Based on the information available, it would not appear to the Commission that promotion and conservation of national heritage can as such be considered an overriding reason, justifying a restriction to the exercise of certain activities. It would appear that the promotion of national heritage can be ensured independently from the question of where the provider of the service comes from, the important issue being the knowledge that the provider of the service has of a certain territory and its culture.
Esta D. This amendment is opposed by a broad swathe of Spanish society and by agricultural unions, a fact which has been ignored by the Spanish authorities. The Spanish and French governments have been unable to reach an agreement on the matter and the Commission recently stated that it was examining the statements of objection.
Does the Commission have adequate means to check the accuracy of information sent by Member States in an amendment procedure, such as that concerning the Roncal protected designation of origin? The Commission is aware of the oppositions raised within Spain. Such oppositions had to be handled by the responsible Spanish authorities in the framework of the national opposition procedure preceding the submission of the amendment application to the Commission.
No agreement was reached on the matter between the French and Spanish authorities. The Commission is currently analysing the information and views provided by the French and Spanish authorities and has requested clarifications from the Spanish authorities. It is therefore, at this stage, not possible to make a pronouncement on the substance of the arguments raised in the opposition, nor on the date by when a final decision will be taken.
The Commission bases its initial scrutiny of an amendment application on the documents thus checked by the Member State. However, the Commission is empowered, if necessary, to seek a substantial revision of the amendment, or reject it. Nel gennaio del , il governo francese ha avviato l'operazione Serval al fine di allontanare i jihadisti dal Mali settentrionale.
Gli estremisti islamici si sono successivamente diffusi in diverse zone della regione del Sahel e, di conseguenza, i militari francesi hanno dovuto riorganizzare le loro basi. Gli Stati Uniti stanno fornendo un appoggio alla Francia mettendo a sua disposizione aerei cisterna, aerei da carico, aeromobili di intelligence e velivoli senza pilota.
Dispone l'UE di piani intesi a coadiuvare l'addestramento dei soldati in paesi quali Libia e Mali? Come valuta il rischio che i militanti della regione del Sahel possano sferrare attacchi rivolti all'Europa? Nel gennaio un numero limitato di Stati membri dell'UE ha fornito un supporto diretto all'operazione francese Serval. A livello collettivo, l'UE ha notevolmente rafforzato il proprio impegno per sostenere le azioni di lotta al terrorismo. Vista la natura del terrorismo mondiale, si sta cercando di collegare le dimensioni esterna ed interna delle azioni UE volte a contrastare questo fenomeno.
Gli sviluppi in termini politici e di sicurezza che possono sfociare in minacce terroristiche vengono esaminati regolarmente dal Consiglio onde coordinare meglio le risposte degli Stati membri. Islamic extremists then spread to various parts of the Sahel region, and as a result, the French military had to reorganise its bases. It will cover the whole region with several bases. The US is supporting France by providing aerial refuelling tankers, cargo aircraft, intelligence and unmanned drone aircraft. What is the assessment of the threat regarding the potential for militants based in the Sahel to launch attacks on Europe?
The EU collectively enhanced considerably its level of engagement in support of counter-terrorism efforts. An additional civilian mission should be deployed soon in order to support internal security forces police, gendarmerie, National Guard in Mali. Given the nature of global terrorism, efforts are being made in order to link up the external and internal dimensions of EU counter-terrorism efforts.
Political and security developments which may translate into terrorist threat are reviewed regularly by the Council with the objective to better coordinate Member States' respective responses.
The Works of Elena Ferrante
The developments in world demand for cereals, dairy and meat should have a positive impact on prices. This process resulted over time as well in an increased farm size. The reformed CAP aims at improving the productivity and competitiveness of EU agriculture while addressing environmental and climate concerns, which should ensure a sustainable production potential over the long term also as regards those employed in agriculture. Farmers' incomes will continue to be supported by direct payments, but in a more targeted and equitable manner. In Northern Ireland, work has begun to repatriate thousands of tonnes of illegally deposited waste from County Fermanagh to the Republic of Ireland.
This problem is not unique to my constituency. Criminals are exploiting the high costs associated with legal waste management to make substantial profits from illegal trafficking and disposal activities, circumventing environmental legislation.
How the movements were framed
Given the worrying signs that illegal waste dumping is on the increase, does the Commission have any strategies in place to tackle cross-border elements of this crime? The Commission recently proposed revision of the regulation to require Member States to establish risk-based inspection planning to target the most problematic and high-risk waste streams and to give national inspectors additional powers to better control and prevent illegal waste shipments. This proposal is now under consideration by the co-legislators EP rapporteur Staes and will be subject to a plenary vote in the near future.
The Commission is also continuing the already established cooperation with professional networks such as EnviCrimeNet. The most effective way to reduce poor and illegal treatment of waste is to establish separate collection systems which render waste streams valuable and therefore encourage recyclates to be put back into productive use. The Commission will present in the near future a legislative initiative on resource efficiency and waste.
The initiative will build on progress in the implementation of the Roadmap to Resource Efficient Europe and set out the key building blocks needed to unlock EU economic potential to be more productive whilst using fewer resources and advancing towards a circular economy. It has been reported that the Commission plans to introduce stricter controls for the European organic sector in order to stamp out fraud and remove derogations to production rules that risk watering down standards. They argue that the introduction of new proposals would lead to legal uncertainty and disruption to operators who are continuing to implement current legislation.
While there appears to be some merit in introducing stricter controls for the organic sector, does the Commission have any strategies in place to ensure that there will be as little disruption as possible to local operators implementing current legislation and to allow the sector to continue to flourish?
In recent years the organic market has been characterised by unprecedented development. However, the applicable organic production rules are not adapted to this evolution. They comprise numerous exceptions and are complex. Furthermore, the organic control system and trade regime need to be reinforced and adapted to better address the evolving needs and to prevent cases of malpractice and fraud that have occurred in the past.
The Commission wishes to provide a sound basis for the sustainable development of the organic sector. Rules related to organic production, controls and trade of organic products are being reviewed with the objective of enhancing the credibility of the sector in line with consumers' expectations and the evolution of the organic market.
The Commission is not able to provide, at this stage, information on the proposal. However, it should be noted that it is a normal practice, in case of new legislation bringing significant changes on operators, that appropriate measures are foreseen to ensure a smooth transition. The Commission will present the proposal for the revision of the political and legislative framework for organic farming to the European Parliament after adoption and will reply to any query.
The implication of the contradiction between the directive and the regulation is that health claims for botanicals could be rejected, with many food supplement products disappearing from store shelves if it is prohibited to state the purpose and benefits of the product. The impact on local SMEs, the main driver of the food supplement industry, could be devastating if the uncertain status quo is maintained. In light of this worrying possibility, does the Commission have any plans to rectify the apparent contradiction between the directive and the regulation by recognising the peculiarity of botanicals and reviewing current legislation?
The Commission is fully aware of the importance of the issue regarding health claims for botanicals. In that context, the Commission, taking into account positions expressed by different stakeholders, launched a reflection exercise concerning the approach to be taken with regards to the evaluation of health claims for botanicals, together with the Member States. Oggetto: Deroga al regolamento CE n. Il regolamento CE n. In particolare, la taglia massima della vongola Venus spp. Per quanto riguarda il caso specifico, vale a dire la cattura di vongole sotto taglia mediante draghe idrauliche italiane, queste condizioni non sono per il momento soddisfatte.
It must also be borne in mind that bivalve molluscs, even up to the same maximum diameter may naturally vary in length and thickness depending on growth rates and substrate granulometry. In view of the active management of intensive clam fishing grounds in the Adriatic and the middle and lower Tyrrhenian sea for example, involving planting, fishing ground rotation, regular fishing moratoria and, maximum daily quotas, minimum clam size does not appear to be a major conservation issue, at least as far as managed stocks are concerned.
The discard ban, which will, from , apply to all species subject to minimum size requirements, is unlikely to require the unloading of undersize bivalve molluscs, which have a high survival rate if discarded into the sea. As regards the specific case of undersized clams caught by the Italian hydraulic dredges, for the time being these conditions are not fulfilled.
Back in the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries STECF already recommended tackling the problem through the improvement of selectivity of the dredge and of the sorting mechanisms on board. Bigger clams have higher prices in the market. Through increased selectivity and fishing practices that favour the exploitation of bigger specimens, fishermen would thus reap more socioeconomic benefits from their activity, and avoid negative consequences for not respecting the measures in force.
This would also increase the overall environmental and economic sustainability of this fishing activity. Oltre ai danni economici e al disagio, sono ravvisabili anche enormi danni, dato il rilevantissimo ruolo turistico della zona interessata Riviera Ligure — Sanremo. For about two weeks, the TEN Genoa-Ventimiglia line has been blocked due to a train accident caused by a landslide which resulted in the train from Milan to Ventimiglia being halted near the town of Andora.
Due to the high costs and bureaucratic wrangling involved in the removal of the carriages, this accident has given rise to ongoing problems for passengers and the transport of goods on a line of great international importance. In addition to the economic consequences and disruption, the accident is feared to have significant repercussions owing to the extreme importance of tourism in the affected area the Italian Riviera, around Sanremo.
Does the Commission not consider it important and necessary to get this section of railway, a part of the TEN, which is currently a single track, open again and indeed to restart work, suspended since , on doubling the line? The importance from a EU perspective of the Genova-Ventimiglia railway section is reflected by the fact that the section is part of the TEN-T core network. It is up to the Italian authorities to come forward with project proposals. The first call for projects proposals to receives co-funding from the CEF will open in the fall Oggetto: Cambogia: lotta allo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini.
Lo sfruttamento sessuale di donne e bambini e la tratta di esseri umani continuano a destare viva preoccupazione in Cambogia. Cambodia is one of the key countries in the fight against the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. For several years, many NGOs have been setting up projects to prevent sexual exploitation, with the aim of guaranteeing an education for children whose families do not have the financial resources to send them to school and providing the families with basic necessities such as food, clothing, medical care and financial assistance.
In light of the above, can the Commission indicate whether it intends to revise the estimates for funds allocated to international cooperation and to Cambodia in particular? The sexual exploitation of women and children and human trafficking continue to be major causes of concern in Cambodia. The EU raises these issues in its regular policy dialogue with the government. The EU provides support to civil society organisations in Cambodia in their efforts to combat and eliminate all forms of human rights violations, including the sexual exploitation of children.
The Honourable Member will find examples of projects in the annex to this reply. It is also programming regional support and preparing thematic programmes for including the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights EIDHR from which Cambodia will also receive support. Cambodia has also been mentioned in the Action Oriented Paper on strengthening the external dimension of trafficking in human beings as a country of particular importance for cooperation in the South East Asian region.
Oggetto: Condizione dei lavoratori immigrati nei paesi del Consiglio di cooperazione del Golfo. I lavoratori immigrati costituiscono una delle risorse alla base della ricchezza dei paesi del Consiglio di cooperazione del Golfo Arabia Saudita, Bahrein, Emirati arabi uniti, Kuwait, Oman e Qatar. Ritiene che la Kafala dovrebbe essere riformata per consentire ai lavoratori di cambiare lavoro o tornare nel proprio paese anche senza permesso del datore di lavoro?
Le delegazioni dell'UE ad Abu Dhabi, negli Emirati arabi uniti e a Riyadh, in Arabia Saudita e le missioni diplomatiche dell'UE nel Golfo seguono da vicino la situazione dei diritti umani, compresa la situazione dei diritti dei lavoratori immigrati. L'UE sostiene l'agenda per il lavoro dignitoso e la ratifica e l'attuazione effettiva delle convenzioni dell'OIL, in particolare per quanto concerne le norme fondamentali del lavoro, e collabora con l'OIL a questo proposito.
L'UE sta attualmente finanziando un progetto di ricerca attuato dall'OIL per promuovere condizioni di lavoro dignitose per i lavoratori domestici immigrati, affrontando i problemi che li espongono ai rischi di sfruttamento e abusi e analizzando cinque principali corridoi di migrazione, compresa la migrazione dal Nepal verso gli Emirati Arabi Uniti. An employment agency in the country of origin locates an employer who is willing to sponsor the immigrant worker.
Furthermore, immigrants are often the victims of violence and abuse: beatings, cigarette burns, even boiling oil poured on the body and amputations, while immigrants working as domestics who dare to rebel risk rape, prison and even beheading, for violating the terms of their contract. Is the Commission aware of the conditions to which immigrants are subjected in these countries?
Does the Commission consider that it is time to put pressure on the governments of the GCC states to ensure respect for the rights and dignity of migrant workers? The respect of human dignity is at the core of EU values. The EU is currently funding a research project implemented by the ILO to promote decent work for migrant domestic workers by addressing challenges making them vulnerable to the risks of exploitation and abuse and by analysing five main migration corridors, including migration from Nepal to the UAE.
The EU considers that the kafala system is unsustainable and will continue to advocate for its abolition in its current form, including by enabling workers to change employers and to return in their home countries. Oggetto: Eolico offshore, sviluppi tecnologici e problemi normativi. Secondo il nuovo rapporto della European Wind Energy Association EWEA l'Unione europea, nel tratto che va dal Portogallo alla Finlandia, potrebbe produrre quattro volte l'energia necessaria al suo fabbisogno totale installando turbine eoliche offshore galleggianti.
La lobby sottolinea che la causa di questo ristagno va cercata nell'incertezza del quadro legislativo europeo e sollecita pertanto la fissazione di obiettivi obbligatori per il Quali azioni intende intraprendere per facilitare la cooperazione regionale in materia di pianificazione della rete elettrica e di pianificazione dei siti d'insediamento dell'energia eolica offshore?
Nell'ambito del regolamento TEN-E sono stati individuati, in diversi corridoi prioritari, vari progetti di interesse comune, ossia progetti che apportano notevoli benefici transfrontalieri. Questi progetti potranno avvalersi di procedure accelerate per il rilascio delle autorizzazioni, di una normativa favorevole e di sovvenzioni a titolo del meccanismo per collegare l'Europa. Si tratta di condizioni vantaggiose che offriranno un forte incentivo ad adottare una prospettiva regionale per lo sviluppo dei progetti.
According to the new report from the European Wind Energy Association EWEA , the European Union could, in the section between Portugal and Finland, produce four times its total energy requirement by installing floating offshore wind turbines. This type of energy offers a number of advantages compared with onshore wind energy production: offshore production installations are larger than onshore installations, winds are stronger and steadier offshore than onshore and offshore wind turbines raise less local concern.
Currently, 5 GW of offshore wind capacity has been installed in Europe, 3. In spite of the rising figures, the industry is recording a sharp decline in the number of new funding concessions, only one of which was successful in The lobby is drawing attention to the fact that the cause of this stagnation is to be sought in uncertainty in the European legislative framework and therefore calls for the setting of mandatory targets to be achieved by What action it intends to take to provide incentives for transmission system operators and energy regulators to strengthen their collaborative links with a view to establishing regulative conditions more conducive to investment in offshore transnational networks?
What action it intends to take to facilitate regional cooperation in terms of electricity network planning and planning of sites for the installation of offshore wind energy? Member States will be free to decide the path to follow towards this target, offshore wind in the Northern Seas offers an important potential to contribute to it. PCI's are projects providing significant cross-border benefits. These PCI's will benefit from accelerated permitting procedures, a favourable regulatory regime and may apply for grants under the Connecting Europe Facility. Such benefits will provide a strong incentive to adopt a regional perspective for their development.
As the PCI's are by their nature projects involving actors from more than one Member State, their implementation will require joint attention to issues of planning, regulation and incentivisation. NSCOGI was established in and brings together representatives of governments, regulators and TSO's and of the Commission to promote the coordinated development of the onshore and offshore grids, and to address barriers to grid development including regulatory, legal, market, planning, authorisation and technical issues.
The European Commission furthermore recently commissioned a study to assess the benefits of the development of a meshed grid in the Northern Seas for different scenarios of generation capacity. Gli effetti di queste carestie continuano a persistere e a mietere vittime in un paese allo stremo delle forze. Questi programmi di cooperazione e assistenza sono costati 1,6 miliardi di USD dal al ; a questi importi andranno ad aggiungersi ulteriori contributi stanziati al vertice dello scorso settembre a Bruxelles.
Il sostegno globale dell'UE ha avuto un impatto determinante in Somalia, che dal ha visto l'elezione di un governo, una forte diminuzione dell'influenza di Al-Shabaab e la riduzione a livelli minimi del tasso di successo degli atti di pirateria.
Just three years ago, some 3. The effects of the famine continue to be felt, with people still dying as a result, in a country that is stretched to its limits. The European Union is engaged in Somalia, providing broad-ranging assistance that includes development programmes, active diplomacy, and missions to promote the rule of law, security and humanitarian aid.
Priority has been given to maintaining a peace in which human rights can be respected and democratic institutions can be developed. These aid and cooperation programmes cost 1. The comprehensive EU support has made a substantial difference in Somalia, where since we have seen a government elected for the first time, Al-Shabaab influence seriously diminished and successful piracy attacks brought back down to negligible levels. The EU development projects are specifically targeting not only effective governance, but also the education sector and economic development at large.
It is to be noted that food insecurity in the South of Somalia is directly linked to the armed conflict that limits the access of humanitarian aid and emergency distribution of food during a protracted drought. The EU will continue to ensure that this support is fully coherent with other international donors and in line with Somali needs. Oggetto: Sottrazione internazionale di minori — Applicazione della normativa europea e internazionale.
L'Ufficio del Mediatore del Parlamento europeo per i casi di sottrazione internazionale di minori ha ricevuto una richiesta riguardante un caso che coinvolge tre Paesi. In base alle informazioni a disposizione, un cittadino italiano e una cittadina francese hanno contratto matrimonio in Francia nel settembre , fissando la propria residenza in Marocco per esigenze lavorative. The office of the European Parliament Mediator for International Child Abduction has received a request concerning a case of abduction involving three countries.
Could the Commission clarify the concept of habitual residence of the child in the circumstances described according to the relevant case law? Can it say whether the application for the return of the child, also an Italian national, can be transferred to Italy and whether the father is entitled to assistance from the Italian authorities?
Where the conflict between parents is contemporaneous with the birth of the child, as it seems from the description of the facts, no habitual residence may ever come into existence. To say that the child's habitual residence derived from his mother would be inconsistent with the Convention, for it would reward an abducting parent and create an impermissible presumption that the child's habitual residence is where the mother happens to be.
However, it is commonly recognised that the child will normally have no habitual residence until living in a country on a footing of some stability. It will be for the court seized to ascertain the habitual residence of the child. The father should seek the advice of the Italian Central Authorities in order to verify the possibility to transfer the case from Morocco to Italy.
Social inclusion is one of the most recurrent themes in recent years in Europe, as well as a priority for ensuring the welfare of European citizens. It nevertheless seems that external action to fight poverty and policies to support underdeveloped countries have not taken account of this aspect, or at least have failed to correct it.
Social inclusion is a priority included in all the geographical and thematic programmes of the Development Cooperation Instrument for The Commission does not produce data on income inequality or poverty but uses data produced by other institutions eg. Oggetto: Spesa per comunicazioni istituzionali della Commissione. Il giornale afferma inoltre che saranno spesi solo durante le elezioni circa 5 milioni di euro a scopo informativo. Steun aan hernieuwbare energie is nodig, zeker zolang nucleaire en fossiele energie nog steeds en meer ondersteund worden.
Uiteraard stelt zich dan de vraag wie deze ondersteuning moet betalen. Uit de praktijk blijkt dat de meeste lidstaten deze kosten onevenredig verdelen onder de verschillende doelgroepen en dat de steun aan hernieuwbare energie steeds meer betaald wordt door de gezinnen. Hoewel uit studies reeds gebleken is dat het risico op koolstoflekkage zeer beperkt is, valt dit standpunt nog te verdedigen in een internationale context.
Plant de Commissie verdere acties om ervoor te zorgen dat de kosten van hernieuwbare energie op een billijke manier verdeeld worden tussen de verschillende groepen van gebruikers gezinnen, kmo's, energie-intensieve industrie, …? De Commissie herziet momenteel haar richtsnoeren betreffende staatssteun op het gebied van milieu en energie, waarbij tevens rekening wordt gehouden met de door het geachte Parlementslid naar voren gebrachte kwestie. Steunregelingen voor hernieuwbare energie behelzen in de verschillende EU-lidstaten uiteenlopende instrumenten terugleveringstarieven, premiebetalingen voor teruglevering, groene certificaten, investeringssteun, belastingen en heffingen etc.
Bij alle ontwikkelingen inzake energie, hetzij uit hernieuwbare bronnen, fossiele brandstoffen of andere bronnen, dient rekening te worden gehouden met externe milieueffecten en dient het EU-acquis op milieugebied te worden nageleefd. Doordat de lidstaten de doelstellingen in de praktijk omzetten, wordt schonere energieopwekking ondersteund, waardoor de luchtkwaliteit stijgt. Support for renewable energy is essential, especially while nuclear energy and fossil fuels continue to receive support at a greater level. Of course, this then leads to the question of who should pay for this support.
In practice, it appears that most Member States distribute these costs disproportionately among the various target groups and that the support for renewable energy is increasingly paid for by households. Although studies have shown that the risk of carbon leakage is minimal, this point of view is nevertheless justifiable in an international context. This then leads to the risk of unfair competition, as can be seen from the study undertaken by the Commission itself into the situation in Germany, where energy-intensive industries are responsible for only 0.
How will the Commission ensure that the exemptions do not lead to unfair competition, or how will it solve the existing problems, and thus create a level playing field which rules out competition between the various Member States? Will the Commission take into account the limited capacity of above all households and the fact that an increasing number of households are facing energy poverty? The Commission has produced best practice guidance and is promoting dialogue between national actors in order to prevent cross-border distortions in economic competition and the cost effective delivery of renewable energy, to minimise the cost to consumers.
The way Member States meet their targets should also contribute to better air quality by supporting cleaner energy generation. In the context of an assessment of the functioning of Europe's retail markets and the on-going discussions of the EU's climate and energy policy, initiatives to address distributional and equity considerations will be prepared as appropriate. If so, what would these rules be? What specific EU legislation would the Commission take as the basis for implementing these additional rules?
If so, what are these urban nodes? Pursuant to Art. The CEF contribution to road infrastructure projects in the form of grants will remain limited. The site is home to the largest deciduous forest complex in Europe, endangered dunes with unique Mediterranean and Pontic-Euxinic vegetation, and the habitats of a number of relict and endangered species. As a result, the Bulgarian Minister for the Environment rescinded the environmental assessment and the infringement procedure was closed. Although the Court acknowledged that the lack of an approved strategic environmental assessment of the master spatial plan constitutes a serious breach of the procedural rules laid down by Bulgarian legislation for the drawing-up of such plans, the Court dismissed the complaints against the plan as inadmissible.
After receiving the necessary information, the Commission will decide on further steps, as appropriate. The Commission is aware that work is ongoing to have these adopted within the shortest delay. However, Spain has not yet informed the Commission of all the necessary transposition measures for fully incorporating the directive into national legislation. If Spain does not comply with its legal obligation within two months, the Commission may decide to refer the case to the Court of Justice.
Daily, the assaults, the threats and provocations against militants of the labour and working class movement are escalating. President Juan Manuel Santos and the Colombian government bear a heavy share of responsibility for the above, as does the European Union, since the murderous attacks of the repressive mechanisms against popular militants in Colombia have increased in intensity since the adoption of the new EU — Colombia Agreement. Does she endorse the demand made by the labour and working class movement for the release of H.
She follows closely the political developments in Colombia and in particular the issues related to human rights. The EU and Colombia have established a dialogue on human rights in whose framework all issues concerning human rights and freedoms are addressed. Moreover, the European Union, at local level, is supporting human rights defenders, including trade unionists, through cooperation programmes and regular contacts with human rights organisations.
Does the Commission agree that funding should be allocated to this barbaric practice? As from the CAP reform, direct support has been decoupled from production and is granted per eligible hectare to farmers holding payment entitlements. Consequently, farmers are free to undertake any legal economic activity, including animal breeding. Under the Rural Development policy there is also no specific support for bullfighting-related activities.
Projects financed under these measures have to comply with applicable Union and national law. Therefore, such practices remain under the sole competence of the Member States concerned. Recent studies have confirmed that Cyprus and Malta have the highest incidence of diabetes in the whole Mediterranean region. Given the problems normally associated with diabetes, would the Commission support further studies and programmes in this area, particularly with regard to the prevention of diabetes?
The Commission is aware that Cyprus and Malta are among the Member States with a high incidence of diabetes. The Commission addresses diabetes as a matter of priority, by taking action on key risk factors, such as the lack of physical activity and obesity and by fostering Member States' cooperation on the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The Commission is supporting Member States in their efforts to address diabetes by co-financing through the Health Programme a joint action on addressing chronic diseases and promoting healthy ageing across the life cycle.
One work package of this joint action is dedicated to identifying the barriers to prevention, screening and treatment of diabetes. According to recent reports in the Maltese media, HSBC Malta plc is obliging clients who withdraw large sums of money from their personal accounts for an explanation before allowing such a withdrawal to take place.
In some instances, it has also asked for documented evidence of the intended use. Does it consider such a request, especially when there is no reasonable suspicion of illicit activity, to be legal? If it deems such actions to be illegal, what steps will it be taking to enforce compliance? Such ongoing monitoring should include scrutiny of transactions undertaken throughout the course of that relationship to ensure that the transactions being conducted are consistent with the bank's knowledge of the customer, the business and risk profile.
It is for the national implementing legislation, or even the financial institutions in their business policies, to further develop how to conduct ongoing monitoring. There is guidance by various supervisory authorities stating that withdrawals of large amounts from an account could be considered as a potential warning sign, at least under certain circumstances. Thus, it would not appear unreasonable for a financial institution to request more information if a customer wants to withdraw large sums of money. Such a request does not, however, necessarily imply that there is a suspicion of money laundering or terrorist financing.
Does the Commission consider accessibility to the Internet to be something that has to be improved? If so, what kind of programmes would it consider with a view to increasing such accessibility? Enabling more citizens to access and use the Internet is a key priority for the European Commission. The Digital Agenda for Europe identifies several objectives and actions to improve access to the web and use of Internet-based services.
These comprise activities at national and European level, ranging from investments in the required infrastructure to supporting and guiding citizens to go online. In particular Pillars 6 Enhancing digital literacy, skills and inclusion and 7 ICT-enabled benefits for EU society of the Digital Agenda specifically tackle barriers to Internet access and use. Moreover, the Commission has made a proposal for a directive on the accessibility of public sector bodies websites. The discussions on the proposal continue in the Council.
Er zijn immers talloze voorbeelden en getuigenissen te vinden over gruwelijke mishandelingen die deze dieren worden aangedaan. De regels aangaande het kweken, houden, verhandelen en vervoeren van windhonden verschillen sterk per lidstaat en worden ook niet steeds correct toegepast. Vooral in Spanje is de situatie schrijnend. De Parlementsleden ontvingen afgelopen jaar honderden mails van bezorgde burgers die hen aanmaanden om de schriftelijke verklaring te onderteken en zo een einde te maken aan deze wantoestanden. De mishandeling van windhonden blijft dus voortduren.
De protestacties gelukkig ook. Welke acties heeft de Commissie reeds ondernomen om ervoor te zorgen dat er een einde komt aan deze mishandelingen? Hoe zal de Commissie ervoor zorgen dat de wetgeving inzake dierenwelzijn overal correct wordt toegepast? Heeft de Commissie de lidstaten, en met name Spanje, hierover reeds op het matje geroepen? Op welke manier? The rules on breeding, keeping, buying and selling, and transporting greyhounds vary considerably from one Member State to another, and are not always correctly enforced.
The situation is particularly bad in Spain. Biograficheskii Ukazatel. Stetsky and B. This struggle for contested elections was finally lost during the October Central Committee Plenum. Vareikis had also been involved with the Tsarist secret police. He had been arrested on October 10, just two days before Iakovlev. Perhaps it was Vareikis who named Iakovlev. Iakovlev did name Vareikis in his own confession.
About this character of the organization I told a prominent member of the Right and Trotskyite conspiracy, Yakovlev. In the Right and Trotskyite circles with whom I had occasion to speak, this tendency to transform our organization into a fascist type of organization undoubtedly existed. The fascist nature of Ukrainian nationalism during the interwar period has long been recognized. Piatakov too had lived next door to the Iakovlevs.
I learned this from Gamarnik. Interrogations of Nikolai I. Vavilov We have further evidence concerning Iakovlev from the investigative materials of Nikolai I. Vavilov, a prominent Soviet biologist who was arrested, tried and imprisoned in for his clandestine participation in an anti-Soviet conspiracy in the early s.
University Press, ; John A. Ukrainian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, It was long assumed that his arrest and conviction was really a screen for repressing his scientific view. According to archival evidence released since the end of the USSR this appears not to have been the case. In them he implicated Iakovlev. Question: You have been arrested as an active participant of an antisoviet organization and as an agent of foreign intelligence services. Do you admit your guilt to these charges?
I do not confess myself guilty of espionage. Question: Bear in mind that you will not succeed in keeping your espionage activity hidden and that the investigation will interrogate you about it, but for now confess with whom you have been connected in the antisoviet work. Transcript of the interrogation of the arrestee Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov of August 24 ; Vavilov Vavilov made a differentiated confession.
Accused of having spied for foreign intelligence services, he refused to admit it. The fact that Vavilov confessed to one capital charge while refusing to confess to another makes his confession appear more reliable. The most likely explanation for such a confession is the desire to tell the truth. Eikhe too was executed for massive illegal executions and repressions in collaboration with Ezhov.
Tell us by whom and under what circumstances you were recruited into the aforesaid organization. What was his basis for doing this? Answer: There was no direct conversation about this. You are either confusing or simply do not wish to say that even before your introduction into the organization of Rightists — you were one of the ideologues and leaders of the antisoviet organization about which you are now remaining silent. This confuses his interrogator, who does not understand how Iakovlev could have been a member without having been specifically recruited to it and also how he could state that he had been recruited zaverbovan by Iakovlev and yet never have spoken with Iakovlev about the organization.
The interrogator draws the obvious conclusion from this apparently contradictory assertion by Vavilov that the accused must be hiding something. Vavilov gives fuller details in the following passage, stating that he and Iakovlev had a mutual understanding, and that Iakovlev spoke to him in hints and allusions rather than speaking directly of conspiracies and organizations.
Question: You confessed earlier that YAKOVLEV recruited you into the antisoviet organization, that, supposedly, he never had any direct conversations with you about this.
We demand that you make your confession more precise. Besides that I directly participated in the development of deliberately harmful plans of plant culture during the First and Second Five-Year Plans. Vavilov There is no reason that the NKVD investigators would have wanted Vavilov to fabricate testimony against Iakovlev, who by that time had long since been executed.
By , when Vavilov was interrogated, Ezhov and his men too had long since been arrested, tried, and executed for fabricating false cases against a very large number of people, and Beria was now in charge of the NKVD. Here, as virtually everywhere in history, there is no absolute proof. But the evidence suggests that Iakovlev was not lying. Vavilov himself claimed in his own letter to Beria NKVD head at the time dated April 25 that he had been subjected to interrogations that took hours!
Such time-consuming and therefore expensive investigations bespeak a genuine attempt to find out the truth. No such titanic efforts are required either to fabricate an entirely false set of confessions or to compel a middle-aged academic to fabricate them himself. The scientist was in the process of being moved to the East ahead of the German military advance when he died on January 26 This corresponds exactly to the time Iakovlev himself was under interrogation. In his own confession Iakovlev said that he had collaborated with Ian Gamarnik, head of the Political Department of the Red Army who had committed suicide on May 30,.
She said specifically: During the past five years Iakovlev has been undertaking active participation in the underground anti-Soviet organization that stood on Trotskyist positions. He was in an especially secret zakonspirirovannom situation, dissembling in order to strengthen himself in Party work at attempting to be promoted to the leadership of the Party. Ezhov: Which Mikhailov?
We also need to know why both of these scoundrels were going abroad almost every year. He appears to have been attempting to learn from the interrogation how deep the conspiracy ran. This is evidence that the interrogation was genuine. This is one sign of their fraudulent nature. His testimony is not available. Even his name is not certain. No name and patronymic are given. But Iakovlev confessed within a couple of days of his arrest, so there was no time for any prolonged pressure. Ezhov could not have known in advance whether Stalin would choose to interview Iakovlev.
If Stalin did insist on seeing Iakovlev, and Iakovlev had been forced to falsely incriminate himself, the danger that he would inform on Ezhov to Stalin would have been far too great. For this reason it is very doubtful that Ezhov would have dared to fabricate a false case against someone as close to Stalin as Iakovlev was.
We have no evidence that Iakovlev was tortured, beaten, etc. Even if we had evidence that some kind of real torture had been used against Iakovlev, it would not mean he was innocent. Nor would it explain why Iakovlev confessed at trial. On June 26, Budennyi sent a letter to Commissar for Defense Kliment Voroshilov in which he outlined his impressions of the trial and what it meant. What has always been omitted are the following passages which follow immediately after the sentence above: He denied this on the basis that, he said, TROTSKY had entrusted him, PRIMAKOV, with a more serious task — to organize an armed uprising in Leningrad, for which purpose he, PRIMAKOV, was obliged to remain strictly secret from all terrorist groups, to break his ties with all Trotskyists and Rights and at the same time to win for himself authority and the absolute trust of the Party and the Army command.
Dokumenty i Materialy. We will give you our air forces in significant quantities with our own crews. And, declared Milch, we will be able to render you all this help in the Leningrad area because this area has a border with Finland with which we, he said, have excellent relations. A number of other defendants, both military and civilian, confessed to discussions with German generals including von Runstedt and Milch. In a segment from an interrogation of May 21, Primakov said:.
This anti-Soviet political bloc and military conspiracy, personally headed by the base fascist Trotsky,. Budennyi also reported that the military figures were not planning to take leadership from Trotsky or the Rights indefinitely. KORK confessed that he was aware that the leaders of the militaryfascist counterrevolutionary organization regarded their ties to Trotsky and the Rights as a temporary situation. Its text is still so top-secret in Russia that no researcher, no matter how trusted, is allowed to read it today.
Perhaps the KGB thought Alksnis would be sympathetic to the story that the military men had been framed. Alksnis had been arrested in November and then tried and executed as a conspirator in July , only months after he had served as one of the judges in the military panel that judged Tukhachevsky and the rest. Instead Alksnis, interviewed in a Russian nationalist journal in and again by researcher Vladimir L. Bobrov shortly afterwards said he was convinced by the transcript that some conspiracy had in fact taken place.
From the interview in the journal Elementy in My grandfather and Tukhachevsky were friends. And grandfather was on the judicial panel that judged both Tukhachevsky and Eideman. My interest in this case became even stronger after the well-known publications of [former] procuror Viktorov, who wrote that Iakov Alksnis was very active at the trial, harrassed the accused. But in the trial transcript everything was just the opposite. Grandfather only asked two or three questions during the entire trial. But the strangest thing is the behavior of the accused.
Newspaper accounts [of the Gorbachev-era — GF] claim that all the defendants denied their guilt completely. But according to the transcript they fully admitted their guilt. I realize that an admission of guilt itself can be the result of torture. But in the transcript it was something else entirely: a huge amount of detail, long dialogues, accusations of one another, a mass of precision. I know nothing about the nature of the conspiracy. But of the fact that there really did exist a conspiracy within the Red Army and that Tukhachevsky participated in it I am completely convinced today.
And then everything could turn out completely differently. And in the meantime. Alksnis From a followup interview of Col. Alksnis by Vladimir L. Bobrov: Alksnis:. I turned the pages of the transcript and had more questions than answers. I came away with the impression that, obviously, there had really been a conspiracy. But this is what struck me: in the transcript there are parts which attest to the sincerity of what the defendants said no matter who claims that the trial was an organized show, that they worked on the defendants specially so that they would give the necessary confessions.
Imagine this. This meeting did not take place in your office at the dacha, but was on the veranda. Bobrov: Very well. But was there anything there that made you think that the trial had been scripted and directed anyway? Alksnis: No, it would have been impossible to script and direct a trial such as is in the transcript. Bobrov: That is, you wish to state that, having read the transcript, you did not find in it any traces of any kind of staging?
Alksnis: Yes, yes. On top of that all of them confessed, and when they all admitted guilt in their last words, stating that they had been participants in the conspiracy and knowing that after that execution awaited them, it is just impossible to imagine that they forced them all to make such admissions and declarations. Alksnis: Everything was there: espionage, preparation for a military coup, sabotage [wrecking]. You were talking about the meeting at the dacha. They were talking about arranging coordination with the German military, contacts were going on with them.
Bobrov: One last question. What did you have in mind? Alksnis: If an objective research project on the events of those years were to be done, free of ideological dogmas, then a great deal could change in our attitude towards those years and towards the personalities of that epoch. Bobrov Assessing This Evidence It is not surprising that the transcript of the Tukhachevsky trial is top-secret once again.
As far as we can determine no one has been permitted to read it since Alksnis. But we do have the Budennyi letter. It is by far the most direct evidence of the testimony given at the trial that we have. It is simply not credible that eight battle-hardened military men could have been forced to falsely confess at trial to such devastating charges, in such detail, and in the manner in which they did.
Nor is there any evidence that they were forced to falsely confess in the first place, even before the trial. Like the trial transcript itself the letter remains top-secret. We located it in a littleknown and disorganized archive and are preparing it for publication. For Budennyi as for Col.
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Alksnis there is no question at all of the guilt of the generals, all of whom confessed it and gave details. This is also the case of the published commentary by General Belov,. We do not examine it here because Belov says nothing specifically about Trotsky and the Germans or Japanese. Thanks to them we now know as certainly as we will ever know that the military defendants in this trial were, in fact, guilty of what they confessed to.
This in itself completely dismantles the canonical interpretation of Soviet history. If we had no other evidence at all to this effect the testimony of the military figures would be very strong. And of course we do have much other evidence. All of it is consistent with what we now know of the Tukhachevsky trial testimony. For our present purposes this is the strongest possible evidence that Trotsky was indeed conspiring with the Nazi government and German military. Once one minor conspiracy was discovered it led by persistent investigation to others.
He was responsible for that work to Trotsky personally. He told me Trotsky used to come to his apartment to give him a whole series of instructions and tasks in connection with his going abroad. Z protokolu dopity D. Shmidta vid 31 serpnia r. Kantor does not investigate whether Tukhachevsky was guilty or not but, like Cherushev, takes it for granted that Tukhachevsky was the innocent victim of a frameup by Stalin. Kantor used these materials in her doctoral dissertation as well as her books and some articles.
No complete interrogations of Vitovt Putna have been published. Only excerpts from them have been published; we will briefly examine them below. Tukhachevsky claimed to have been in direct contact by letter with Sedov through Putna. This legal journal is very hard to obtain outside of Russia. The text at this site is not often available, and is completely unformatted. Voina i mir Mikhaila Tukhachevskogo. Through Putna I orally answered with my agreement, and burned the note from Sedov. Long before the creation of the antisoviet military-Trotskyist plot I grouped around myself, over the course of a number of years, men who were hostile to Soviet authority, dissatisfied with their positions as commanders, and conspired with them against the leadership of the Party and government.
Therefore, when in I received a directive from Trotsky about the creation of an antisoviet organization in the army I already virtually had devoted cadres ready on whom I could rely in this work. Putna told me orally that Trotsky had set up direct contact with the German fascist government and General Staff. Kantor , 7; Kantor, Voina Tukhachevsky reiterated that he had indeed had contact with Trotsky, and also that he himself had collaborated with German intelligence, though in the following.
The transcript of the interrogation of the accused Tukhachevsky of June 9, I fully confirm my confessions given during the preliminary investigation concerning my leading participation in the military-Trotskyist plot, my ties to the Germans, my past participation in antisoviet groupings. I admit my guilt in that I transmitted to German intelligence secret information and facts concerning the defense of the USR.
Kantor , 15; Kantor, Voina Assessing the Evidence: Kantor Kantor received the permission of the Tukhachevsky family and the Russian government to gain access to some of the investigative materials for her long biography of Tukhachevsky. Though she does not admit as much it seems that she was not permitted to read everything. Specifically it appears that she was not allowed to read the transcript of the trial of Tukhachevsky and the rest.
If she had read it and yet completely omitted its contents from her articles and book Kantor would be guilty not just of being guided by her own preconceived ideas, but of gross deception. She is guilty of deceiving her readers in any case, since she never tells us what she was permitted to see and what was kept from her. Kantor takes the official position that the Marshal and all the other military figures were innocent victims of a frameup.
Therefore she would surely have been given any evidence that this was so. But she is unable to cite any. This is very significant, since it suggests that no such evidence exists. She also ignores some of the evidence that they were guilty — notably, some already well-known to researchers because it is in the Shvernik Report, which has been published see below. The passages Kantor quotes strongly support all the other evidence we have cited. Kantor is committed to asserting the innocence of all these men rather than to investigating whether they were guilty or not.
But the evidence she quotes, as opposed to her tendentious commentary on it, gives strong evidence of their guilt. This is also strong evidence that they told the truth about their collaboration with Trotsky and his with Germany. In them Tukhachevsky repeats that Romm told him Trotsky was relying on Hitler. Evidently the same passage as above Tukhachevsky repeats that he had told Kork another of the eight defendants that he had had contact with Trotsky and the Rights. I told Kork that I had links both with Trotsky and the Rightists and tasked him to recruit new members in the Moscow military district.
All the passages dealing with Trotsky were published in Molodaia Gvardiia issues 9 or 10 of Putna quickly admitted that he was already in contact with Trotsky and with Smirnov. I suggested to him to join the ranks of the military-Trotskyite conspiracy, telling him that I had direct links with Trotsky. Putna immediately agreed [to join]. These instructions of Trotsky I communicated to the center of our conspiracy.
Main ; MG 9, Pyatakov stated that such conditions would mean the restoration of capitalism in the country. Putna assured him that Trotsky had established direct ties to the German government and General Staff. I told Putna to say that this would be done. These instructions meant that it was necessary to establish ties with the Germans in order to define where they intended to depoy their armies and where necessary to prepare the defeats of the Soviet armies.
Evidently Tukhachevsky restated this at the trial and inserted a comment that von Runstedt must have known this information through Trotsky. It was obvious that the German General Staff had already been informed by Trotsky. Rundstedt openly told me that the German General Staff was aware that I stood at the head of a military conspiracy in the Red Army and that he, Rundstedt, had been instructed to begin talks about mutually interesting matters.
We are fortunate to have any of them at all. Ezhov confirmed the existence of several groups of military. Ezhov also named some, at least, of the German military figures with whom they and he himself were jointly in touch. This anti-Stalin campaign — for so it may be called — ended shortly after Khrushchev was removed from office at the Central Committee meeting of October by Leonid Brezhnev and others. In early the Presidium formerly the Politburo, in effect Khrushchev himself authorized a blue-ribbon commission to investigate the trials and executions of the s and especially the so-called Tukhachevsky Affair.
The report was issued in two parts. The Zapiska memorandum devoted mainly to the Military Purges and Tukhachevsky Affair, was issued in But since that time the Reports have been published several more times and it is readily available. Since these allegations are not the subject of our present study we will ignore them here. Zapiska Trotsky and according to their directives have prepared the defeat of the Red Army in the event of an attack on the USSR by foreign aggressors, specifically, of fascist Germany, and with the goal of destroying the defensive capability of the USSR have engaged in espionage and sabotage in the units of the Red Army and in enterprises of military significance, and also have been preparing terrorist acts against the leaders of the AUCP b and the Soviet government.
We take it from RKEB 2 We considered that Iakir was the strictist example of a conspiratorial Trotskyist and admitted that he — Iakir — was personally connected with Trotsky and that it ws possible that he was carrying out completely secret, independent tasks unknown to ourselves. In addition in this interrogation Primakov named 40 prominent military workers as members of the military-Trotskyist conspiracy in the army. Putna confesses that in he personally gave a letter from Trotsky to Tukhachevsky with a direct invitation to take part in the Trotskyist conspiracy.
After familiarizing himself with this letter Tukhachevsky assigned Putna to transmit the message that Trotsky could rely upon him. The military-Trotskyist organization, which all those accused in this case were members, was formed in upon the direct instructions of the German general staff and of Trotsky. It was connected with the Trotskyist center and the Bukharin-Rykov group of Rightists, was involved in sabotage, diversions, terror and was preparing the overthrow of the government and the seizure of power with the aim of restoring capitalism in the USSR.
Therefore I consider the beginning of the organization of our military conspiracy to have been I state that I admit the existence of an antisoviet military-Trotskyist conspiracy. In I personally made contact with Bukharin. I established espionage ties with the Germans in , when I used to travel to Germany for study and maneuvers. On my trip to London in Putna arranged for me a meeting with Sedov. Smirnov, Yagoda, Osepian and a number of others.
We were up to date on the most secret conspiratorial activity of Trotsky and Sedov. Therefore when you pose me the question of whether meetings between Sedov and Tukhachevsky, Putna, and other military figures of the Soviet Union could have taken place, I can assert that that could not be true. Ventsov-Krants had been very close to Trotsky. It only means that they claim they did not know of it.
Molotov to study the materials 82 N. Elita Krasnoi Armii na golgofe. Moscow: Veche, p. On December 10 it issued a compromise report exonerating Tukhachevsky and the military men but refusing to consider rehabilitating any of the defendants in the public trials. In Molotov, Malenkov and Kaganovich were dismissed from the Presidium for attempting to have Khrushchev removed from office.
The Molotov Commission did study a lot of materials, but only some of their documents have been made public. We obtained a copy of it in Passages of special interest to us are in italics. Only on May 15, almost ten months after his arrest, after confessions about the military conspiracy had been obtained from Medvedev, were confessions also obtained from Putna about his counterrevolutionary ties with Tukhachevsky. Trotsky also declared that he was aware that Tukhachevsky and S. Kamenev were already carrying out counterrevolutionary work in the army, and that it was essential to contact them.
With this Trotsky handed a note for Tukhachevsky, in which he proposed that he unite with the Trotskyist center for 83 Reabilitatsiia. Kak Eto Bylo. Tukhachevsky was included even though his trial had not been public. In January he informed Trotsky of the existence of a Trotskyist military organization and its center consisting of Primakov, Putna and Dreitser, about the connections of this organization and about recruitment. At his interrogation of June 2 Putna had already confessed that in the spring of he had established espionage ties with the German G[eneral] S[taff] and at various times gave the Germans, through their generals Nedavmeister85?
It is not apparent from these interrogations precisely what information Putna transmitted. And that he, Putna, agreed with Tukhachevsky and said to him that for the swiftest defeat of Soviet forces it was essential to act together on the side of the Trotskyist organization.
However Putna did not confess how Tukhachevsky reacted to this. In addition this School was being moved out of the Kremlin and therefore a more realistic plan for the seizure of power — as Tukhachevsky averred — was defeat of the Red army in the future war, and an armed uprising. But at this point Tukhachevsky declared that Putna and Primakov did not trust him politically very much, that during their trips to Moscow Primakov gave 85 This is probably German General Oskar von Niedermayer, who worked for the Reichswehr German military in an intelligence capacity in Moscow in the early s, having formally resigned from the military.
He was a General again during World War II, was captured after the War by the Soviets, tried and sentenced to 25 years in prison, and died shortly thereafter in That Primakov and Putna had private ties through their Trotskyist centers and were maintaining contact with Trotsky. At the beginning of the interrogation Tukhachevsky confessed that he had not met in person with either Trotsky or Sedov after their exile from the Soviet Union. But at the end of the interrogation he declared that in , when he was at the maneuvers in the German army, he had established a personal connection with Trotsky and had reached an agreement about carrying on Trotskyist work in the Red army.
On that same day, May 27 , Tukhachevsky signed the transcript of an interrogation in which he admitted to his leading role in the military conspiracy, but these confessions differ significantly from those he had given earlier. In these confessions Tukhachevsky said nothing about personal ties with Trotsky and affirmed that he maintained ties with Trotsky through Romm and Primakov.
I gave Tukhachevsky my agreement, after which he said to me that he was at the head of the conspiracy, that there was a military center whose staff he proposed that I join. I agreed to become part of the staff of the center. In this conversation Tukhachevsky informed me that Uborevich, with whom he had recently had a conversation on this subject, was also in the center of the military conspiracy.
The organization of a coup in Moscow, in the Ukraine, and in a number of other places in the Soviet Union with the aim of seizing power. To organize sabotage in the RKKA in both material-technical and military preparatoins. Some of those quotations are not given in the transcript, or are given only partially. What Tukhachevsky says about this. The latter brought him a note in too. Obviously this was not the first note. Further he relates what Romm said to him. When in fact the antisoviet work in the army had already been developed by me there took place my second meeting with Romm in Moscow.
I have information that it is not only the German General Staff that has influence on Trotsky, but that the latter was connected to the Japanese General Staff as well, or in any case with its intelligence organs. Emphasis added Voenniy Sovet ; The testimony here generally accords with what we have seen previously, no doubt because Voroshilov drew his information from the same interrogations. Colonel L. Shnitman Further evidence about contacts between the military conspirators and Trotsky keeps coming to light. In a book we read the following: In September Ezhov sent Stalin a special communication containing an assessment of the activities of Colonel L.
There was compromising material stating that he was aide to. In January a group of Soviet pilots who had served in Spain had been detained in France, and Shnitman was also blamed for this. What are we to make of this? Both authors are extremely anticommunist and very hostile to Stalin. They reject out of hand any possibility that any of the Opposition conspiracies actually existed.
Their book contains many falsifications, significant omissions, and outright lies, all in an anticommunist direction. He is one of a few privileged researchers who has access to many archival documents. Surely no one who had confessed to such crimes would have been left at large for another four months. But it must have been Germany. Tukhachevsky had ties with the German General Staff about which he confessed at length, as we have seen, while Shnitman had had some connection to Germany but not to any other of the great European powers.
Indeed, there is no particular reason they should have inserted this paragraph at all. Although the dividing line between first- and second-hand evidence is a clear one, the evidentiary value of second-hand evidence is not necessarily less. We have examined this confession in detail in another study to which we refer the interested reader. Tragediia RKKA Radek had implicated Bukharin in pretrial statements and then again at the public January Moscow trial.
Bukharin had denied what Radek said over and over again, but on June 2 he reversed himself and confessed. Why did Bukharin decide to confess? That must mean evidence recently obtained and shown to him, which would no doubt include the evidence of the military conspirators. Genrikh S. He was arrested in early March, Subsequently he was one of the leading defendants in the third Moscow trial of March Since that time some of the documents published in this collection have been published elsewhere, evidently from copies held in different archives.
Bibliographic information of the Russian original of this article is given there. These confessions include details of his collaboration with German intelligence. In neither does Enukidze speak much about Trotsky. In the volume of materials devoted to Yagoda, however, we find the following remark about Enukidze, Trotsky and the Germans. We have italicized passages of special interest to our investigation. In the first place, in the prospects of a war by a strengthened Germany against the Soviet Union were growing with each day.
In that connection it was necessary to move ahead swiftly and make an agreement with them. Enukidze told me that Trotsky abroad had established full contact with German governmental circles, and that Enukidze himself also had a line of contact with the Germans. But I am aware that in the orientation to and conspiracies with German governmental circles both the Trotskyists and Zinovievists, on the one side, and the Rights, on the other side, had their own separate lines [of contact].
Question: How did they differ and where do you know this from? Answer: Karakhan spoke to me about this in one of our talks with him in The essence of these two lines in orientation to and contact with the Germans consists in the following: the Trotskyist-Zinovievist part of our center was carrying out negotiations with German governmental circles through Trotsky, who was in emigration, isolated from the Soviet Union, ignorant of the internal processes of the country and ready to give away everything just in order to overthrow Soviet power and return to Russia as soon as possible.
We were not supporters of a new partition of Russia, as Trotsky was doing. And the center of the Rights used this line of contact, already established, as a real line, and offered to Karakhan to enter into official negotiations with the German governmental circles. I have already confessed that Karakhan was in Berlin after this and met there with Nadolny and Hess or Goebbels and, as he said to me, had already in achieved significant concessions from the Germans. Question: What concessions? Answer: Concessions of the servile conditions on the basis of which the agreement with Trotsky had been achieved.
Genrikh Yagoda Karakhan apparently claimed to have had his own ties to the Germans through Nadolny presumably Rudolf Nadolny, German diplomat and either Hess or Goebbels. For example, Marc Jansen and Nikita Petrov cite this work as a primary source, without claiming that the interrogations in it were, or even might have been, faked, obtained by compulsion, etc.
Their contents intersect with many other materials now available such as confession statements by other individuals arrested in connection with the investigations concerning espionage and conspiracy, and the transcript of the Third Moscow trial. Other aforementioned statement by Yagoda are not credible.
For more information about the repression of Chekists in the middle s see Palchinsky A. Petersburg: , pp. At the end of the second confession, of May 4, pp. At the end of the third May 13, , pp. Primakov and the other military men were fully rehabilitated in Rykov, N. Bukharin and others were rehabilitated in Nikolaevsky refuted the reports that he received any packets from Rykov. Sotsialisticheskii Vestnik No.
For more detail on P. Rogovin, Moscow, At the end of the fourth May 19, , pp. The case of the murder of S. Kirov remains open to this day. Enukidze and the other persons named in the transcript were rehabilitated in the ss. The fifth May 26, , pp. Karakhan and the other persons named in the transcript have been rehabilitated. At the end of the interrogation of December 28, pp. Professor L. Levin and other doctors were later rehabilitated because there is no evidence of any crime in their activities. Levin of January 4, , pp. The end of the confrontation between Yagoda and Dr.
Kriuchkov of January 5, , pp. Kriuchkov was later rehabilitated because there is no evidence of any crime in his activities. The end of the confrontation between Yagoda and Professor D. Pletnev of January 5, , pp. Professor D. Pletnev was was later rehabilitated because there is no evidence of any crime in his activities. The end of the confrontation between Dr.
Levin, also of January 5, , pp. Levin and P. Kriuchkov were later refuted as not credible. At the end of the interrogation of Yagoda held on January 10, , pp. Written by Giovanni Gaeta. By October of the Italians were more than ready to rid Italy of the enemy who had brutally occupied Northern Italy. The Offensive Battle was to begin the morning of October 24, exactly one year after the battle of Caporetto began, with the IV Armata attacking in the region of the Grappa and the other Armatas attacking other areas.
Generale Giardino, Comando Supremo, launched the battle with encouraging and patriotic words for his soldiers. I fratelli schiavi aspettano I soldatini del Grappa liberatori! Il nemico traballa. Ognuno di voi valga per dieci e per cento. Il vostro Generale sa che varrete per dieci e per cento. Soldati miei, avanti! On October 24 at 3 am the artillery began firing from the Brenta.
How the movements were framed
River to the Piave River and a few hours later the Italian infantry attacked the enemy on the Grappa. The enemy responded with heavy fire on the Asolone and other sectors on the Grappa. The Italians absorbed the losses and continued to attack enemy lines. All along the Grappa the Italian forc. The fierce battle on the Grappa continued on June 26 with the Italians continuing their successes.
Meanwhile the offensive on the Piave had to be postponed for a day because the Piave had risen to an extremely high level. Finally the waters began to recede and the XII Armata was able to occupy the islands in the area of the Grave di Papadopoli. On the same day however a torrential downpour caused the Piave to swell to dangerous levels and the current was so strong that it was impossible to continue the crossing of the river.
By the evening of the 26 th the current of the Piave had lessened allowing work to begin. The plan was to build eleven pontoon bridges all along the Piave, however because of the violent flow of the swollen river and the persistent enemy fire only six could be built. On the 27th the Italian soldiers began to cross the Piave and the main Italian offensive began.
It was an arduous crossing because the enemy and the impetuous current of the Piave kept destroying the bridges. Not to mention the violent enemy attacks on the Italian soldiers themselves who valiantly kept counter attacking and retaking lost terrain. The night of the 28th the bridges were rebuilt despite the ever increasing volume and velocity of the water, and despite the enemy attacks which included use of mustard gas. But once again the Italian soldiers were able to build the bridges and continued to cross the Piave. Crossing the Piave with the Italians was the American nd regiment, the only American unit that fought on the Italian front.
The enemy fiercely resisted and tirelessly counter attacked bringing into the battles on the Grappa all of her reserves which had been stationed in the Conca di Feltre. The Battaglia Offensiva went according the plans of the Comando Supremo. On the night of of October the enemy retreat began on the Fonzano-Feltre front in order to be deployed to the alto Piave.
By the night of the 31st the IV Armata, despite obstinate enemy resistance, reached the Piave between Lential and Mel. The other Italian Armatas also were mounting their offensive battles reaching their assigned goals and liberating Italy from the enemy invaders. Dopo un secolo di guerra, di speranze e di ansie, tutta la Patria si riunisce intorno al suo Re. Diaz announces the coming victory, honors the sacrifices of the soldiers, wants everyone to remember the evil done by the enemies.
He also asks his soldiers and the Italian people not to follow the evil example of the enemies and to reject actions of cruelty and violence against them. On the same day, November 1, the Comando Supremo issued the orders for all of the Armatas to advance to their assigned positions, all leading to the bridges of the Isonzo where they were to stop the enemy. On November 2 and 3 the IV Armata fought fierce battles against the desperate but still resisting enemies.
By 3 pm of November 4 the Italian Armies reached the front line extending from the Stelvio to the sea. The Germans and the Austro-Hungarians surrendered. La Grande Guerra in Italy ended. The evening of November 4 Generale Diaz issued his last war bulletin. La gigantesca battaglia ingaggiata il 24 dello scorso ottobre ed alla quale prendevano parte 51 divisioni italiane, 3 britanniche, 2 francesi, 1 cecoslovacca, ed 1 reggimento americano contro 73 divisioni a.
Nella pianura S. Monte Grappa tu sei la mia Patria,. Sovra a te il nostro sole risplende,. A te mira chi spera ed attende. I fratelli che a guardia vi stan. Non si passa un cotal baluardo. Affidato ad italici cuor. Sei la stella che addita il cammino. Sei la gloria, il volere, il destino. Le tue cime fur sempre vietate. Dei tuoi fianchi egli ignora il sentiero. Qual la candida neve che al verno. Ti ricopre di splendido ammanto. Tu sei puro ed invitto col vanto. Che il nemico non lasci passar. Sei la gloria, il vol. O montagna per noi tu sei sacra.
Che irrompenti a spiegare bandiere. Ed i giorni del nostro servaggio. Che scontammo mordendo nel freno. In un forte avvenire sereno. Noi ben presto vedremo mutar. The music was written by Capitano Antonio Meneghetti. It was a promise of liberation and the music would become loud and clear the day of victory.
Ancora per poco, soldati del Grappa! Imparatela tutti. Sentite che ardenti lagrime vi sono dentro! Cantatela balda, nelle vostre marcie, come una promessa di liberazione. A voi! I am sure that grandpa Gioacchino Luca heard the exhortation uttered by his General and sang the song while on duty on the Grappa! The promise was fulfilled, Italy was victorious. The Grappa was immortalized. He compares the armed struggle on Monte Grappa to the Battle of Thermopylae of BC when an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian army in the pass of Thermopylae. Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks delayed the enemy in one of the most famous last stands of history.
Though they knew it meant their own deaths, king Leonidas and asmall group of volunteers stayed behind and secured the retreat of the main Greek forces. The performance of the defenders at the battle of Thermopylae is used as a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. Not only is it a tactical, political and morale watershed for the Italian military and people, the combat on the Grappa massif is also one of the greatest, unsung battles of World War One.
Signed: Giardino. Sacrario Monte Grappa. The monument has five levels where the remains of 23, soldiers who died on the Grappa are buried. The Sacrario honors the 12, Italian soldiers who lost their lives on the Grappa, 10, of whom are unknown.
On the opposite sector are buried the 10, Austrian-Hungarian who also died on the Grappa. Generale Giardino is buried between the fourth and fifth levels. At the very top of the ossuary monument is the sanctuary of the Madonnina del Grappa, declared by Generale Giardino as the protector of the Fourth Armata. Non si passa!
E non sono passati. E non passeranno! E passeremo noi! The Empire that had existed for years collapsed on Monte Grappa. The enemy did not cross the Grappa and did not reach Milano, but they extracted their revenge in Forcing women, children, and old people to march ahead of them, the German army moved up the mountain, murdering any partisans they found, as well as civilians even suspected of harboring them.
Other resistance fighters not only on Monte Grappa, but in many other places were captured and publicly hanged or shot, their families forced to watch. Librizzi, the town where my grandpa was born grew up and died, has placed the above plaque on the wall of the church in the main Piazza to honor the sons that She lost in active combat while defending their Country.
The list below are the names of grandpa's fellow soldiers and childhood friends who gave up their lives on the war fields of the Grande Guerra. Primo Reggimento Zappatori, Over the years it grew by adding various specializations such as zappatori, ferrovieri, telegrafisti, minatori, pontieri. The first Compagnia Zappatori del Genio was established on May 15, and it was the first permanent troop of the Genio in the Piemontese Army.
The Zappatori del Genio have distinguished themselves in all of the military campaigns in which they have participated, from the Campagna della Savoia in the taking of Grenoble, the taking of Peschiera in and in , the battle of Novara in , the Crimean Campaign, the Libian Campaign The Grande Guerra saw the titanic and heroic work by the soldiers of the Genio, earning a gold medal for their Bandiera. The Genio distinguished itself also in the Second World War, and continues to distinguish itself in war as well as peaceful projects.
The Arma del Genio has also earned a Gold Medal for its work in the civilian sector. Grandpa Gioacchino Luca at the beginning of the war was a genio, 1st Reggimento Genio zappatori, by the end of the war he was listed as a Genio zappatori and telegrafisti. Specialization of the Zappatori: The zappatore carried all of the equipment needed for the digging of the trenches and for the transportation of the materials needed for construction and reinforcement of roads, and for the advanced positions at the front line.
And of course, they used the equipment to accomplish the tasks. At the beginning of the Grande Guerra there were 43 c ompanies, by November there were companies. Grandpa Gioacchino Luca was a mason and I assume that his construction skills were used in the course of the war. In there were 24 companies of Telegrafisti and by there were companies. The Cavalleria alone had more than four telegraphic sections. The companies made up the Third Reggimento telegrafisti.
In describing the Arma del Genio the website www.
It is capable to operate at the war front even in front of the infantry in order to open passages in defensive battles. It can build bridges on rivers, construct suspension bridges, build streets, restore railroad tracks, build barracks and encampments, build communication networks, do all of the work necessary to support the war efforts. Technical skills and self sacrifice are typical characteristics of the Genieri. In addition to the war duties the Genio also assists people who have been affected by natural disasters. Before the Caporetto retreat the Genio had done work all along the war zone as well as on the Italian Swiss border.
The work had been directed by the Fifth Armata and done by reparti of the Genio which included infantry troops and recruited civilians. After Caporetto the desperate resistance began and from November to June Capo di Stato Maggiore Armando Diaz ordered the creation of a network of defensive systems on the Grappa and along the Piave. All of the work was done by soldiers of the Genio. Specific and detailed instructions were issued for the laying out of the trenches, the excavation of the trenches, what instructions should be given to the workers before they arrived at the work site, what tools the workers needed to bring to the work site, how far from each other they were to work, etc.
According to the official instructions the structural work done at the war front determined the discipline and morale of a Division. The reason being that the soldiers in the trenches felt a little secure if the trenches were built well and kept clean. The trenches had different shapes according to their uses and to minimize the injuries and death of the soldiers. For specific information on the building of the trenches as well as life in the trenches go to. Work done by the Genio on Monte Grappa included:. Also about 20 mule tracks and about a dozen paths were developed.
The building of the roads on the Grappa was not the only accomplishment of the Genio. As of January there were 29 cableways on Monte Grappa and by September 15, the Genio built 51 more. It was now possible to transport military equipment, ammunition, soldiers, etc. In order to bring potable water to the soldiers at the war front in the Genio of the First Armata began to build a hydraulic system which included subterranean wells, some of which were located directly under the trenches. The wells and the water system were built by the third and 13th company zappatori.
Hydraulic work continued on all of the war front in and However as soon as the troops were stabilized on Monte Grappa and along the Piave River the work resumed and by October the aqueduct that was just built. Also at least seven reservoirs were built on the Grappa in case the pipelines of the aqueduct should be destroyed.
Perhaps the work done to install the waterworks on the Grappa was the greatest achievement of the Genio Militare Italiano. Cima Grappa was surrounded by searchlights as a defensive measure. In addition, above the Fortress the cavern on Cima Grappa the Cima was surrounded by two lines of barbed wire entanglements. All of this work was also done by the Genio. The communication networks established on the Grappa were extensive and extremely important. In addition at times they actively and heroically fought alongside the soldiers just as their brothers the zappatori did.
The nineteen companies also installed buried lines of communication on the field and in the subterranean caves. Grandpa Gioacchino Luca served not only as a zappatore but also as a telegrafista. The famous Marconi served with this group, I wonder if grandpa ever met him. The dovecoats were also part of the Genio. For example in the zone of Col Campeggia the IX Corpo d'Armata which had 18 battalions and operated on the first line, built 15, trenches, emplacements for machine guns, 14, paths for surveillance, and 36, barbed wire entanglements.
The Fortress Cavern on Cima Grappa was a masterwork of engineering. It included main and secondary caverns, artillery and machine guns emplacements, lookouts…. The Fortress which was well protected and armed had openings for offensive and counteroffensive battles, all well hidden and accessible through underground passages often under enemy territory. It also had galleries from which communication with outside posts was possible.
The Fortress which was dug out of solid rock was also protected against enemy gasses despite all of the openings. It had artificial ventilation to be used when the outlets had to be blocked and troops were amassed inside. Ventilators filtered the outside air and rid it of gasses before the air was introduced inside. The gallery contained huge amounts of food, water, and ammunition. With all of the above work and preparations completed done by the Genio on the Grappa, the Soldiers of the Grappa were ready for the Battaglia Difensiva of June But the Soldati del Grappa had prepared well for the attack and by June 24 the enemies had to return to their previous line of battle.
The work done on the Grappa allowed the Italian soldiers a last stand against the Austrians and. Entrenched in the tunnels and bunks the Italians repelled their attackers. Grandpa Gioacchino Luca must have dug some of those tunnels, trenches, bunks,…. And a telegrafista he must have provided some of the communication so critical to the defense of the Grappa. The website www. Trenches, shelters, protected posts for weapons, telegraphic and telephonic posts, and an extensive cable cars network were set up.
In the plain the defensive lines were organized in a complex but at the same time rational structure: double systems of trenches connected with each other but subdivided in watertight compartments ready for active defense and maneuvers. The most rearward line could be inundated as an obstacle to an enemy advance. At the same time a waterway network was organized for quick evacuation in case of an emergency. However the large enemy thrust of June was smashed not only because of the heroism of our troops but also because of the powerful defensive system set up from the Astico to the Piave.
The genieri and the telegrafisti fought side by side with the infantry to stop the desperate push of the Austrian-Hungarians….. Sign in honor of the IX Corpo.