Mylie erobert die Welt (German Edition)

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Solche Waldung ist durch das ganze Territorium, und alle Prairien sind mit solchen Waldern umgeben. Das Vieh braucht man hier im Winter nicht zu fiittern. Ursache, weil es kein Putter hat. Das Land selbst kann riicksichthch seiner Giite und Productions fahigkeiten in der ganzen Schopfung nicht iiberboten werden, denn alles, was man pflanzt, wachst darauf in tJberfluss ; aber niemand weiss was er mit dem anfangen soil, was er produciert; denn erstlich giebt es keinen Markt zum Absatz der Producte, zweitens keine Aussicht fiir einen solchen Markt; drittens ist alles, was man bedarf, zu weit entfernt und zu kostspielig und kein Weg ist vorhanden, nur Lebensmittel zu ver- dienen ; wenn ich nur einen einzigen Mann nach Oregon fortschicken wollte, um etwas zu verdienen, so wiirden allein 25 bis 30 Dollars er- forderlich sein, um seine Reisekosten zu bestreiten.

Die Miihle ist noch nicht angekommen, ich sehe auch keinen Nutzen, wenn sie wirklich da ware ; ganz VVillapa Valley konnte die Expenses nicht zahlen, welche mit der Errichtung einer Miihle dort verbunden sind. Wenn die paar Prairien eingefenzt waren, die sich im ganzen Wil- lapa Valley befinden, dass sich Menschen mit ihrem Vieh darauf nahren sollten, die es jetzt in Besitz haben, so konnte ich den darauf wachsenden Weizen in 8 Tagen mahlen und die Miihle wiirde das ganze Jahr leer stehen. Denn zur Rechten und zur Linken ist keine Country, und kann nie eine werden ; man mochte die Miihle hinstel- len, wohin man wollte, so konnten nur die wenigen Prairiebesitzer in diesem Thale mit MiJhe und Schwierigkeit dahin gelangen.

Walder urbar machen ist so kostspielig, dass ich mir nicht getraute einen ein- zigen Acker gereinigt und eingefenzt unter Dollars herzustellen. Unsere Kleiderstoffe hier zu producieren, ware unmoglich; Schafe hat man hier nicht, sie hierher zu bringen, ist schwierig, und wenn sie da waren, so hatte man kein Futter fiir sie. Kurd-Maschinen und Webereien konnen also hier nicht errichtet werden, es sey denn, dass man die Wolle aus Californien oder Siid-Amerika bezoge; eben so wenig Gerbereien, denn die fehlenden Haute miisste man ebenso- weit, oder gar aus den States beziehen.

Eine Distillery wiirde nur Absatz haben, bei den wenigen Austerfischern, die sich an der Bay aufhalten. Wenn ich nur uns, die wir uns gegenwartig in diesem Valley befinden, eine Heimath griinden wollte, in der Art, wie wir sie in Missouri gehabt haben, so wiirde mir der Anfang dazu nicht unter Hundert Tausend Dollars zu stehen kommen, denn des offenen Landes ist zu wenig und die Culturmachung der riesigen Urwaldung ist zu schwierig.

Die Reise der Familien von den Dalles zu Wasser hierher hat und einige 40 Dollars gekostet, ungeachtet, was die jungen Leute mit dem Vieh auf dem Pack-Trail gebraucht haben. Nun ist der Ausschlag von mir, ich will Michael Schaefer und Christ Giesy sammt ihren Angehorigen, so viel sich ihrer hier nahren kdnnen, dieses Thai zu ihrer Heimat einhandigen, weil ich die Mittel nicht habe, mit den Leutchen weiter in der Welt herumzuziehen und mein Entschluss ist, nach Oregon mit der jungen Mannschaft zu gehen; zugleich will ich sehen und ausforschen, ob dort eine Heimath fiir uns Alle zu finden ist, oder nicht.

Wenn ihr noch nicht verkauft habt, so rathe ich Euch, keinen Acker von dem, was wir dort besessen, zu verkaufen; denn ich glaube, eine solche Heimath als ihr besitzt, ist weder in Oregon noch in Washington Territory zu finden. Zu Euch retour kann ich nicht kommen, denn ich besitze gegenwartig die Mittel nicht, hoffe aber, dass nichts verloren geht von alle dem, was ich aus Bethel mitgenom- men habe, in Oregon wieder zu erobern. Ich befinde mich gegen- wartig an dem Ort, von dem der Schule geschrieben hat, dass er so verschlossen sei, dass kein weisser Fuss je dahin gekommen, und wo die Thiere sein mogen, die Spuren machen, so gross wie ein Back- Kessel.

Das grosse Thier ist eben die Natur selbst, die wohl noch grossere Spuren hinterlasst, als das ein Waschkessel sie zudecken Konnte. Das Thai ist sehr verschlossen, aber der Gedanke der drei Manner, die die kleine Prairie besitzen, die kaum ein Mensch er- reichen kann, und die dennoch Tausende von Menschen einladen da- hin zu kommen, der Gedanke ist noch viel mehr verschlossen. Doch Gott hat den rechten Mann gesandt, der die Schliissel besitzt, alle ge- heimen Oerter aufzuschliessen und offentlich zu verkiinden, was er gesehen hat.

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Und dieses ist denn genug von Washington Territory. Den ersten November landeten wir bei Crocketts Landing an und den 26ten November begruben wir Wilhelm auf dem Claim, wo der alte Schwader wohnt ; Abends beim Lichtbrennen, die kleinen Buben spielten das Lied: "Wie soil ich dich empfangen". Erkldrung der Reise nach Oregon. Es war kein Land schuld daran, sondern die Verhaltnisse der Menschen. Wir sind jetzt ein Herz und ein Sinn, und eher wiirde ein Jiingling sich den Tod wiinschen als mich in der Triibsal zu verlassen, Ihre grosste Seligkeit war als sie horten : Sie diirften hinausgehen und fiir mich schaffen.

So ist gegenwartig nach der Werthschatzung des Leibes und der Seele mehr gewonnen, als alle Ausriistung iiber die Plains gekostet hat, und es ware ein gutes Ding wenn alle Jiinglinge und Jungfrauen in Bethel so durch alle Verhaltnisse des Lebens gefiihrt wiirden, als diejenigen, die gegenwartig bei mir sind, denn so lernten sie Jesum Christum in der Wahrheit erkennen. Bis jetzt sind wir noch alle beieinander, hoffen aber, sobald sich die Witterung andert, dass die Trompete zum Aufbruch geblasen werde.

Die Farmer haben ihre Wohnungen verlassen, und sich in die Stadte gefliichtet, aus Furcht vor den Indianern, und warten der schrecklichen Dinge die da kommen sollen, doch wir sind ohne Furcht gemacht. Hier muss ich schliessen denn ich kann Euch fiir dies Mai nichts weiter schreiben. Auch einen herzlichen Gruss vom alten Schulmeister an die Gemeinde zu Bethel und an alle Schulkinder. Ich verbleibe Euer treuer Lehrer und Fuh- rer. Lebt wohl bis auf Wiedersehn. The Community at Bethel, Missouri 21 N. As can be gleaned from the foregoing letter, the colonists did not find things in Washington to their liking.

They found that the site selected by the deputies who went to the coast early was wholly unsuited to the purpose for which it had been chosen. It was very mountainous, only small tracts of tillable land therefore could be purchased in a body and communication with the outside world was almost entirely barred. They spent a very miserable winter here. The temperature was very low and the temporary houses were very bad. The suffering was wholly beyond descrip- tion.

Keil, who had cursed Missouri and who in a letter from Fort Kearney, Neb. Missouri now seemed to all a veritable Eden, and Keil charged the members at Bethel not to dispose of a single foot of the land they owned there. The following spring many of the colonists went to Portland, Oregon.

The first letter of Keil, bearing the stamp of Portland, is dated March 28th, Here Keil took up his medical prac- tice again, and continued to be thus employed until June, He had purchased a tract of land in the Willamette Valley, in Marion County, Oregon, and had named the site where the new town was to be erected, Aurora. Thither he recalled all the members whom he could summon. The first letter written by him from Aurora Mills, as it was then called, was dated June 1 6th, All those who were not bound by agreement with some employer, for all the able-bodied men and women had to get out and earn some money, responded to his call.

And now began once more the awful task of establishing new homes, and that in a thickly wooded country. Some of the members deserted the cause and began to shift for themselves. The society which Keil founded in Oregon was, as is seen, only a branch of the Missouri society.

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In fact, its constituency 22 The Cojitiiiniiity at Bethel, Missouri was almost exclusively made up of ex-Missourians. Quite nat- urally, therefore, the same ideals obtained. Their chief employ- ment was agriculture, as it had been in Missouri. The manu- facturing which they carried on was all on a small scale, as it had been in Missouri. I shall therefore not go into a detailed account of this part of the story, as it would be, in a large measure, a reiteration of what we have already learned about the society in Missouri.

After establishing the colony in Aurora, Keil wrote the most contradictory letters to his old charge in Bethel. Now he urges them to sell out at once and join him in the West, while in the very next letter he pleads with them not to dispose of their be- longings. In the later years of his life his letters had a uniform tone, namely an earnest appeal to rejoin their brethren on the Pacific coast. But despite the fact that representatives were called from Missouri to Oregon, and committees from Oregon were sent to Bethel, the transfer could not be made.

Whether an attempt was made to sell the land at Bethel prior to the general division, I am not able to say. On the 30th of December, , Dr. William Keil died. The binding force having disappeared, steps were soon taken to effect the division of the property. Before I discuss the matter of the separation, however, I wish to refer to a strange fulfillment of a promise on the part of Keil. The latter had promised his favorite son William that he should go to the region which had been visited by the deputies while looking for a location.

Before this trip could be made, the boy took sick and died. The father was determined to make good his promise. He also wished to show his people how sacred a promise should be to every one and how one should fulfill a promise even toward the dead. He decided that this boy's body should lead the train of immigrants across the plains. He there- fore sent to St. Louis, where a metal casket was procured, and into this casket the boy's body was placed. Since the art of embalming was not practiced in that region in those days, the remaining space in the casket was filled with alcohol.

The casket was then placed in a specially prepared wagon, which was drawn by four mules. This solemn conveyance headed the train and The Community at Bethel, Missouri 23 led the way across the plains. Thus there took place a funeral procession the like of which has perhaps never been seen in this country. After a journey of many months the body was interred at Willapa, in Washington Territory. After his departure Keil left the affairs of Bethel in the hands of deputy presidents, appointed by himself, and who dared not act contrary to his wishes. And here was a serious source of discontent.

The people wished to have a voice in the selecting of their superiors, but these deputy presidents were really not respon- sible to any one, as Keil did not trouble himself with regular reports. They performed all the functions which Keil had per- formed. They ruled and they preached, but the members could not appeal from their decision. The first deputy president was Dr. This man had been prepared as a Lutheran minister in Germany, and was indeed in the service of the ministry in Marietta, Ohio, when he came under the influence of Keil.

Wolf was a well educated and very able man. He really looked to the good of the people. Under his rule the people were contented, at least they were satisfied that he was doing the best that could be done for the real interests of the people. He even dared to speak against the opinion of Keil himself. Some of the old men in Bethel told me that Keil did not like Wolf on this account and tried to suppress him, but that he could not find a man more ably fitted to take charge of things when he left for the West.

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Wolf remained in charge at Bethel until , when he led a train of forty wagons across the plains. Most of the men who went were young men. Keil did not wish them to take part in the war which was then raging, and to escape being drafted into service they left the country. The drawing of such large bodies of men, and especially young men, together with large numbers of the best horses, mules and cattle, and the complete equipment for the trans-continental trip was a serious drain on the Bethel Society.

It was a handicap which they never entirely overcame and which prevented them from bringing their colony to that state of perfection which they no doubt would have attained if they had remained unhampered. Nor were they called upon only at the time of the exodus to assist 24 The Community at Bethel, Missouri their brethren, but even after they had gotten out to Washington calls came in for shoes and clothing. Nor is there any record that the immigrants had given anything in return for the contributions thus received.

But to return to the subject of the deputy presidents. After Wolf's departure, Andrew Giesy, who will be remembered as one of the young men whom Keil sent out to preach in German settle- ments, prior to the founding of the colony, took the management. After Giesy's term the reins went into the hands of Jacob G. Miller, who is still living in Aurora, Oregon, and to whom I am indebted for many a kindness in the preparation of this account. These deputy presidents cared not only for the temporal welfare of the colonists, but also for the spiritual, in so far at least that they preached once every two weeks.

Besides these three persons, a fourth, namely, Jacob Findling, a paper-maker by profession, preached occasionally. Keil's defamers declare that he had Findling preach at times, in order to amuse himself at the poor man's ridiculous attempts to perform a task for which he was unfitted.

As there was no constitution, the organization was a very loose one. There was no contract between the members except an understanding that all should labor for the common cause and all should receive their livelihood from the general supply. Every- thing went harmoniously until one Henry L.

Hofifman sued to recover wages. Hoffman knew very well that the society did not pay any wages to its members, but he decided to sever his con- nection with the society and at this juncture resolved to extort some money from the colony. Pay being refused him, he brought suit in the courts of Shelby County. The society having no legal existence, he brought suit against several members of this unincor- porated body.

In all he brought five suits. All of these cases were taken to Marion County, and in none of them did he recover damages. Hoffman ; Andres Giesy being the party sued as deputy president of the society. The Community at Bethel, Missouri 25 joined the society in In he severed his connection with the society and went to Hannibal, Mo. It was a strict prin- ciple of the Bethel Society to reimburse the seceding parties with the amount they had contributed to the common stock. In Hoffman, Sr. Hoffman, then aged fourteen. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Hoffman returned with her children and begged for read- mission in the colony.

She added nothing to the stock, but was taken in. She and her children worked in the society, receiv- ing therefrom the benefits of food, clothing, shelter and schooling. According to the principles of the organization, no one was enti- tled to wages, and so Hoffman's claims were unfounded, he himself having once declared himself a member of the colony.

However, in order to avoid hard feelings and to get rid of Hoff- man entirely, the following settlement was effected : Mrs. Hoffman had a child who was the lawful heir to this money. So this amount was paid Hoffman to be held by him in trust for his child. This was precisely the amount which would have been paid these parties at the time of the final settlement. It was paid, however, previous to the time of the final settlement, and in so far was a concession which the colony made to adjust the Hoffman affair.

It was done more to deal squarely with the little girl than to appease Hoffman. During the latter part of the colony's existence, Keil sent his son August to Bethel as physician and as a sort of overseer. He was in no wise fitted for these tasks. In the first place he was not well trained in medicine ; in the second place, he possessed no business ability; and finally he was such an inveterate drunkard that no one would intrust life or property to his hands.

At first the colonists rejoiced that a Keil was again in their midst.

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They hoped that some of his father's ability might have been trans- 26 Tlie Community at Bethel, Missouri mitted to this son. In disgrace and unattended the poor man died in a barn at Bethel. Of the large family of Dr. Keil only one son, Emanual Keil, is now living, who resides at Aurora, Oregon. None of the children of Keil seem to have had the ability to deal with men, which made him such a distinguished person.

During the sixties Keil began to feel that he was getting too old to look after the affairs alone. Therefore he drew up an agreement, according to which seven trustees were put into power in his place. Koch, trustees and aldermen of the Aurora community or co-operative association, of the second part, Witnesseth ; that the said Dr. William Keil, in consideration of the covenants of the party of the second part, does covenant and agree to and with the above named trustees and aldermen, to convey and transfer to them all his real and personal estates, situated in the Counties of Marion and Clackamas to wit: all and singular the lands, dwelling- houses, grist and saw mills, stores, stage-restaurant, workshops, live- stock, farming impliments, tools and other appurtenances thereunto belonging, with the only exception of his two dwelling houses, garden and a mule team ; all in accordance with an inventory, to be taken up of the property confided to them ; To have and to hold the same under the following conditions : 1.

But if the income should not be sufficient for such purposes they must limit themselves to the preservation of the property they have received and act in all things in the same provident manner, as the party of the first part has dene up to the present time. And the parties of the second part, in consideration of the cove- nants on the part of the first party, do for themselves and in the name of the Aurora community, gratefully accept the munificent gift thus The Community at Bethel, Missouri 27 conferred on them, and pledge themselves to comply with all the conditions, under which the administration of the said property is confided to them, to the best of their ability, especially, in following the praiseworthy example which is set them by their beloved leader and protector.

In witness whereof, we have set hereunto our hands and seals, the day and year as above written. Friedrich Koch, Second Party. On the same day on which Keil and the seven trustees came to an agreement, the trustees and the colonists signed a document which in reality was the only constitutional agreement the society had. This document applied to Aurora only.

The people in Bethel to whom this writ was presented as a model took no similar action. Whereas Dr. William Keil at Aurora Mills in the County of Marion and the State of Oregon has made with us, the undersigned trustees and aldermen of the community or co-operative association at Aurora Mills, the annexed agreement ; Therefore in virtue of the authority, vested in us, and in execu- tion of our trust, we, the said trustees and aldermen, of the first part, do herewith covenant and agree to and with the undersigned mem- bers of the Aurora community or co-operative association, of the second part, in consideration of the covenants hereinafter continued, I.

In like manner proper care will be taken for the surviving widow and orphan children of a deceased member, as long as they remain in the community ; 7. As for the rest, the understanding is, that the enjoyment of the above enumerated benefits and privileges, during his membership, is mutu- ally regarded as a full compensation of all his labor for the com- munity, and that he has no right to claim any other payment for his labor, except the sum of 25 dollars, which every person, who has stayed one or more years in the Aurora community shall receive before his leaving, as an extra compensation or present from the said community ; 8.

In particular every member must take good care of the tools and implements confided to him, and not suffer or allow, that any of them should be injured or wasted; 9. Furthermore the trustees have the right to appoint a member as treasurer of all the income of the community, and every foreman or single member, who receives money belonging to the community, is bound, to make a monthly settlement of his accounts with the appointed treasurer and pay over all moneys in their hands. And the un der signed parties of the second part, in consid- eration of the covenant on the party of the first part, do herewith covenant and agree to and with the said trustees and aldermen of the said first party, that they accept freely and without persuasion, fear or compulsion of any one, the membership of the Aurora Com- munity or co-operative association and that they pledge themselves to comply faithfully with all and singular the regulations and condi- tions contained in this agreement, as long as they remain in the Aurora community.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this fifth day of April Signed and delivered in the presence of: C. Wolflf Adolph Pflugk. Friedrich Koch. Scholl On the part of the second party Jacob G. Miller Martha Miller Joseph H. Keil L. Keil Jacob Giesy Fred. Susanna Woerner, Jun. Keil's control. Keil's con- trol. Keil's control alone.

Elisabeth Schwader Lewis Schwader, Jun. Unsern briiderlichen Gruss zuvor! Ihr Manner, lieben Briider und Ihr Alle, die Ihr der reinen Christus Lehre seid treu geblieben : Euch Allen ist es wohl bewusst, dass bei Begrundung unseres gemeinschaftlichen Zusammenlebens der Zweck nicht sowohl die Anhaufung von weltlichen Reichthiimern, als vielmehr die Erwerbung und der ungetriibte Genuss von solchen Schatzen war, wodurch das Reich Gottes auf Erden bedingt ist.

Ihr wisst ferner, dass wir unter der Leitung unseres treuen Fiihrers und Lehrers, trotz aller Triibsale und Anfechtungen ein eigenes, zu- friedenes und gottgefalliges Leben gefiihrt haben ; Ihr wisst aber auch, dass, nachdem spaterhin ein jeglicher wiederum in den eigen- thiimlichen Besitz seiner, der Liebe Gottes iibergebenen Habe ge- setzt worden, gar mancher in Versuchung gerathen und dieser Welt Giiter lieber gewonnen hat, als die Schatze des ewigen Lebens.

Die- ser Umstand mag vielleicht eine der Ursachen gewesen sein, welche unseren treuen Fiihrer und Leiter schon vor Jahren bewogen haben, eine neue Heimath fiir seine Gemeine im fernen Westen zu be- griinden ; und zwar hat er das herrlich hinausgefiihrt, ohne auch nur ein Titelchen von der heilsamen Lehre fallen zu lassen, die er uns von An fang verkiindigt und zu der wir uns Alle bekannt haben.

Was ist denn nun aber die Ursache, dass wir dennoch noch immer nicht als Eine Heerde unter Einem Hirten vereinigt sind Ist es nicht dieser unselige Hader um das Mein und Dein, welche Eure Hierherkunft bisher verhindert hat, indem Eure Gegenwart dort zur Erhaltung und zum Schutze dessen, was wirklich noch dem ge- meinschaftlichen Vermogen der Gemeine angehort, durchaus erf or- 34 The Community at Bethel, Missouri derlich war? Wir alle wunschen sehnlich, class Ihr je eher, je lieber wieder mit uns vereinigt sein mdchtet ; aber wenn der Eine seine Prop- erty verkaufen, der Andere sie verrenten, der Dritte sie gar seinen Kindern vermachen will — wie ist da an eine schliessUche Regulierung unserer Angelegenheiten in Bethel zu denken?

Und sollen denn diese Wenigen, die verstockten Sinnes sind, alle Ubrigen, die sich nach der verheissenen Wiedervereinigung seh- nen, noch langer aufhalten? Das sei feme! Ihr miisst Euch vor alien Dingen zuerst dariiber vereinigen, auf welche Brijder und Schwestern Ihr Euch auch in Zukunft verlassen konnt ; und um dies zu erreichen, scheint uns nichts zweckmassiger zu sein, als dass Ihr denselben Weg verfolgt, den unser Leiter und Fiihrer bei Griindung einer veredelten Betheler Gemeine hier zu Aurora vorangegangen ist.

Zu diesem Ende miisst Ihr dieselben Grundsatze adoptiren, die in der abschriftlich hierbei angeschlosse- nen Aurora Constitution ausgesprochen und zum Zeichen der An- erkennung von alien Mitgliedern unterschrieben worden sind, nach- dem zuforderst von jedem Einzelnen eine Bescheiningung oder Re- ceipt ausgestellt, des Inhalts, dass er sich f iir die vergangene Zeit bis zum Tage der Ausstellung dieser Beschreibung, in Betracht der ihm zu Theil gewordenen Wohnung, Nahrung, Kleidung und artzliche Verpflegung, als vollig abgefunden betrachte und fiir seine bis dahin in der Betheler Gemeinschaft geleistete Arbeit durchaus keine wei- tere Vergiinstigung in Anspruch nehmen konne noch wolle.

Demnach wiirde der Bruder Andreas Giesy als Verwalter und Representant des gemeinschaftlichen Vermogens der Betheler Ge- meine ein dem unsrigen ahnliches agreement mit den Aeltesten der Gemeine zu Bethel und diese wiederum mit jedem einzelnen Mitglied der Betheler Gemeine abzuschliessen haben. Es mag vielleicht ein grosser Theil des gemeinschaftlichen Vermogens erforderlich sein, um die Forderungen derjenigen, welche der solchergestalt neuge- formten Gemeinschaft nicht beitreten wollen, zu befriedigen; — so wie es denn auch unserem Bruder Keil hier zu Aurora grosse Opfer gekostet hat um den Forderungen der ausscheidenden Mitglieder zu genijgen; — aber lieber die grossten Opfer gebracht, als das Fortbe- stehen und Gedeihen der ganzen Gemeine durch die unverschamten Forderungen einzelner austretender Mitglieder fortwahrend gefahr- det zu sehen.

Durch die Constitution ist diesem Uebelstande fiir alle Zeiten abgeholfen, und wir Eure Briider, die unterzeichneten Aeltesten und Mitglieder der Aurora Gemeine, geben Euch die Versicherung, dass wir mit der practischen Ausfiihrung der neuen Constitution sehr wohl zufrieden sind, dass alle unsere Unternehmungen unter Gottes Segen sichtbar gediehen und dass wir nichts sehnlicher wiinschen The Community at Bethel, Missouri 35 als eine baldige Wiedervereinigung mit unsern treuen Briidern und Schwestern in der Betheler Gemeine.

Zum Schlusse machen wir Euch darauf aufmerksam, dass die- jenigen unter Euch, welche zum Zweck der Errichtung der Betheler Gemeinschaft eine bestimmte Summe Geldes beigetragen und spa- terhin ein entsprechendes equivalent dafiir aus dem gemeinschaft- lichen Eigenthum der Betheler angewiesen erhalten, falls Selbige dem Verein mit der Betheler und Aurora Gemeine fortzusetzen ge- sonnen sind, hinsichtlich dieser Geldsumme eine ahnliche Erklarung auszustellen haben werden wie ihre Briider hier zu Aurora, nach dem abschriftlich angeschlossenen Documente gethan haben. Solchem nach kann iiber die Bedingungen zum Anschlusse an die Aurora Gemeine, sowie iiber die Feststellung des gemeinschaft- lichen Vermogens der Betheler Gemeine kein Zweifel mehr statt- finden.

The following letter by Samuel Miller to Andreas, his brother, will throw some light on existing conditions and also point out what were some of the hopes the society entertained : Aurora, d. Lieber Andreas! Uber die Verhaltnisse der Deeds, woriiber du mir geschrieben hast, ob Du dieselben sollst den Vorgesetzten iibertragen oder selbst behalten, will ich Dir kurz Bescheid sagen. Du siehst an den Unter- schriften von Aurora, dass ein jegHches Mitglied, das friiher in Bethel gelebt und dort Property besessen hat, mit ihrer Unterschrift bezeugt haben, dass als sie ihre eigenthiimlichen Rechte in Deine Hande Dir iibertragen.

Weil sie keine ei- genthiimliche Ansprache fiir ihren eigenthiimlichen Nutzen und Ge- brauch dariiber gegeben haben, dass Du sollst ihren Willen hinaus- fiihren, zum gemeinen Wohl wohin sie es bestimmt haben, so sind weder sie noch Du selbst direct Eigenthiimer sondern indirect die Gemeine, welcher es iibergeben worden ist.

Somit brauchst Du keine Deeds zu verandem, so wie Du die Giiter Deiner Briider, die Du in Deinen Handen hast und bist Verwalter dariiber zum gemeinen Wohl, so sollst Du ein agreement machen mit den 7 Vorgesetzten, dass sie iiber all das property das Dir die Briider eigenthiimlich 36 The Community at Bethel, Missouri iiberreicht haben, soUen wieder als Eigenthiimer dariiber verfugen und in ihre Hand nehmen zum gemeinen Wohl. Dazu gehort, dass Du alle Habe in diesem Agreement beschreibst, dass alles was Du hast und bist den 7 Vorgesetzten in ihre Hand giebst und sie so resposible halst an Deiner Statt zu handehi, als alle unterschriebenen Mitglieder von Aurora Dich responsible halten mit ihrer Habe fiirs gemeinschaftliche Wohl zu sorgen.

Darum sind 7 Manner Ver- walter anstatt wo Du einzelner Verwalter warst. Das Agreement braucht weiter keine Beschreibung zu haben als das sammtliche Prop- erty zusammengezogen was Du besitzt und es ihnen sammtlich iiber- tragst zur Verwaltung des gemeinschaftlichen Wohls. Die Vorgesetzten haben dann wieder ein separates Agreement zu machen zwischen sich und den Mitglie- dern, und haben die Leitung iiber die natiirlichen Verhaltnisse der Arbeitskraft. So weit bist Du frei, dass Du kannst dem Evangelium dienen, und die 7 verwalten das Natiirliche. Was natiirliche Taxa- tion auf diese Lander und Property ruht dafiir haben die 7 Aeltesten zu sorgen, dass solche Taxen gezahlt werden, so wie Brot, Kleider, Schuh und alles was zum natiirlichen Leben gehort, dafiir haben die Aeltesten zu sorgen, Natiirliche Angriffe und Beleidigungen iiber irdische Verhaltnisse oder was mag vorfallen, dariiber haben die Aeltesten zu richten.

Was geistliche Sachen sind, gehen Dich an, Du hast mit natiirlichen Verhaltnissen nichts mehr zu thun als dass Du bl6s der hochste Rathgeber bist in natiirlichen Verhaltnissen, wenn den Aeltesten etwas vorkommt, wo sie nicht durch konnen und Deines Rathes bediirfen.

Somit hoffe ich Du verstehst alles wie es gemeint ist. Der Deed oder die Deeds sind anerkannt wie unsere Erde auf der die Menschen leben und ziehen ihren Nutzen daraus, und wenn sie ausgelebt haben, lassen sie dieselbe der nachsten Gene- ration, die wieder ihre Zeit darauf zu leben haben. Der Nutzen davon gehort der fortdauernden Ge- sellschaft, Erhaltet Ihr bios das Eigenthum fiir Euer irdisches Le- ben, so ist es recht, zieht Ihr aber einen Nutzen daraus, so ist es wieder recht.

Der daraus gezogene grosse Nutzen ist Euer positives Eigenthum, und Ihr konnt damit machen was Ihr wollt. Das lasst Ihr aber als positives Eigenthum liegen was Euch anvertraut ist, als Grund des Propertys, so wie es gegriindet ist in demselben eigen- thiimlichen Recht. Das heisst, die Deeds lassen, so wie sie sind, denn Deiner Hand hat man sie anvertraut, und soil keine Veranderung damit vorgehen.

Wir iibersprachen die Ge- schichte und wurden eins und nahmen Bruder Wolf zum Schreiber, weil ich langsam bin ira Schreiben. The Community at Bethel, Missouri 37 Despite their admonitions and appeals the Bethel people did not seriously contemplate the proposition to go to Oregon. When in Dr. William Keil died, the knell of the colony was sounded. There appeared no one who could rule with the iron hand of Keil.

Even he had found difficulty in doing so toward the last, as is easily seen from his letters. The young people began to see that they, individually, did not possess as much property as their non-communistic neighbors. Here and there arose a longing for individualism.

The older generation was not so eager for the new order of things. They were very conscious, that, left alone, they, many of them at any rate, would have remained day laborers all their lives.

Miller et al. William Keil under his direction, superintendence and control, who during his said lifetime held property in trust for both said communities and whereas by reason of the great distance between the said states of Missouri and Oregon and the many difficulties encountered by both said communi- ties in owning, managing and enjoying jointly and in common real and personal estates in different states," etc.

That the attorneys from both colonies should meet as soon as possible. That they should effect a peaceful settlement if possible. That the agents should have absolute power to determine manner and mode of division. That they should reduce their conclusions to writing. That they should have full power to incur expense legal and otherwise in performing this task.

That they should have full power and authority to bring to court any members of the Bethel Community, either in the Federal or State Courts to assist in effecting the separation. Thus there appear in Bethel sixty-five signatures. The men appointed as attorneys did not sign this document. Then follows the part that pertains to the Aurora Com- munity. From the very outset the Aurora people assumed that the Bethel Community should pay them a certain compensation, like the Bethel people, they gave their representatives, or in case of death or disagreement, to two of them, power to do the fol- lowing: 1.

To ascertain what, if anything, should be paid the Bethel Community in the division. To see how the Bethel Community would pay its compen- sation, if any. Whether payment should be made in cash or in property, when and how paid. To make written, signed report of their agreement. They too agreed to confirm and ratify in advance all the acts of their agents. As in the case of the Bethel Community, the agents sent to bring about the settlement did not sign the paper. According to the statement of some of the old members at Bethel, the names indicated with an asterisk were personally known to them as former members of the Bethel Society.

I make no claim as to the accuracy of this marking, having no data by which to check it myself. Most probably it is nearly correct, and in such a case we would have at least a partial list of those who once lived in Missouri. In twenty-four years a 44 The Community at Bethel, Missouri great many of the older generation must have passed away, and a great number of the younger generation must have come into the society.

The joint committee, whose powers are officially attested in the above record, at once proceeded to business. This agreement is dated June 20th, The document is very de- tailed in the description of the real estate. Also town property in Bethel, Mo. To be Continued. Allen Anders Seipt, Ph. This sect has contributed with extraordi- nary liberality to all enterprises which have for their object a more in imate knowledge of the writings of Caspar Schwenkfeld and his relation to contemporaneous religious movements fi..

It is this fact which accounts for their using the hymn-book of the Unitas Fratrum, usually called the Moravians up to ; but besides this they had large numbers of hymns of their own -' own To show the activity of the sect in writing and collecting and arranging the hymns which the Schwenkfelders used privatelv de- yotionally and at their meetings for worship. The chapter on the "Hymnwriters of the Sixteenth and Seven- teenth Centuries discloses the surprising fact that there were not 45 46 Reviews less than eighteen European Schwenkfelder hymnvvriters before , the most important of whom were Adam Leissner and Daniel Sudermann.

Schwenkfeld himself seems to have been too busy with other activities incident to the period to devote much time to hymnody. To Caspar Weiss, who died in , is given the credit of being the "originator of the Schwenkfelder Hymn-book".


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It is in this chapter that Doctor Seipt traces the sources of the Weiss collection of hymns. We also see the relation between the collections of the older Weiss and that of his son, George, the latter consisting of hymns. Another most valuable contribution in this work, brimful of hitherto undisclosed facts, is the deciphering of the initials of all the contributors to the manuscript folio volume of the year The list given shows that fifty-eight different writers contributed to the Weiss collection.

The last three chapters are devoted to the American editions of the hymn-book. We can now trace the evolu- tion of the Schwenkfelder hymnal from its earliest beginnings through its Moravian substitute to the earliest American edition pub- lished on Rittenhouse paper by Sauer, down to its final form, the edition of The entire book shows that Doctor Seipt has spared neither time nor effort, although occasionally space.

From his researches it becomes evident that the history of the Schwenkfelders must be re- written. It is to be regretted that lack of space prevented the pub- lishing of the hitherto unpublished hymns, and it is hoped that either he or the editors of the Corpus ScJnvenkfeldianornm will do this in a supplemental volume. Doctor Seipt is to be congratulated for not only giving us a most valuable contribution to American hymnody, but also for showing what can be done in scores of other fields by going back to original sources — musty manuscripts.

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Januar in der Halle der Deutschen Gesellschaft abgehaltenen Jahresversammlung warden die vorjahrigen Beamten wiedererwahlt. Die Berichte des Schatzmeisters und Sekretars wur- den angenommen wie verlesen. Die wahrend des Jahres erschienen German American An- nals stehen den vorgehenden in keiner Weise nach, in ihnen sind vielmehr wertvolle Schriften erschienen. Ausserdem hat der Verfasser des glanzenden in den Annals gedruckten "Francis Daniel Pasto- rius" dassclbe in Buchform erscheinen lassen.

Viele anderen und zugleich sehr wertvolle Schriften liegen der Redaktion der Annals vor, und werden im Laufe dieses Jahres veroffentlicht werden. Nachdem die Geschafte der Gesellschaft erledigt worden waren, begaben sich die Mitglieder nach der Harmonic Halle, wo ein echter Schmaus den Mitgliedern und eingeladenen Gasten zubereitet war. Alles verlief aufs gemiitlichste. Professor Dr. Learned hielt eine hochst interessante Rede iiber seine Forschungen in den deutschen Archiven, und unter Anderem betonte er die colossale Masse Stoff die deutsche Auswanderung nach Amerika betreffend.

Er zeigte klar und deutlich, was die Deutsch-Amerikanische Historische Gesellschaft sich ftir einen gros- sen Ruhm schaffen konne, wenn sie ans Werk ginge, diesen um- fangreichen, bisher fast unbekannten Stoff auszubeuten. Der Red- ner machte weiter darauf aufmerksam, dass es an der Zeit sei diesen grossen Fund auszubeuten. So eindringend und eingehend war die Darstellung dieses Themas, dass die Gesellschaft sofort beschloss ans Werk zu gehen, und zu diesem Zwecke ernannte der Vorsitzende die Herren Krebs, Wildermuth and Dr.

Kuttner als Comite, die noti- gen Mittel zu sammeln, dass unserer Gesellschaft die Gelegenheit nicht entgehe. The annual meeting of the German American Historical Society was held in the hall of the German Society on the evening of January loth. During the year three of the most prominent members of the society were lost by death, viz. Lea and Arno Leonhardt.

Four new members were elected. All the officers were elected for the ensuing year. After the business meeting was over the members went to the hall of the Harmonie Society, where lunch was served. Professor M. Learned delivered an address on his re- searches in German archives, and made a strong appeal to the German American Historical Society to avail itself of the grand- est opportunity in its existence, by publishing an entirely new work on German Immigration, based exclusively on hitherto un- published documentary evidence.

Professor Learned pointed out that this could be done for a few thousand dollars. On motion, the president appointed Dr. Kuttner, M. Krebs and Mr. Wildermuth as a committe to devise ways and means for the pub- lishing of this monumental piece of work. Brandt, Hamilton College.

Carpenter, Columbia University. Carruth, University of Kansas. Hermann Collitz, Johns Hopkins University. Cutting, University of Chicago. Dodge, University of Illinois. Faust, Cornell University. Adolph Gerber, Late of Earlham College. Julius Goebel, University of Illinois. Hatfield, Northwestern University. Hewett, Cornell University. Hohlfeld, University of Wisconsin. Hugo K. Schilling, University of California. Schmidt-Wartenberg, University of Chicago. Hermann Schoenfeld, Columbian University.

Calvin Thomas, Columbia University. White, Harvard University. Xcfp3fg : F. The following text of the hitherto unknown and unpublished German translation of Penn's famous letter to the Society of Traders in London was brought to my attention in April, , by Praktikant Richard Stoll of the Royal Privy Archives in Munich, while I was working at an inventory of the sources of American history for the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

The Director of the Privy Archives kindly allowed me to have the document photographed. The text is here printed diplo- matically from the photographic copy. As this is to form one of a series of such first prints, I will give only prefatory note here. The translation was evidently made from the original text of the first print of the letter of , and possibly with the Dutch translation to consult.

A number of English words such as Mttskrat, Heath birds, Krdn grain , Rocks rocks, fish , full and others are taken over without translating, and an occa- sional Dutch word such as Hogstrasse, would suggest the presence of the Dutch text. The use of capitals is very inconsistent. It is often difficult to decide wliether the scribe intends capitals on small letters. Here the nouns are capitalized, where they are clearly so in the text.

Scream contains English versions of a selection of songs from their German-language albums Schrei and Zimmer A video for "Scream", the English-language version of their hit "Schrei", was also recorded, and was released to the iTunes Store in early March Tokio Hotel gave their first concert in the United Kingdom on 19 June The song reached 77 in the UK Singles Chart.

They performed "Monsoon" at the event. The single contains the tracks "Scream" and "Ready, Set, Go! The single contains the track "Scream" and a remix of "Ready, Set, Go! Tokio Hotel embarked on a second tour of America in August The band's music video for "Ready Set Go!

He let the audience sing more frequently than normal and instead of the original 21 songs that were on the set list, they only played 16 songs. Bill apologized, in German, for his bad singing and explained that he was sick. Two days later, the band canceled Lisbon, Portugal concert minutes before it was supposed to commence.

The rest of the " Hotels" Tour and a scheduled North American Tour were cancelled following an announcement in Bild by the band's manager that Bill Kaulitz had to undergo surgery to remove a cyst on his vocal cords. Bill Kaulitz had been putting strain on his voice after playing 43 concerts in the Hotels tour without vacation. He had to undergo Larynx surgery on March 30th to remove a cyst that had formed on his vocal cords.

The cyst was the result of a throat infection that went untreated. Following his surgery, Bill was unable to speak for ten days, and took 3 weeks to heal completely. If Bill had continued singing the rest of the tour, his voice would have eventually been permanently damaged. After two weeks of complete silence for Bill and two months of vocal rehabilitation, Tokio Hotel started performing again in May His stepfather inspired Bill and his brother to begin their music careers, and they began writing song lyrics. His wax statue was unveiled on 30 September At 19 years old, he is now the youngest person to be duplicated by that museum.

As of September , Tom was using Gibson guitars. Out of the two, he had the first kiss, and he was the first of the two to have sex, stating that Bill is a virgin. It is unknown if Tom was being sarcastic about the later comment. Georg Listing bass guitar Georg Listing was born on 31 March His hometown is Magdeburg. He began playing bass when he was twelve-years-old,[8] and, as of September , uses a Sandberg bass. Gustav has been playing the drums since he was six. Retrieved on International Federation of the Phonographic Industry — Germany. Retrieved September 17, Sound Generator.

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