Carlos e de S. The interaction between French historical drama and Portuguese history surfaces, in a very clear manner, with the presence of a French theatrical company in the Teatro da Rua dos Condes from to Another influential figure then was the liberal writer, poet and playwright Almeida Garrett — , who was appointed Inspector-General of the Theatres and Spectacles in , a job he occupied until Frequent financial losses determined the closing of the theatre and underline the volatility of the theatrical business in Lisbon in the middle of the nineteenth century.
A manuscript of a piano reduction for the O conselho das dez dated from is deposited in the National Library of Lisbon. Just as the major theatres in Lisbon, the D.
Fernando advertised frequently in the press. This method is, of course, limited because it excludes spaces that did not advertise and those associated with theatrical amateur activity. Also during this time, a fence was built around the park, evidencing a complex and active dialectic interaction of public and private spaces.
Maria II in Rossio , a relatively small area, when compared to the actual size of the city. The National Library of Portugal possesses several iconographic depictions from the middle of the nineteenth century of that space. See F. Serrano, Passeio publico do Rocio, Lith. Castro, . A few years earlier, the same newspaper stated that the opening of the Real Teatro de S. Carlos was as important for the author of the feuilleton as the opening of the parliament for the author of political articles, reinforcing the role theatres especially the S.
Carlos played in the social dynamics of the time. Carvalho argues that in the Real Teatro de S. Carlos a dissolution between stage and audience favoured the exhibition of the self and the alienation of the receiver of the spectacle, which relied on the bel canto as the essential cultural function of the performance. Christino: A Editora, . Rocchini Pht. Ressano Garcia had studied in Lisbon and in Paris and was responsible for the planning and the construction of the new and expanded areas of Lisbon at the time. New neighbourhoods were built in the city and were linked to new and broad avenues such as the Avenida da Liberdade and the Avenida das Picoas.
Furthermore, a network of omnibuses and streetcars initially using animal traction, but later on electrically powered was created to facilitate the circulation of people inside the city. Subsequently, during the Second Empire, Paris was transformed in order to suit the needs of an imperial capital of an industrial state, much to the concerted efforts of Napoleon III and of Haussmann. Regarding the association of the Parisian boulevard with the rise of a mass culture in Paris in which entertainment and the spectacle are embedded see Vanessa R.
Schwartz, op. Aspects of this paradigm of urbanisation were also incorporated in the reconfiguration of Rio de Janeiro in the first the decade of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, the strict identification of Haussmann with modernity is problematic. It corresponded to the tendency which was noticeable again and again during the 19th century, to ennoble technical exigencies with artistic aims.
The institutions of the worldly and spiritual rule of the bourgeoisie, set in the frame of the boulevards, were to find their apotheosis. Benjamin shifts his emphasis to a conceptualisation of phantasmagoria associated with the commodity-in-display, thus stressing its representational value. Nevertheless, the urban fabric in Lisbon was anything but homogenous and the old neighbourhoods of Lisbon existed concomitantly with the modern areas.
In this respect, Lisbon was a city where the superimposition of buildings of several epochs and styles displays the multi-layered complexity of urban spaces. They are all divided into innumerable, simultaneously animated theaters. Balcony, courtyard, window, gateway, staircase, roof are at the same time stage and boxes. However, the two authors are addressing distinct types of porosity. On the one hand, Harvey emphasises a rationalisaton of space that established a porosity in which the circulation of capital, people, and commodities was facilitated.
Therefore, the idea of porosity is used by both Benjamin and Harvey in their analysis of various and specific aspects of urban life, pointing to multilayered and shifting concepts of publicness and domesticity that cannot be consistently and directly translated into a polarity between public and private realms. The city is thereby rendered legible for us in a 53 I will not attempt to make a full literary analysis of the poem, but to sellect a few constellations that are more related with this section.
By contrast, the individuality of the badaud disappears, absorbed 61 Harvey, op. This article also addresses the relations between Benjamin and the thought of Georg Simmel regarding the metropolis. Under the influence of the spectacle that presents itself to him, the badaud becomes an impersonal creature; he is no longer a man, he is the public, he is the crowd. O sentimento de um ocidental starts in the shipyards near the river, where the shipwrights are still working hopping around the scaffoldings and the caulkers are returning home. Further along, the narrator sees the barefooted varinas itinerant female fish merchants returning to their insalubrious districts, and relates those places with the places where infections are triggered.
Further along, the narrator crosses his path with the florists and the seamstresses that are leaving work, yet some of them are going to the theatres where they perform as extras or chorus girls. In O sentimento de um ocidental, the nauseating smell of the leaking gas was set forth just as the poem starts and an oppressive atmosphere can be found throughout the text. In this sense, several areas in Lisbon had, simultaneously, common traits with both Paris and Naples, as they were presented by Walter Benjamin.
As mentioned earlier, the shift of the public lighting in Lisbon from gas or oil to electricity was uneven throughout the city, first benefiting both the newly developed areas and the districts traditionally associated with commerce and entertainment. Carlos, the Teatro de D. In the last third of the nineteenth century, several theatres were built in Lisbon and in other towns and villages, which might indicate an increase of the theatrical activity.
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Despite the ephemerality of the theatrical business, a few of these new spaces were key to the expansion of the market for performances in Lisbon, especially by becoming important venues for the presentation of new genres of musical theatre that were then becoming dominant: the operetta and the revista. It was not possible to determine the frequency nor the duration of this activity.
Furthermore, the first projections of film in Lisbon took place in this space from onwards and the new type of entertainment was soon disseminated to other theatres, such as the Teatro D. Another possible entertainment for the population of Lisbon was the bullfight. These have been frequently presented in Lisbon since, at least, the last years of the eighteenth century first in Salitre, then in the Campo de Santana. For several reviews of presentations in the Teatro de D.
This spatial distribution of theatrical genres was presented both in Bastos, op. About the presentation of film in the Teatro de D. Maria II and the Teatro D. It is discursively mapped and corporeally practiced. In his work The Urban Revolution, Lefebvre constructs a synchronic analysis of space in contemporary societies divided into three levels: the global, the mixed and the level of habiting.
In his theory, the global level is presented by its association with the exercise of power by politicians, for instance and it relates to what he terms institutional space. For a city with the dimension of Lisbon and the centralisation of local and national institutions, there is a complex permeability between its global and the mixed levels. Finally, the level of habiting is associated by Lefebvre with the private realm, mainly housing. In the case of Lisbon at this time, it is possible to observe a porosity between spaces and between levels. As most of the Italian theatres throughout Europe, it was run in an impresario-based model but subsidised by the government in most of the seasons studied and employed an Italian company during its season.
Carlos was suppressed in However, from the middle of that century, the constitution of an operatic canon reshaped the season structure. On the one hand, this transformation points to a narrowing of the operatic repertoire and to the homogenisation, and thus commodification, of operatic performances.
Conversely, this shift is crucial to understand the development of the musical canon in Lisbon. Nevertheless, the ephemerality of the theatrical activity in Portugal as well as a mainly utilitarian perspective on these materials remain fundamental issues to understand the dynamics of the entertainment market at the time.
A number of presentations were benefit shows for a large number of people associated with the theatre and with the musical life in Lisbon. This consisted in a performance that its net profit was to be delivered to the benefited who could be an individual or a society, for example. Because benefits were not included in the season tickets, their gain depended directly on specific ticket office revenue.
In order to maximise profit, the repertoire chosen had to be the most appealing possible, such as the performance of successful operas in their entirety or in parts full acts or selected arias. Although the establishment of a transnational operatic repertoire was the most prominent feature of the programming of the Real Teatro de S. Carlos, it must be emphasised that this canon was dynamic and subject to change, both through the integration of recently composed operas by active composers and through the rise of new aesthetic movements.
This expansion of the operatic repertoire is integrated in the transnational reshaping of the entertainment markets during the second half and, especially, the last third of the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the Real Teatro de S. Carlos is an interesting case to understand the reception of French and German opera within the tradition of an Italian operatic theatre. Carlos as a composer who mixed the melodiousness of the Italian operatic tradition with the techniques associated with Viennese late Classicism.
Lucas, , Another example of the public discourse about Richard Wagner is a series of articles by Batalha Reis under the initials V. In several issues, Batalha Reis an alumnus of a German school in Lisbon, the Roeder , traces a biography of the composer consistent with the myths that Wagner promoted of himself and which were in wide circulation throughout Europe at the time. On the parallels between Offenbach and Wagner, especially their alternatives to the then-prevalent socio- communicative system of opera consumption see Carvalho, op. Carlos was related both to the incorporation of that repertoire in the operatic seasons of Italian theatres a process that started in the s and to the action of Freitas Brito, the impresario of the theatre at the time.
Carlos only sporadically presented operas by Portuguese composers. For instance, this model was heavily re-encoded in its last two decades to suit the emergence of the cultural nation-state a tendency Rebello associates with neo-Romanticism. Carlos was the staging of several operas by Augusto Machado — This opera was performed in Italian and spoken dialogues were substituted for recitatives.
Carlos in and, in the following year, Mario Wetter whose librettist was Ruggero Leoncavallo was also presented. Carlos between and See Augusto Machado, A. Guiou and Jean-Jacques Magne, Lauriane, . Hartmann, [—]. Roder, [—]. Carlos at the time. This episodic constellation of operas by Portuguese composers staged in the S. The opera was performed in Hamburg in falling outside the chronological boundaries of this thesis and a German edition was published by Schott.
In this process, the Real Teatro de S. Carlos was sometimes portrayed as an obstacle to the development of the local theatrical activity. On the other hand, governmental policy endowed the S. Carlos with greater subsidies than any other theatre, namely, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II. Therefore, a polarity between these two venus and, consequently, ideologic canons surfaced and was disseminated through the press.
Branco's Mainz: Schott, Carlos with transnationalism and the D. Maria II with nationalism. Carlos by using several tropes frequently reproduced in the press: the theatre as a government subsidised entertainment for the upper social strata whereas the D. Carlos, which indicates a strict association between a specific venue and the repertoire presented there. Concerning other musical theatrical genres, it is not possible to develop a clear association between these elements.
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The ephemerality of theatrical activities and the constraints of unsubsidised types of spectacle such as the constant change of theatrical enterprises managing the venues contributed to a flowing dynamic between agents and spaces. Although in a less rigid way than in the Real Teatro de S.
Carlos, some theatrical genres were associated with specific theatres. This section will examine types of spectacles that present a coherent story and include spoken dialogue and musical and choreographic elements in its narrative, such as the operetta and the zarzuela. Nevertheless, most of the theatres were still concentrated on areas such as Chiado and Trindade, traditionally associated with commerce and entertainment. This is also associated with the creation of a space for the consumption of the then recently imported genres from Paris, such as the operetta and the revista.
See Bastos, Diccionario do theatro portuguez, I will be mostly concentrating on the period when the operetta was a significant part of the entertainment market, but this occurrence should be noted. The main sources for this foreign repertoire were, clearly, France and Spain, which can be observed by the prominence of the operetta and the zarzuela in the Teatro da Trindade. Furthermore, Sousa Bastos refers, in his Diccionario do theatro portuguez, to the conventions pertaining to intellectual property which included both the literary — covering translations — and the musical elements of theatre between Portugal and France in and between Portugal and Spain in Nevertheless, the translators from French were critically satirised in a sketch of the revista Tim tim por tim tim.
One interesting case of the libretto as a literary source was described by Sousa Bastos about the vaudeville-operetta Mam'zelle Nitouche. On the entrepreneurial activity of the Viscount S. Economica, n. Economica, Despite episodic zarzuela performances in its original Spanish form since the middle of the nineteenth century, the paradigm for the presentation of that genre in Lisbon changed towards the last third of that century.
Appleton and Company, , Montoya, This parody authored by the actor and playwright Francisco Correa Vasques, of the parody of the Orpheus myth and its musical relations composed by Offenbach was one of the most successful shows in Brazil at the time. Thus, it is possible to witness a shift in the operatic spectacle from entertainment to art, while genres such as the operetta and the revista, with their plasticity and ephemerality, occupied its place in this segment of the market.
Conversely, limiting the issue of the national to the production of Portuguese authors and composers can be misleading.
For example, the staging of operas by Portuguese composers in the Real Teatro de S. Carlos was frequently presented in association with the idea of nationalism. Nevertheless, these operas partake the conventions of the transnational entertainment market and some of its foremost composers, such as Augusto Machado, had a cosmopolitan education.
In a theatrical market that relied heavily on imported conventions and in translations, the direct association between the creation of works in Portuguese and the promotion of nationalism is also complex. Carlos, an institution in which he occupied administrative positions on several occasions. Because they know, understand, and habitually use the conventions on which their world runs, they fit easily into all its standard activities.
Conversely, the use of the Portuguese language and of characters or plots that were part of a shared memory can be interpreted as commercial strategies to maximise profit. The production of Augusto Machado is symptomatic of these tendencies. This sort of problem is inherent to the study of several ephemeral genres of the entertainment market. This is the case for operetta and, even more, for the revista that was first conceived as an annual review and comment on recently past events.
Therefore, condensed into three pages of the periodical, are several of the products associated with the Portuguese theatrical circuit of that time: press review, photographic iconography, and notated music. It is possible to discern several narrative tropes that sometimes intermingled and overlapped with each other in the production of operettas in Portugal during the period of this thesis.
Annuario Commercial, Finally, a pervasive feature in the production of operettas in Portuguese is the comical critique of current matters and social habits. This operetta was performed in the Teatro da Trindade in and depicted the return of a Portuguese who enriched whilst emigrated in Brazil, a recurrent stereotype in the Portuguese culture of the time, frequently portrayed as someone whose cultural capital did not accompany the growth of his financial capital.
For example, several companies circulated in the Luso-Brazilian cultural space and their tours were dependent on the activity of local impresarios. The wealthy Brazilian whether Portuguese emigrant or native Brazilian was a theatrical trope at the time and Offenbach included that character in La vie parisienne.
If nothing else, several authors writing together would assuredly get the text written more quickly, in time for the composer to set it and for the manager to present it. In the highly competitive pre-radio and television era, speed was desirable. The first of these works was O burro do Sr. The magazine O Ocidente published that O burro do Sr. Alcaide was made by Portuguese on Portuguese motifs with Portuguese music, stating that it did more to promote patriotism than the speeches of politicians.
Vieira, op. Afonso until Furthermore, during the theatrical season breaks, Cardoso travelled regularly to Brazil where he presented his works, a fact that confirms the frequent circulation of theatrical companies and composers between both countries. Apart from the production of works, a key issue for the study of the musical theatre in Lisbon is the staging process. In the first sections of the article, Brun describes acting as a strenuous task and a serious activity, detaching it from its association with the bohemian lifestyle of some Vieira, op.
The journalist argues that the work of staging a musical play begins with the author writing the text. Afterwards, the rehearsals start with sit-down readings, progressing to blocking rehearsals and then to walk-through rehearsals. The maestro then coaches the soloists individually and the chorus collectively. He then characterises the audience, where both the official critics who always publish favourable reviews and the unofficial critics who always have a negative opinion that they express in the botequim — watering-hole sit. That space starts to get busy at half past seven of the night , when the workers help the performers getting dressed in their dressing room.
At the same time, the technical staff corrects small problems and the orchestra tunes its instruments. After the last call, the borlistas people who wanted free tickets run to the ticket box, to see if they can get in and the performance starts. After the play is finished, the stage is cleaned, the performers leave their dressing rooms, and the theatre is closed for the day. From the s onwards, plays by Ibsen or Strindberg were staged by both local and foreign companies. Nevertheless Rebello states that a few revistas had a plot, but they were rare.
See Rebello, ibid. Nevertheless, I will argue in this chapter that the fragmentary form of the revista was not only a symptom of modernity, but also one the major strengths of the genre. Its plasticity allowed the genre to rapidly incorporate the present in terms of situations, characters, music, choreography and visual presentation , an essential trait for a spectacle that was initially based on ephemerality and relied upon current satire to be commercially successful. This plasticity was a key feature in the dominant role played by that genre in the Portuguese entertainment market from the last decades of the nineteenth century until the s.
The revista is a genre imported from France in the middle of the nineteenth century and, initially, commented on specific occurrences and topical issues of the previous year. Fernando began to stage revistas at this time. This dramatic resource points to the metonymic and allegoric role characters play in the genre, which can be read as a composite and fragmentary presentation of actuality.
Nevertheless, the process of personification or inclusion of allegories or stereotypical characters in the revista was not homogeneous and incorporated a set of different fields. For example, the revista Formigas e formigueiros included a sketch in which the couplet, the scenery, and the revista were personified.
During this period, Bastos created and presented several revistas throughout theatres in Portugal and in Brazil, developing a business and a production model that would prevail for a long period. About the Press Law of , see the previous chapter of this thesis. For a photograph of the character Saturn in the revista Na ponta da unha! In this sketch, four personified newspapers O mundo, A vanguarda, O paiz and A lucta complained about that law. Bastos, Talvez te escreva! The first issue of the satirical periodical Pontos nos ii after the issue of that press law was entirely dedicated to its denounce.
For a review of the revista see Joaquim Madureira, op. Furthermore, the circulation of ideas of political change by the ways of reform or overthrowing the system was frequent in the last years of the Constitutional Monarchy. Starting from the last years of the nineteenth century, the theatrical panorama was changing and new writers and composers were integrated in the entertainment market of the time. The new generation of authors and composers were to become extremely important in adapting the revista to suit the new demands of the Portuguese Republic established on October 5th Structural and Narrative Aspects of the Revista The analysis of the modes of presentation in the revista reveals a specific narrative strategy of the genre.
The internal structure of the quadros relies on allegorical and mostly polar depiction of characters, a fundamental mechanism for representing several binarisms associated with Portuguese everyday life. In the revista, gender played a key role. Unlike the Japanese Takarazuka revue, performed by companies solely constituted by male actors which implied that feminine roles had to be played by cross-dressing Eduardo Schwalbach, Formigas e formigueiros: revista de costumes e acontecimentos em 3 actos e 9 quadros Lisbon: Livraria Popular de Francisco Franco, n. Furthermore, in a version of Tim tim por tim tim performed in Brazil this revista was frequently reprised in several theatres in Portugal and in Brazil , the actress Pepa Ruiz performed eighteen roles, some of them cross-dressed.
Hence, these personifications would be understood by the audiences of both countries. In this quadro, there are two characters: the Hino da Carta the national anthem of the time and A Portuguesa. In other cases, a parallel is drawn between the personified characters, which complicates the interpretation of the sketches as a binary system based solely on opposition. Furthermore, it displays the relevance of the transatlantic relationship between Portuguese-speaking theatrical scenes.
The Music of the Revista: Sources, Orchestras, and Repertoire Music played a key role in the constitutive heterogeneity of the revista and, such as its texts, can be read as a symptom of modernity. As stated earlier, the segmentation of the revista in closed numbers favours a composite and fragmentary narrative of actuality. Moreover, music plays an important role in the discontinuous narrative of the revista and enhances a spectacle whose aim was to be both entertaining for the audience and profitable for the company.
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The study of theatrical genres whose communicative strategy relied on the commentary on actualities such as the revista raises methodological obstacles for the musicologist. Due to the stabilisation of the operatic repertoire discussed above and the transfer of some ephemeral traits to genres such as the operetta and the revista, and given the utilitarian perspective concerning the materials which would probably not be Eduardo Schwalbach, O barril do lixo: revista de costumes e acontecimentos Lisbon: Livraria Popular de Francisco Franco, n. Furthermore, it would be problematic to assume the ones that did as representative of the genre.
Despite this, I will use an example extant in the National Library of Portugal in order to display some features of this spectacle. This manuscript is an autograph of the composer, which can be particularly useful for understanding the process by which music was composed fort the revista. For example, the score can be interpreted as a work in process, due to its successive changes and cuts, inherent in the staging of a piece in a dynamic segment of the entertainment market. There are several important issues pertaining to this revista in particular.
Third, its particularities notwithstanding, it includes elements that were used throughout the history of the genre, namely choreographic typologies such as the march and the waltz and stock characters such as policemen. Finally, the revista works as a commentator on actuality and this example has a sketch located in Lisbon where the railways and Progress are depicted, a then-current matter while the new urbanisation plans for the city were being implemented.
As mentioned earlier, the music of the revista was generally written for a small orchestra. At this time and according to Sousa Bastos, the dimensions of the instrumental group playing in the theatre varied according to the type of spectacle and the dimensions of the theatre. Carlos oriented for operatic performances and the groups working on small theatres, such as the Teatro da Alegria, mostly dedicated to the performances of spoken drama. Furthermore, there is data that suggests the hiring of musicians not belonging to that association by small Lisbon theatres.
Maria II or keep a sextet. Consultado em 30 de agosto de Wrapped in the Star-Spangled Toga. The New York Times. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. American Neoclassical Sculptors Abroad. American Bronze Casting. American Revival Styles , — The Neoclassical Temple. The Web Gallery of Art. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Yale University Art Gallery. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gliptoteca Ny Carlsberg. The Classical Tradition in Art. History of Art. Consultado em 29 de agosto de In Timeline of Art History.
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