Er wurde dabei von Catwoman vor einer Falle gerettet, die ihm gefolgt war und wusste, dass es Tim ist.
Irgendwie schafften es die beiden auch immer, vor Batman und Robin am Tatort zu sein. Als sich die beiden Duos doch begegneten, kam es zum Kampf, den Jason und Scarlet gewannen. Scarlet schaffte es danach zu entkommen und Jason wurde erneut in Gewahrsam genommen. Zusammen schafften sie es Scarlet zu befreien und Jason entkam zusammen mit ihr in einem Helikopter. Videospiele Filme TV Wikis. Wikis entdecken Community Deutschland Wiki erstellen. Anmelden Du hast noch kein Benutzerkonto? Wiki erstellen. Inhaltsverzeichnis [ Anzeigen ]. Kategorien :. Abbrechen Speichern. Red Hood.
Wahrer Name:. Wir meinen, dass alle, die jetzt diese Zeilen lesen, daran Anteil haben. Thomas Demand was born in in Munich. In he worked at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. If in reference to photography this relation is described as indexical, it has also come to be increasingly questioned in the age of digital manipulation of the picture.
Arrest of Carles Puigdemont closes another chapter in Catalonia's bid for independence
While perhaps inconspicuous, those places are not at all unknown, which attests to the very impact of their circulation. Demand concentrates on specific sites that acquired their connotations through special events. Demand thematized this with his first mm film. Instead, the history of his photographs reveals a much more fundamental focus on the referentiality and the impact of the picture, a focus that reaches far beyond the medium of photography: The photographs and films are actually based on materials and installations that reproduce the object of the photograph which only seems to have been taken on site.
Constructed with simple means, out of paper and cardboard, yet still decidedly artificial because of the subtle lighting, the photographed models of sites only simulate a presence at those other, spectacular sites. The model that is based on the pictures in the media then becomes the point of origin for a photograph that not only appears to have been taken at the real place, but that also repeats the earlier perspective. The fake is manifold: The place represented in the photograph, the temporal context recreated through the model, as well as the seeming presence of the photographer at the specific site during the specific time, are revealed as being simulated.
The artificial character of the new picture that emerges is an intended effect of the arrangement of the model as well as the photographed rendering. They basically owe their impact to those connotations of reality that are already implied in the suggestive effect of the press photos.
Demand who does not consider himself a photographer, takes those connotations as starting point and measure for his reconstructive as well as deconstructive photographs and films. In the more recent photographs, done as series or cycles, Demand goes beyond the above approaches. While still focusing on pictures in the media and press photos, the pictorial interest visibly shifts from the publicly mediated site to events: With Zyklus Klause I.
The case had been taken up by the press and Demand traces it in his photographically documented reenactments.
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In the sequence of the numbered pictures and beyond the reference to sites of his earlier work, Demand develops narrative coherence. From the sequence of photographs presumably taken at the site of the crime — interior and exterior shots or shots of single, apparently irrelevant objects — the impression is evoked that the event can be reconstructed.
Strategies well-tried in the medium of the feature film, e. Hitchcock-like shots, add to this. The building serves as the supposed place where documents on Iraqi nuclear armament were kept, documents that served to justify U. Yet with Demand the events retain the notion of something that happened presumably or allegedly. With the film loop based on the photo series Embassy , which seems to show shots taken by a monitoring camera, and with the dummy camera in the exhibition room Hamburger Kunsthalle, Galerie der Gegenwart, , Demand also includes the audience into the exhibition context.
The film again provides the impression of picture-based control and surveillance and creates a connection to the topic of the photo series. In they were presented at the Serpentine Gallery in London, and in the artist presented his Embassy series at the Galerie der Gegenwart of the Kunsthalle Hamburg. Thomas Demand lives and works in Berlin and London. Chaotische Energie ist ein Aktionsrelikt. Die Universalmaschine ist ein humorvolles Spiel, das — wie der Titel impliziert — jederzeit und in allen Lebenslagen verwendet werden kann.
Ein barockes Paar erhebt sich in den Spiegelsaal. Winter erstellt mit dem Zeichen eine Art Silhouettentanz vor wie kaltfarbig illuminiertem Gegenlicht. Seit Beginn des I. From the statistical discussion Oppel turns to the historical. It appears that almost precisely a hundred years after the founding of Germantown, Pa. Curiously enough, these first settiers came from the States and largely from Pennsylvania. Here a large number of that religious body known as Mennonites had settled.
While their religious tenets forbade them from participating in war or military enterprises of any kind, they were loyal subjects of the crown of England. When the peace of established the United States as a separate nation, many of them, true to their oath of loyalty, departed for Canada. A large number of German Mennonites subsequently went to Canada from Russia, to escape military duties which the Russian government was about to force upon them.
They sought chiefly the central and western parts of Canada. It will be interesting to note how large a per- centage of the German population this religious sect constitutes. They are scattered over a vast stretch of land. The Mennonites separate themselves from other people. The Germans live, for the most part, in the small towns and country districts. This is a book written in a feuiUetonistic style upon meager in- formation. Its title would be more appropriately "Bilder aus New York. Of this vast country, its millions of inhabitants and its multiplex phases of life and activities, he feels competent to write, with considerable conviction, after a brief visit to four of our cities.
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Wash- ington. Just what the purpose of the book should be is not an easy matter to divine, unless by means of caricature of our social condi- tions it should serve to deter his fellow cotmtrjmien from coming to America. It is full of misrepresentations, incongruities and gross statistical and historical errors. That a change of the environment of a people and the heterogeneity of our population are unconducive to spon- taneous development of the highest stage of culture, the author fails to observe. Every aspect of life he views through the partisan eye- glass of a self-satisfied European.
He is unable to observe in any- thing, whatsoever, the quickening heart throb of a new and unique culture. What his own nation and other European nations, by con- stant intermingling, by mutual borrowing and reworking have ac- complished in centuries of labor, he expects to find, in even a magnified degree, in this new country which has scarcely emerged from the keenest struggle with primitive conditions. He denies us every claim to scholarship, going so far even as deny- ing us the right of owning our beloved Mark Twain, assigning him a place among the English or Low Germans.
The average German American he views with particular abhorrence. Autumn Num- ber, , of Poet Lore. In this article Mrs. The author possesses admirable qualifications for this kind of work. For years she has closely followed the German literary activities on both sides of the Atlantic. In a magazine ar- ticle of only a few pages, however, it is manifestly impossible to enter, exhaustively, into a field so difficult and so many-sided. It goes without saying that the excessive brevity has permitted, so to speak, only a bird's-eye view of the entire field. That here and there apparent superficiality appears is therefore not surprising.
Many writers had, necessarily, to be passed with a mere mention. However, some are omitted, who, beyond any doubt, should have a place among German American literary men. Just to mention one: Rattermann, who for yfears has been a tireless writer and who just now is publishing a monumental edition of his own works.
Some of his poems are of such exquisite beauty that they will vie succeissfully with many European literary works of art. He cer- tainly has won for himself a place among German American men of letters. However, every thoughtful reader must welcome every serious attempt to interest our countrymen in the gifts which the various elements of our cosmopolitan population have contributed towards rounding out the inner life of our nation. Number 5 of the new monthly Die Glocke, published at Qii- cago, is devoted almost exclusively to the memory of the late Carl Schurz.
It is a beautiful and fitting tribute to the great German American. It touches upon every phase of his eventful life and his manifold activities. The contributors to this memorial number were marshalled from the most active workers — German and Anglo- Americans — in the study of the Germans in America.
The Glocke has thus shown itself an important organ of communication between the Germans of America and their kinsmen in the old Fatherland. Spring Number of Poet Lore, igo6. He has contributed an important piece of work towards the serious, modem method of studying Longfellow and the literary forces influ- encing his thought.
Pattee proceeds cautiously and clinches his statements well. The parallel situations which he cites in the life of Longfellow and that of the founder of the German Romantic School of Literature, Novalis, are striking. He shows how the American poet's own temperament, his Puritanic tendencies, the overwrought condition of his mind after the death of his wife and of his friend, his European surroundings and the literature which he read, slowly but surely turned him to Romanticism and made such poems as Hyperion and the collection Voices of the Night pos- sible.
The Psalm of Life was an attempt to break away from the moodiness and aimlessness into which Romanticism had led him. It was stimulated by Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, Professor Pattee says that in this poem the spirit of Goethe's great novel made itself felt for the first time in America. Some of the marks of the Romantic poets are their revelries in things' pertaining to the Middle Ages, their adoration for the Cath- olic Church, their worship of Dante.
All these Longfellow shared, with the Romanticists. And he does it to such an extent that the great mass of his poetry is really American only in theme, a statement which might be strongly contested. The article is well written. It contains no far-fetched or forced comparisons and its logic and straightforwardness appeal to the students as something of real worth in the modem comparative Americana.
Vt n Karl Lamprecht. Hermann Heyfelder, Freiburg im Breisgau. A small book written with intended fairness by an eminent German scholar. It is much too small to contain the mass of mate- rial which the author has acquired during his American travels.
He expressly disclaims all attempts at completeness and simply pves Digitized by Google 6o Reviews to his readers some few of his many observations. That he was demonstrably impelled by a desire to inquire scientifically into Amer- ican institutions and conditions no one will doubt. The first 56 pages of the book are devoted to an interesting diary which contains, so to speak, the snapshot impressions of a very extended tour through this country. Part two contains more deliberate reflections based on actual observations, namely, concern- ing American piety, the influence of physical conditions on the people, the quantitative judgment of the Americans, an interview with Carl Schurz, the martial spirit of the Americans, American liberty, politics and Teutonism, and finally the American univer- sities.
The author is convinced that, despite the great variety of dem- onstrations, the Teutonic element of the United States is, after all, deeply religious. He believes that in the farm lies the hope and strength of our nation. He criticises, and doubtless justly, our quantitative judgment. He attributes this trait to the newness of the country and finds parallels for it in every colonial civilization. He finds the American people to be of martial inclination. This martial sense he attri- butes not so much to an overwrought national pride as to the con- sciousness of physical ability, a feeling acquired in the daily con- quest of primitive conditions.
Q nceming our much-boasted liberty he concludes that it is largely "the liberty of the captains of in- dustry. Although the author has seen a great many American universities, he. He has seen many interesting things, some of which he even recommends to European universities. In the last part of his book, by far the most serious, Professor Lamprecht gives a resume of his American impressions.
He treats Digitized by Google Reviews 6i briefly our history. He notes the want of true and typical Ameri- can culture, but he recognizes, in innumerable signs, the dawn of such culture. Next he deals with American literature and joins other critics in ascribing to Edgar Allan Poe the distinction of being the most typical American writer. He observes the well- IcQown fact that we have no drama and attributes it, in part, to Puritanic influence. He is undecided whether to call the short story typically American or whether we owe indebtedness to Maupassant and KtpUng.
The display of American art at the Louisiana Pur- chase Exposition has convinced the author that the standard of American art is ascending. It is to be regretted that Professor Lamprecht has seen fit to confine himself to such brevity of description. We should welcome the historian's opinion in greater detail. Doubtlessly this book will find many eager readers in America, since it contains many interesting observations by a well-wishing foreigner, and its criticisms are fair and valuable.
At the outset Dr. Fulda emphasizes the fact that he does not purpose to write a book on America. His superior judgment convinces him of the folly of such an attempt after an acquaintance of only a few months' sojourn. Therefore he proposes to give only the rather general im- pressions which he gained on his American tour.
He does this impartially and. It must be re- membered — and Fulda says so, in substance, himself — that he saw America, as it were, in full dress. As the guest of the Germanistic Society of America, to which body, by the way, his book is dedi- cated, he was so hospitably entertained and so constantly occupied, that a quiet study of existing conditions was wholly out of the question.
It is doubtful whether this fact is to be regretted, as so few Europeans see America just as Fulda saw it It cannot have anything but a wholesome effect to emphasize this side for once. Of Digitized by Google 62 Reviews our cities he has seen a good deal. He recognizes the utility of American skyscrapers and even succeeds in seeing some beauty in these colossal structures.
Poirot rechnet ab
He compliments the parks, the illumina- tion of the cities, the gigantic undertakings to facilitate traffic, and the fact that so many Americans live in houses which they own. He criticises the paving of our. He recognizes and does justice to the manifest attempt to beautify our towns and cities. He compares the cities to young giants who have outgrown their immaturity.
Their old garments have become too small and somehow they do not know how to de- port themselves in the new ones. Speaking of American travel, he lavishly compliments the com- fort and luxury which state-room passengers enjoy. The accom- modations accorded to those less wealthy he finds, on the whole, inferior and less practical than those of Germany. This leads him to the conclusion: He recognizes the fact that the bone and sinew of the "Deutsch- timi" in this ooimtry are the German farmers and the families of the intellectual aristocrats whom the Revolution of brought into our midst.
The author duly respects the titanic struggle which goes on daily, yes hourly, to keep things German, particularly the language, alive in this English-speaking land, but he duly points out the ultimate futility of this struggle, and shows the baneful eflFect of attempting the control of two languages with equal dexter- ity. I should like to interpolate this thought here, germane to this subject, that in my opinion this very duality of language is one of the causes why German Americans do not use the pen with more facility than they do, in either language.
The mixture of dialects and languages among the Pennsylva- nians, some specimens of which he saw also in print, did not im- prest Fulda very favorably. The playwright compliments in warmest terms the great Ger- man newspapers of New York, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Chicago and Milwaukee; the many excellent German clubs, and especially the Digitized by Google Reviews 63 distinctly Grerman theatres. One experiences just a little surprise when one fails to see Philadelphia on the list of cities boasting of a German theatre. Doubtlessly this is due to the fact that at the time the dramatist made his visit to Philadelphia, the surpassingly excellent German theatre of this city was not yet completed.
As a loyal son of the Fatherland Fulda was, of course, inter- ested to know in how far the German Americans were pleased with their new surroundings. Concerning American education and methods of instruction Fulda waxes quite enthusiastic. It was not the skyscraper, the territorial extent of the country, not the gigantic proportions of the life; it was rather the education and the system of instruction.
Speak- ing of American students he says: In co-education he sees none of those dangers which the opponents of the system argue, but rather a perfectiy natural condition, entirely wholesome to both sexes. She knows herself to be intellectually the equal of man. To this asso- ciation of the two sexes in the schools Fulda attributes, in a large degree, the comparative moral purity of the American youth.
Under the heading, "Culture of the Masses and Art," he com- pliments the systems of University Extension and the Chautauqua, which bring culture to those who cannot attend college. Of our libraries he speaks in warmest terms, and contrasts the ease of find- Digitized by Google 64 Reviews ing books and the liberality in the free use of them, with the anti- quated library methods prevalent in his own country.
The excessive haste with which American newspapers gather and disseminate news seems to him to be of questionable value as a means of educating the masses, and the persistent and omnipresent reporter and interviewer are abominations in his eyes. He recognizes our want of true art and finds its cause in the newness of our country and the unsettled condition of our people. He asserts that no colony ever produced great works of art.
We still fail to utilize the material which nature and our own history so abundantly offer. Willing hands have lavishly supplied museums and galleries with money, but tiie true artist is not produced by money. As playwright he especially notes the absence of a truly American drama. He is justly astonished at the ways in which laws are evaded in America. As general characteristics he credits us with singular patience a conclusion which more intimate acquaintance might not substan- tiate , optimism, hospitality, honesty in little things, rascality in the large ones, and a decided tendency towards chauvinism.
All in all, he has obtained a very fair view of America, of our strong points and our weaknesses. He is convinced of the enor- mous potential wealth and the still latent energy in this country. In conclusion he says: The hope, however, that it will be opportunely applied seems to be more Utopian now than ever.
The United States of Europe. Otto Bindewald, Univeraty of Giessen. Karl Borinski, University of Munich. Ai-oys Brandl, University of Berlin. Otto Bkbmbr, University of Halle. Crbizenach, University of Krakau. Ernst Elster, University of Marburg. Ludwig Geiger, University of Berlin. Holthausen, University of Kiel. Jellinek, University of Vienna. Jiriczbk, University of Breslau. Max Koch, University of Breslau. Lambel, University of Prague.
John Meier, University of Basel. Meyer, University of Berlin. Minor, University of Vienna. Mogk, University of Leipzig. Muncker, University of Munich, Prof. Bernhard Sbuffert, University of Graz. Alexander Tille, University of Glasgow. Varnhagen, University of Erlangen. Oskar Walzel, University of Bern. Witkowski, University of Leipzig. List may be extended.
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Carl Beck, 37 E. Heckmann, Cor, Secretary, Dr. March and April, The Bi-Monthly, German American Annals, is a continuation of the ' quarterly, Americana Germanica, and will make accessible to a wider public current matter bearing upon the Relations of Germany and America. Each number will contain a series of original contributions, reviews, book notices and lists of new publications, relating to the history of the Germans in America and also to American studies m Ute geLeral field of Germanics.
The original title Americana Germanica will be retained for the series of larger monographs which do not fall within the limits of a peri- odical, and for reprints. These monographs will be published at such times as they are presented, aud will be sold separately, the price varying according to the character of the monograph. In the Monthly regular attention will be given to reviews and book notices. Contributions, hooks for review and exchanges are solicited, especially such as come witum the scope of the Monthly, and should be sent to the editor, M D, Learned, Box lo.
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As full sets are nearly exhausted. I-IV will not be sold separately. Hatfield, Columbia University, Northwestern University. P'aust, Hermann Schoenfeld, Cornell University. Hknry Wood, Johns Hopkins University. The town of Carlisle, the county seat of Cumberland County, is situated eighteen miles southwest of Harrisburg, in the midst of the fertile and beautiful Cumberland Valley. Cumberland County was formed from a part of Lancaster County, in In , the town of Carlisle was surveyed and on July 23, of the same year, by order of the Governor of Pennsylvania the first court of Common Pleas was held there.
With this date the history of Carlisle as a town may be said to commence. The inhabitants of the town, exclusive of the two thousand negroes, are largely descended from the Scotch-Irish and from the Germans. The former were the first settlers. The latter be- gan to settle in the valley about , though the great influx did not begin till ten years later. By the year , however, the Germans had become so numerous that two religious denomina- tions had been organized in the town. In the early history of Carlisle, the services in the Lutheran church were conducted in German, which was however, gradually 67 Digitized by Google 68 Dialectal Peculiarities in the Carlisle Vernacular.
In , those Lutherans who desired to have the service exclusively in German established a separate church. This flourished for a time but as the younger generations came on they desired and demanded that the services be conducted in English. This led to a compromise, one service on Sunday in German and one in English. In , the charter of this church was changed so that all of the services might be conducted in English.
Soon afterwards the little German church was abandoned, a new chapel was built to which is now being added one of the handsomest church buildings in the country. The change in the charter of this church in marks the final Americanization of the German element of Carlisle. The change had, of course, been gradual but it had been thorough. This took place only eleven years ago but so thoroughly have the Germans been amalgamated that a stranger coming to the town to-day finds scarcely any traces of their existence. No Ger- man is spoken on the streets, and even in the market house one scarcely ever hears any Pennsylvania Dutch.
If, perchance, you should ask a Carlisler if he knows Pennsylvania Dutch, he will reply with dignity that he is Scotch-Irish and properly impressed with your own impertinence you will pass on your way. In the year I became a resident of Carlisle and having had some linguistic training I was soon struck by certain peculiar- ities in the vernacular, which impressed me as being dialectal. I began to make note of expressions which differed from my own speech and have continued to do so ever since. It is with the re- sult of these observations, covering a period of seven years, that this paper has to deal.
Before proceeding to a discussion of the particular expres- sions involved a few words in reference to the method pursued iti collecting them may be in order. In no case have I hunted after strange words or forms of speech but in every case have noted only such expressions as oc- Digitized by Google Dialectal Peculiarities in the Carlisle Vernacular.
Had I really searched for rare birds, I could have increased the list largely but it would not have been representative of all the peo- ple. All of the expressions noted I have heard used again and again by merchants, by college students, and by the best people of the town. It is not necessary to say that there are many peo- ple who speak an English, which is practically dialect free. The popmlation of the town being such as I have described it, we should naturally expect the language to reflect in some de- gree the racial peculiarities of the people.
Was geschah wirklich?
The major portion of this study will be devoted to vocabu- lary, for reasons which will appear later. For convenience the various words and expressions are ar- ranged alphabetically: These shoes look new against yours. This use of the word evidently arose from the German "gegen" in this sense, which was translated into English. This is colloquial English. The butter is all. The examples might be increased ad libitum. We have here, of course, a simple translation and adoption of the German expression.
Already commonly contracted to already: In actual mean- ing this word does not differ from the regular English usage. It is used in Carlisle, however, much more frequently than in communities where there is no German influence, and to one familiar with this language it is evident that it is influ- enced by Ger. Have you studied algebra? I had it already in my Freshman year. Do you know the old Stone Tavern? I have seen it already. How many pair of shoes can you sole in a day?
I have half-soled three pair already in my time. We have here a bit of word-making taking place in the dialect. To denote permission instead of may, e. Dare I go out. The word is restricted, I believe, to the kernels of nuts, as a deaf walnut. In these words, which are north Eng. I let the book in the room. This usage is frequent, but not common. Although it is obso- lete English, there seems no doubt that Ger. I waited fifteen minutes on the car. Although there is an obsolete Eng. Diet, wait, 4, d , which is similar in meaning to this usage, I am nevertheless inclined to believe that we have here a translation of Ger.
This is plainly a translation of Ger. This word is of common occurrence, and since it is for- eign to English usage, we must likewise attribute it to the German. I must red up the room. He should have said that i. The Century Dictionary under the adverb "still" 2 gives the meaning constantly, continually, habitually, al- ways, ever, as in common use.
The following examples are cited: Thou still hast been the father of good news. Hamlet, 11, 2, What a set face the gentlewoman has, as she were still going to a sacrifice! Pehdes thus replied , Still at my heart, and ever at my side. Despite the definition and examples, I think the following specimens of the Carlisle dialect will strike the ordinary American as strange and unfamiliar, though they are evi- dently survivals of this usage. Can you take away my ashes? If you save them I will get them still a negro. A barber, in speaking of a certain hair tonic, which he considered the best, said: That's what I tell them stilL That is, I always tell people that when they ask about hair tonics.
A market woman, when asked whether certain apples were pippins, replied: We still call them little yellow apples. A carpenter, in speaking about bidding good-bye to his parrot, said: A storekeeper, in telling how many students brought kerosene cans to his store to be filled, remarked: What a string of kerosene cans we would have to fill still. This student, who is of German extraction, says he did not use this word till he became a resident of Carlisle.
You could hear him swearing still whenever you went near his house. He stui writes me about the good fishing out there. A girl was calling to another, who replied: Don't yell so much, I heard you stUl. If we examine these expressions we find the meaning of still to be that given by the Century Dictionary, but it would be difficult to persuade one that they are specimens of normal English. They are evidently survivals of this old use of "still" due, doubtless, to Scotch-Irish influence. I must get my shoes till Sunday. I will make it up till next lesson. In this use of till, which is extremely common, we have simply a translation of the German "bis" in similar expres- sions.
I have been unable to account for this usage satisfac- torily. At first sight, one naturally thinks of the German "das ist heute kalt," but this use of das is not found in Penn- sylvania German, which is probably the German of Carlisle. I should be glad to learn whether it is used in other Scotch- Irish communities. If, on the other hand, as is doubtless the case, the German of Carlisle was Pennsylvania German, then we must explain this usage as English, but what sort of English? When we pet a dog we say "That's a nice dog," or when something goes wrong we say "That's a nice kettle of fish" or "That's a fine state of affairs.
If it is of English origin, it seems that we must explain it in this way. Toot — a paper bag. This comes evidently through Pa. Your shoes look new towards mine. Since this usage is altogether alien to English, I take it that we have here another translation of Ger. Watch up — to observe carefully, keep an eye upon, e. I am unable to acount for this use of "up," unless it comes from such expressions as "hold up," mean- ing wait, and "wait up," where up seems merely to intensify the meaning of the verb.
In addition to what has preceded, too. One warm day I was comfortably ensconced on a couch enjoying a post- prandial cigar; a friend sitting near me inquired: A doctor, in describing his rifle, said to me: In describing this to a carpenter, he said: In meaning it is closely akin with its use here, but I believe that everyone unfamiliar with the dia- lect under discussion will admit that these expressions are unusual.
In view of what has already been said, the mere suggestion of "noch" will, I believe, suggest the proper ex- planation of this use of yet to one familiar with the German language. In certain cases "yet" seems to be used merely as an in- tensive.