brain's neural circuits, with which come an infinite number of concepts, or " logical forms ". Thus, while much of Chomsky's prior research has focused on the rules of language, he now focuses on the mechanisms that the brain uses to generate these rules and regulate speech. James McGilvray , . Chomsky has built a "reputation as a political dissident ".
In Chomsky's view, the truth about political realities is systematically distorted or suppressed through elite corporate interests , who use corporate media, advertising, and think tanks to promote their own propaganda. His work seeks to reveal such manipulations and the truth they obscure. Although he has joined protest marches and organized activist groups, Chomsky's primary political outlets are education and publication. He offers a wide range of political writings  as well as free lessons and lectures to encourage wider political consciousness.
Chomsky has been a prominent critic of what he views as American imperialism ;  he believes that the basic principle of the foreign policy of the United States is the establishment of "open societies" that are economically and politically controlled by the United States and where U. Chomsky's political work has centered heavily on criticizing the actions of the United States. Chomsky has been critical of U. In his youth, Chomsky developed a dislike of capitalism and the pursuit of material wealth. Noam Chomsky . Chomsky highlights that, since the s, the U. Noting the entrenchment of such an economic system, Chomsky believes that change is possible through the organized cooperation of large numbers of people who understand the problem and know how they want to reorganize the economy more equitably.
Chomsky sees libertarian socialist and anarcho-syndicalist ideas as the descendants of the classical liberal ideas of the Age of Enlightenment ,  arguing that his ideological position revolves around "nourishing the libertarian and creative character of the human being". Chomsky criticizing Israel, . Chomsky has long endorsed the left binationalist program in Israel and Palestine, seeking to create a democratic state in the Levant that is home to both Jews and Arabs. Chomsky's political writings have largely focused on two areas: 1 ideology and power , and 2 the media and state policy.
Chomsky asserts that this version of censorship, by government-guided "free market" forces, is subtler and harder to undermine than was the equivalent propaganda system in the Soviet Union.
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Chomsky considers most conspiracy theories fruitless, distracting substitutes for thinking about policy formation in an institutional framework, where individual manipulation is secondary to broader social imperatives. In response to the labeling of his own ideas as conspiracy theory, Chomsky has said that it is very rational for the media to manipulate information in order to sell it, like any other business. He asks whether General Motors would be accused of conspiracy if it deliberately selected what it used or discarded to sell its product. Chomsky has also been active in a number of philosophical fields, including the philosophy of mind , the philosophy of language , and the philosophy of science.
Chomsky endeavors to keep his family life, linguistic scholarship, and political activism strictly separate from one another,  calling himself "scrupulous at keeping my politics out of the classroom". Chomsky is non-religious , although he has expressed approval of forms of religion such as liberation theology.
If somebody's got to be running the C. Chomsky was married to Carol Doris Chomsky Schatz from until her death in Sperlich, . Chomsky's legacy is as both a "leader in the field" of linguistics and "a figure of enlightenment and inspiration" for political dissenters. McGilvray observes that Chomsky inaugurated the " cognitive revolution " in linguistics,  and that he is largely responsible for establishing the field as a formal, natural science ,  moving it away from the procedural form of structural linguistics dominant during the midth century. Chomsky's work contributed substantially to the decline of behaviorist psychology ;  in addition, some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results.
An MIT press release found that Chomsky was cited within the Arts and Humanities Citation Index more often than any other living scholar from to Chomsky biographer Wolfgang B. Sperlich characterizes him as "one of the most notable contemporary champions of the people";  journalist John Pilger has described him as a "genuine people's hero; an inspiration for struggles all over the world for that basic decency known as freedom. To a lot of people in the margins—activists and movements—he's unfailingly supportive.
Fred Halliday , . Sperlich also notes that Chomsky has been vilified by corporate interests, particularly in the mainstream press. Chomsky's far-reaching criticisms of U. The CIA also destroyed its files on Chomsky at some point, possibly in violation of federal law. Chomsky's criticism of Israel has led to his being called a traitor to the Jewish people and an anti-Semite. In Chomsky was named one of the "makers of the twentieth century" by the London Times. In Chomsky received the Carl-von-Ossietzky Prize from the city of Oldenburg, Germany , to acknowledge his body of work as a political analyst and media critic.
Chomsky was voted the world's leading public intellectual in The Global Intellectuals Poll jointly conducted by American magazine Foreign Policy and British magazine Prospect. The concert, attended by Chomsky and dozens of his family and friends, featured music composed by Edward Manukyan and speeches by Chomsky's colleagues, including David Pesetsky of MIT and Gennaro Chierchia , head of the linguistics department at Harvard University.
Chomsky has received honorary degrees from many colleges and universities around the world, including from the following:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chomsky disambiguation. American linguist, philosopher and activist. Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , U. Carol Doris Schatz m. Valeria Wasserman m. What motivated his [political] interests?
A powerful curiosity, exposure to divergent opinions, and an unorthodox education have all been given as answers to this question. He was clearly struck by the obvious contradictions between his own readings and mainstream press reports. The measurement of the distance between the realities presented by these two sources, and the evaluation of why such a gap exists, remained a passion for Chomsky. The work of anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker left and democratic socialist George Orwell right significantly influenced the young Chomsky.
And, in fact, to take apart the system of illusions and deception which functions to prevent understanding of contemporary reality [is] not a task that requires extraordinary skill or understanding. It requires the kind of normal skepticism and willingness to apply one's analytical skills that almost all people have and that they can exercise.
What started as purely linguistic research The roots of this are manifest in the linguistic theory The discovery of cognitive structures common to the human race but only to humans species specific , leads quite easily to thinking of unalienable human attributes. Main article: Universal grammar. Main article: Transformational generative grammar. Main article: Chomsky hierarchy. Main article: Minimalist program. Main article: Political positions of Noam Chomsky. The second major area to which Chomsky has contributed—and surely the best known in terms of the number of people in his audience and the ease of understanding what he writes and says—is his work on sociopolitical analysis; political, social, and economic history; and critical assessment of current political circumstance.
In Chomsky's view, although those in power might—and do—try to obscure their intentions and to defend their actions in ways that make them acceptable to citizens, it is easy for anyone who is willing to be critical and consider the facts to discern what they are up to. Socialism will be achieved only insofar as all social institutions—in particular, the central industrial, commercial, and financial institutions of a modern society—are placed under democratic control in a federal industrial republic of the sort that Russell and others envisioned, with actively functioning workers' councils and other self-governing units in which each citizen, in Thomas Jefferson 's words, will be "a direct participator in the government of affairs.
Israel uses sophisticated attack jets and naval vessels to bomb densely-crowded refugee camps, schools, apartment blocks, mosques, and slums to attack a [Palestinian] population that has no air force, no air defense, no navy, no heavy weapons, no artillery units, no mechanized armor, no command in control, no army… and calls it a war.
It is not a war, it is murder. Main article: Propaganda model. Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May If we include Chomsky's political activism then the boundaries become quite blurred, and it comes as no surprise that Chomsky is increasingly seen as enemy number one by those who inhabit that wide sphere of reactionary discourse and action. They take his views very uncritically; it's part of the Seattle mood — whatever America does is wrong.
He confronts orthodoxy but he's becoming a big simplifier. What he cannot see is Third World and other regimes that are oppressive and not controlled by America. Honorary Degrees received by Noam Chomsky. Main article: Noam Chomsky bibliography and filmography. The lectures just mentioned and other writings take on highly significant and sometimes not properly appreciated, and often misunderstood, developments in the history of science.
He went to work at a sweatshop in Baltimore. My mother's background was similar My relatives here were mostly working class. Many had little formal education. The one who influenced me more than anyone in my life never got beyond fourth grade. They were first-generation immigrants — seamstresses, labourers, etc.
The writings of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Mikhail Bakunin and Rudolf Rocker established an intellectual pedigree, which Chomsky has explicitly acknowledged, of antipathy towards the state or any wielders of power , egalitarianism and inhibited prescriptive formulae of how society should be organized. It's had a tremendous influence on the work I've done. His writings resemble powerful weapons of empirical data. During odd moments, while crossing the Atlantic in an ocean liner and while camping in Europe, I read that book rather thoroughly and tried to answer some basic theoretical questions.
Here was a marvelous thing: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition! The mathematical, linguistic, and algorithmic parts of my life had previously been totally separate. During the ensuing years those three aspects became steadily more intertwined; and by the end of the s I found myself a Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, primarily because of work that I had done with respect to languages for computer programming. International Erich Fromm Society. January 16, Archived from the original on June 11, Retrieved May 10, Adams, Tim November 30, Retrieved May 8, Aeschimann, Eric May 31, Retrieved June 8, Albert, Michael Remembering Tomorrow: From the politics of opposition to what we are for.
Seven Stories Press. January 9, Archived from the original on May 11, University of Wisconsin—Madison. March 29, Baroni, M. Musical grammars and computer analysis. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki Editore.
Barsky, Robert F. Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent. MIT Press. Baughman, Judith S. December 16, American Decades. Detroit, MI: Gale.