TYPICAL CATALAN (GUÍA PARA CASTELLANOPARLANTES) (Spanish Edition)

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Vico considers that there are two forms of knowledge: the original form of fables poetic logic and the more abstract knowledge of philosophers which appeared at a later stage in human genealogy. When we read Vico, we realize the debt Lakoff and Johnson owe to this humanist. Another important author in constructivist epistemology is Hayden White, a recently deceased philosopher of history, who studies this discipline from Vico's tropological perspective. As seen above, White makes a distinction between events data that occurred , facts the meaning of what happened and plot or narrative through the use of certain tropes.

with Aida Ribot Bencomo

From the constructivist perspective of these two authors, any kind of knowledge about the facts of reality events, in White's sense is a construction of subjects by means of narratives created from tropological resources; the most important for Vico is the metaphor. These narratives offer a specific meaning of the data, thus constructing facts according to the personal vision of the authors and their historical moment.

White, in his book Metahistory , dedicated to the analysis of the variations of historiography in the 19th century, shows the different variations of historians in the face of identical events. This leads him to wonder about a crucial aspect in historical narrative: the one of truth.


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Since it is not possible for him to speak in terms of truth or falsehood in the narrative construction of history, he wonders how to avoid the relativism to which this conclusion would lead. Languages from constructivism According to Woolard 19 , linguistic ideologies are explicit or implicit representations, which interpret the relationship between language and human beings in the social world see also del Valle From our constructivist point of view, we could also consider these representations, following White, as diverse narratives about languages and their relationship with each other; in other words, as narratives that emerge from the various discourses that have been constructed in our socio-cultural context see also Larsen-Freeman y Cameron Our initial hypothesis is that the following two ideological constructions emerge in the sphere of bilingualism in Spain.

The container metaphor According to this construction, languages are perceived as products of the "mind"; either in the Saussurian perspective: language as a code which allows the transference of ideas from the mind of the speaker to the mind of the hearer Harris ; or understood in terms of cognitive theory: language as a computational device; as a coupling of different levels, internalised in the speaker's brain.

This mentalist perspective is also present in Sapir and Worf's hypothesis of linguistic relativity, in the sense that reality is analysed in accordance with the mental categories imposed upon it and us by our native language Harris The consequence of this metaphor has finally, as mentioned earlier, the consideration of each language as a product of the mind, a cognitive universe in itself, which can even bring a different view of the world to its users. Considered in these terms, this position can date back to the hypothesis of linguistic relativism and even earlier, to the romantic authors, such as Humboldt Escavy Zamora With it, we approach the ideological construction of the following metaphor.

The ecolinguistic metaphor Languages are part of ecosystems, in the same way as cells, pluricellular organisms, whether or not they are grouped in colonies or societies, etc. Languages majority and minority are the result of groupings of individuals of the same species. And all of them need to be preserved under equal conditions, like other ecosystems Calvet and Varela For authors like Heller , this ecological perspective has replaced the nationalist ideology, although it remains at the core.

There is a conflict in spaces where there is social multilingualism this is what del Valle, , calls "the plot of confrontation". The inevitability of the conflict leads to the argument that it is necessary to replace one language with another: either in an undemocratic way, as happened in the Franco era Moreno Cabrera , or through laws based on historical rights. Blommaert calls this position the "language rights paradigm". For authors such as O'Rourke et al. As constructions, they are narratives which have been used to justify the different linguistic policies in Spain; for many they have also become topoi on which new arguments have been built Gal However, they have also been the focus of controversies and ideological disputes between political opponents since the beginning of the 20th century, as explained in Monteagudo This has led to the perpetuation of the framework of the linguistic conflict see an update in Lagarde Due to my experience in the two bilingual situations I am familiar with, Catalonia and Galicia, this problem has not ceased growing.

There are recent examples that demonstrate this. I am going to discuss two of them, one in Galicia and the other in Catalonia. They are part of the discourses I have called post- 15M, the subject of my research in recent years. Xulio Ferreiro In the linguistic sphere, they have also advocated the revitalisation of the use of Galician in local government, after many years of rejection of this language by the Socialist Party PSOE and then by the Popular Party PP. In terms of linguistic rights, it is therefore a matter of "social justice" that the use of Galician in the city has been recovered in the public space, since a part of its population uses it in their daily lives.

This is what the mayor said at an event in Barcelona September 4, with the other "mayors of change" the followers of the ideas of the 15M : "We are a tide, we are a tide of change, but there is still a long way to go before high tide We are riding a paradox, we are entering as trespassers into an institution that had been stolen from us, and now we have a double mission there, to make common people stop feeling like trespassers in their own town hall, at the same time as we maintain that status of trespassers Xulio Ferreiro's narrative construction is based on the idea that En Marea is the people's party, which has taken power at a municipal level as part of the citizen's mobilization that emerged after the 15M movement.

The metaphor of the tide activates the strength of this movement of the working classes, which according to him, also share Galician as their language, and which have a social effect parallel to the strength and power of the tides on the Galician coast. Thus we see the substitution of one language by another, and therefore, the survival of the conflict, in the context of a city that also speaks Spanish in its daily life.

Citizenship is openly bilingual, but the municipality is unilingual as it has always been. What has changed is the specific language of the "ecological niche". The latest reports mention regression in the use of the language This gives the idea that the language and culture are something ornamental, and dispensable in times of crisis. For Marea this is not the case — both the language and culture [are] a substantial part of the common good, an instrument of development that must obviously be promoted, and we must contribute as much as possible to their development… [C]ulture is a mechanism of transformation towards an inclusive, educated and free society, and only from the plurality and integration of identities In this round table discussion, while the two main parties in Galicia, the PP and the PSOE, referred to the bilingualism of Galician society, En Marea once again showed a unilinguistic vision.

For Mayor Xulio Ferreiro, Galician was the language of the common people. At no time does she refer to social bilingualism, as did the representatives of the other parties mentioned, or to the fact that this bilingualism can also contribute to the values she mentions. She overlooks the fact that Galician-Spanish bilingualism is a socio-cultural value and also defines Galician citizenship. It is therefore apparent how the ecological metaphor can be re-activated from her words. The Galician society that this party imagines only seems to have room for the Galician language.

The consequence that is inferred from her words is the need to dispense with or make Spanish invisible in order to achieve complete social welfare for the citizens. This leads us to ask several very specific questions. What will happen if, in the following municipal elections, a change takes place in the mayor's office of the city? Will there be a return to the substitution of Galician for Spanish, given that the problem of competition and the linguistic conflict between these groups has not yet been solved?

To illustrate the second example, I will refer to the case of Barcelona city council, currently governed by another of the so-called "mayors of change", the mayor Ada Colau Fig. Ciudadanos was born in Catalonia and from the beginning it was perceived as a party opposed to Catalan nationalism, and has made its clear hostility towards Catalan independence its trademark. It is therefore logical and predictable that the working classes should vote for it in the Catalan election. In electoral behaviour, "being against" counts as much as "being in favour".

Now, the Spanish "patriotic" message, which was defence of Spanish identity in Catalonia, was won by Ciudadanos And there is the challenge of the non-independence left.. Anyone who has lived The only thing I want is for the next generations to have the right to be bilingual Those most interested in protecting this right are the Spanish-speakers Unlike the Galician representatives of En Marea, Joan Mena explicitly alludes to the bilingual situation in Catalonia.

He identifies this bilingualism with the immersion model, which makes Catalan the language of instruction throughout the educational process. Spanish is relegated to a subject on the curriculum, with the same number of hours as the subject of Catalan. In his opinion, this has led to a high level of acquisition of this language among the entire emigrant Spanish-speaking school population.

This model is also rated positively by this politician, due to its role in social cohesion, in the same way as the representative of En Marea did. In this way, Joan Mena thereby defends the educational status quo on the basis of the ecological metaphor, and the historical right of Catalan to be the priority language in its territory.

For this reason, the inequality of teaching Spanish throughout the educational stage is not questioned, which is something that some Catalan right-wing parties are doing. With these two examples, I have endeavoured to show the linguistic position of these two new parties in two different regions of the Spanish state.


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  • In both cases, we see the persistence of the conflict framework, a consequence of the metaphorical constructions that are at the base of their social action and discursive practice. We will consider this issue again after we have discussed the last of the metaphors. This is based on the ideas of the biologists Maturana and Varela. Let us first consider the following extract from Maturana: " In other words, our entire human reality is social, and we are individuals, people, only insofar as we are social beings in language. Converse 'cum versare', 'spin around with the other'.

    Language as a process does not take place in the body the nervous system Words are, therefore, modes of consensual behavioural co- ordinations" 13, In this framework, the mind is the "process of living" of an individual in communicative relationship with others — what Maturana and Varela call languaging. This approach moves from the metaphorical construction of the mind as a "container", with clear limits, which is the position of classical cognitivism the container metaphor to one with the mind as part of a comprehensive ecology not only biological, but also simultaneously biological and cultural , from which different cognitive processes emerge including the capacity for language and languages which make us specifically human.

    Consequently, what is important in this process are the networks of interaction that individuals create through language in different social groups: "The world everyone sees is not the world, but a world " Maturana and Varela The different linguistic patterns emerge from the interactions; the boundaries between these patterns languages, varieties, etc. From this perspective, bilingualism and multilingualism would therefore be perceived as a dynamic process that can vary according to the needs of individuals and social groups. Could this vision provide new perspectives for the construction of other discourses that go beyond the ideological framework of the conflict in the linguistic policies of the Spanish languages?

    From this more dynamic position, there are no languages specific to a territory.

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    Similarly, the distinction between minority and majority languages is not what matters, as is the case in the ecological metaphor. All the languages that speakers use to interact with each other will be their languages. The mutual consensus will determine which of them should be learned by all, in order to guarantee inter-communicative richness among its speakers.

    The conflict framework has been based on competition between languages. Hence the obsession, as Heller says, with "demolinguistics" — the study and evolution of linguistic groups based on quantitative surveys to determine the vitality of languages. This is also the context in which planners are so concerned about language replacement in order to prevent the loss of minority languages Vila i Moreno ; Pradilla Carmona In the eco-biosociological metaphor, what makes us human is our ability to coordinate our actions through language languaging.

    The "human" therefore does not have an exclusively genetic or biological character as in other living beings. This has given rise to confidence that knowledge of the world or worlds we live in will validate our arguments and cognitive affirmations, and strengthen our power over them. It is based on this trust that philosophical theories were invented to justify the political preservation of these emotions. Human coexistence therefore becomes a struggle of truths; it is no longer understanding that is central to coexistence, but being right Maturana and Varela When moving towards a new era based on cooperation, it is necessary to cast off certainties as the first step towards reflection on one's own life and as the second step, on conscious ethical action based on respect for oneself and for others.

    Feminist and environmentalist discourses would fit perfectly into this new metaphor. I do not think the same is true of language policy based on the framework of conflict. Many individuals identified as Hispanics based on the U. For example, many of those from Bolivia , Guatemala , and Peru constitute a majority or plurality of the population as do a considerable proportion in Mexico.

    Many Hispanics born in or with descent from the Dominican Republic , Venezuela , Puerto Rico , Colombia , Cuba , Uruguay , and other countries may be of African descent, be it mulatto mixed European and black African , zambo mixed Amerindian and black African , triracial specifically European, black African, and Amerindian , or unmixed black African. Recently, Hispanics of unmixed black African blood are perceived and defined by American mass media and popular culture as Hispanic, because of existing mulatto Hispanics of Negroid phenotypes and the dark-skinned stereotype of Hispanics.

    In countries like Mexico , there was a process of miscegenation , which resulted in many people having both indigenous and European origins. Many white Mexicans , though labeled Hispanic by the U. Nevertheless, in most cases, they have some Spanish ancestry, as the waves of European immigrants to these countries tended to quickly assimilate, intermarrying with the country's local population. From to , the U. Census form did not distinguish between whites and Mexican Americans. Census form asked for "color or race," and census enumerators were instructed to write W for white and Mex for Mexican.

    Like mentioned above, the Hispanics of Caucasian race, including white Mexicans, white Argentines, white Uruguayans, and white Chileans, and Spaniards themselves, who are perceived by U. Likewise, a percentage of Hispanics as defined by the U. If they were to migrate to the United States, the definition most frequently advocated would consider them Hispanic see also: Asian Hispanic American and Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans. The presence of these mentioned ethnic groups are not country-specific, since they can be found in every Hispanic American country, whether as larger of smaller proportions of their respective populations.

    Even in Spain, the European motherland of Hispanicity, recent decades has seen a growing population of mestizos and mulattoes and of unmixed Amerindian and African descent due to the reversal of the historic Old World -to- New World migration pattern, i. Of the over 35 million Hispanics counted in the Federal Census , Census, although maybe in less proportion. According to one study Stephens et al. The populations of Iberia both Spain and Portugal , like all European populations, have received multiple other influences, even though they are still largely descended from the prehistoric European populations, and to a greater degree than any other major group.

    The former Portuguese colony has a community of Afro-Cubans known as Amparos.

    They descend from Cuban soldiers brought to the country in as a result of the Cuban involvement in the Cold War. Fidel Castro deployed thousands of troops to the country during the Angolan Civil War. As a result of this era, there exists a small Spanish-speaking community in Angola of Afro-Cubans numbering about , In the former Spanish province of Equatorial Guinea , although Portuguese and French are co-official languages, the majority of the population speak Spanish, there is a small minority of African people who possessed Spanish and other European ancestry.

    In the former Spanish protectorate of Morocco , Spanish speakers are present in small numbers, located in the northern coastal region of the country. However the majority of Moroccan people are predominantly Arabic speaking Muslims of Berber and African ancestry. The small Amaro population are descendants of repatriated Afro-Cuban indentured servants.

    Since the Reconquista , Spain has held numerous emplacements in North Africa. The Canary Islands , a constituent part of Spain's main territorial subdivisions, are also located in North Africa. In the former Spanish province of Western Sahara , Spanish is de facto official however, in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic , one of the claimants to the territory, it is de jure co-official. In the Philippines , a Spanish Filipino is a Filipino who has Spanish or Hispanic lineage and descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.

    Most common languages spoken today by Spanish Filipinos are Philippine Spanish , Spanish ; Chavacano , the only Spanish-based creole language in Asia and is spoken by over a million people; and English , which is used in the public sphere. A number of Spanish Filipinos also speak other Philippine languages. Castilian Spanish is the sole dialectal standard taught in schools, while Philippine Spanish currently has a few thousand native speakers left.

    Despite its rapid decline in the 20th century, there has been a revival of interest in the Spanish language in the first decade of the 21st century. Many Philippine languages including Filipino notably contain numerous loanwords of Spanish origin. Spanish is the official language of Easter Island , a territorial possession of Chile in Polynesia , Easter Island is the only place in Austronesian world where people fluently speak Spanish.

    The Mariana Islands today split between the United States territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands were formerly governed as a part of the Spanish East Indies , and thus many Chamorros possess some degree of Spanish admixture.

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    While most people living on these islands no longer speak Spanish, the native Chamorro language exhibits a noticeable Spanish influence in its vocabulary. Many Chamorros have also preserved Hispanic cultural elements such as fiestas , cockfighting , and the Catholic faith despite having integrated with the American way of life. Spanish surnames are still prevalent on Guam, it is spoken by Catholic people and Puerto Ricans , and the custom of women keeping their maiden names after marriage is a both byproduct of Spanish culture on these islands as well as the matrilineal structure of indigenous Chamorro culture.

    Hispanophone[i] and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively. The terms derive from the Latin political name of the Iberian Peninsula, Hispania. In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking[ii] and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language—also known as Castilian—and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages i.

    Countries and regions where the Spanish language is co-official. Hispanophones are estimated at between [1] and million including second language speakers [2][3][4][5] globally, making Spanish the second most spoken language in terms of native speakers. Around million live in Hispanic America and 45 milli. In terms of governance of the Spanish Empire, The Indies was the designation for all its overseas territories and was overseen by the Council of the Indies, founded in and based in Spain. The islands that later became the Spanish West Indies were the focus of the voyages of the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus in America.

    Largely due to the familiarity that Spaniards gained from Columbus's v. Quinta da Regaleira in Sintra. Quinta is a traditional term for an estate, primarily used in Portugal and the Portuguese-speaking world. Originating in the Iberian Peninsula, the designation is rarely used in the Hispanophone world. Quinta da Avelada in Penafiel, an example of a traditional rural quinta. A quinta is a primarily rural property, especially those with historic manors and in continental Portugal.

    The term is also used as an appellation for agricultural estates, such as wineries, vineyards, and olive groves. In urban contexts, quintas can often be walled-off mansions in city centers, but the term can also be applied as to edifices which were once located in a more rural setting which has since been developed. The name was later often given to generally larger land estates that might originally have been used for agricultural purposes, but were converted into residential estates.

    The term has also been applied to affluent gated communities, in. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

    Cocido Spanish or cozido Portuguese is a traditional stew eaten as a main dish in Spain, Portugal, Brazil and other Hispanophone and Lusophone countries. Preparation and ingredients Cocido is made of various meats pork, beef, chicken, mutton , embutidos and vegetables like cabbage, turnips, parsnips, potatoes, carrots and chickpeas garbanzos. Other foods such as eggs or cheese can be added before serving. Due to the wide regional diversity of the dish, the word cocido is typically followed by the place of origin e.

    The basic method of preparation involv. It can also be considered an Iberian version of a bugbear,[1] as it is a commonly used figure of speech representing an irrational or exaggerated fear. The Coco is a male being while Coca is a female version of the mythical monster.

    It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. With an estimated population of over million people,[15] the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil.

    Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state in. Look up Hispanic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Hispanic means "of or from Spain". The term is commonly used to refer to the people and languages of what is now Spain from the historic period during the Roman Empire.

    Related to, or derived from, the Spanish people or the culture of Spain, Hispanidad or other Hispanophone countries. Related to, or derived from, the countries and culture of the people of Hispanic America. Related to, or derived from, Hispanic Americans living in the United States and their culture. Relating to the Spanish and Mexican period of colonial rule in the Philippines. Relating to the Spanish and Mexican derived influences on the Culture of the Philippines, but not in relation to said Filipino culture or the Filipino people, nor to that which derives from these.

    See also Hispania Iberian Peninsula Hispanida. Navy blue is a very dark shade of the color blue. French sailor in dark blue uniform Navy blue got its name from the dark blue contrasted with white worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world.

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    When this color name, taken from the usual color of the uniforms of sailors, originally came into use in the early 19th century, it was initially called marine blue, but the name of the color soon changed to navy blue. In practice, actual blue uniforms of the United States Navy and other navies have become outright black in color, in order to combat fading.

    Variations Bright navy blue At right is displayed the color bright navy blue. This is the bright tone called "navy blue" by Crayola. This tone of navy blue was formulated as a Crayola color in Nations in which Portuguese is an official language de facto or de jure. Lusophone countries are a subset of those where Portuguese is the main native language.

    Lusophone nations make up more than million people globally, The history of the Lusophone World is intrinsically linked with the history of the Portuguese Empire, although Portuguese diaspora and Brazilian diaspora communities have also played a role in spreading the Portuguese language and Lusophone culture. Today, Portuguese-speaking nations of the world have come togeth. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. The oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century,[9] and the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo, then capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century.

    Beginning in , the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the Americas, as well as territories in Africa, Oceania and the Philippines. Spanish language distribution in the United States by county as of The United States of America has 41 million people aged five or older that speak Spanish at home,[3] making Spanish the second most spoken language of the United States by far. Spanish is the most studied foreign language in the United States,[4] with about six million students.

    Sky blue is the name of a colour that resembles the colour of the unclouded sky at noon azure reflecting off a metallic surface. The entry for "sky-blue" in Murray's New English Dictionary reports a first sighting of the term in the article on "silver" in Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia of However, many writers had used the term "sky blue" to name a colour before Chambers.

    The sense of this colour may have been first used in in a book by Nicolas de Nicolay where he stated "the tulbant of the merchant must be skie coloured". It is composed more of green than blue. Specifically, it is a dark shade of spring green, so it is the color between green and teal on the color wheel, or, in paint, a tertiary blue—green color. Viridian takes its name from the Latin viridis, meaning "green". Paolo Veronese green was a color formulated and used by the noted 16th-century Venetian artist Paolo Veronese.

    Paolo Veronese green began to be used as a co. The naming customs of Hispanic America are similar to the Spanish naming customs practiced in Spain, with some modifications to the surname rules. Many Hispanophones in the countries of Hispanic America have two given names, plus a paternal surname primer apellido or apellido paterno and a maternal surname segundo apellido or apellido materno. Colonial Hispanic America In the colonial period and nineteenth century, it was common to have between one and three given names followed by a second name with a "de" from in front.

    Where "Juana", "Enriqueta" and "Josefina" are her first names, followed by the second name "de los Sagrados Corazones". Another form of second name can be preceded by a "de" particle, which can be varied to "del" or "de los". The term Anglophone Commonwealth Caribbean or British Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the British West Indies independent and remaining overseas territories of the Anglosphere English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.

    Upon a country's full independence from the United Kingdom, the Anglo Caribbean or the British Commonwealth Caribbean traditionally becomes the preferred sub-regional term as a replacement to British West Indies. Guyana Sometimes, it also includes the current Caribbean British overseas territories. The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speakers and second-language speakers. Some of the entries in this list are dependent territories eg: U.

    Virgin Islands , autonomous regions eg: Hong Kong or associated states eg: Cook Islands of other countries, rather than being fully sovereign countries in their own right. Census Bureau for persons age 5 and older. Total English speakers are those who either spoke English at home i. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language.

    The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between various territories, to ensure a common standard. The proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The dye was renamed magenta later in the same year, to celebrate a victory of the French army at the Battle of Magenta on June 4, , near the Italian city of that name. In color printing and design, there are more variations between magenta and fuchsia.

    Fuchsia is usually a more purplish color, whereas magenta is more reddish. The first recorded use of fuchsia as a c. Varieties[2] of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness , or lightness or value, tone, or brightness , or in two or three of these qualities.

    Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Tints of blue In this section, the term tint is used in its technical sense as used in color theory, meaning a blueish color mixed with white or light gray. Baby blue Baby blue is known as one of the pastel colors. With a hue code of , this color is a tone of azure. The first recorded use of baby blue as a color name in English was in Variations of this color are known as sky blue, baby blue, or angel blue.

    Within the X11 color system, with a hue code of , this color is closer to cyan than to blue. The first recorded use of "li. Annabelle is a feminine given name of English origin, a combination of the Latin name Anna, which comes from the Hebrew word for grace, and the French word belle, meaning beauty.

    Additionally, within the Hispanophone, Annabelle, spelled Anabel, may serve as either a Spanish form of the name or as a contracted form of Ana Isabel. They are often translated as "municipality". In the English language, a municipality often is defined as relating to a single city or town;[1] however, in Spanish, the term "municipio" may not mean a single city or town, but rather a jurisdiction housing several towns and cities, like a township, county, borough or civil parish.

    Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name simple or composite followed by two family names surnames. Historically, the first surname was the father's first surname, and the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames in a family is decided when registering the first child, but the traditional order is still largely the choice. Miguel de Unamuno , the complete name being typically reserved for legal, formal, and documentary matters; however, both surnames are sometimes systematically used when the first surname is very common e.

    This does no. The term white, itself an official U. Based on the definitions created by the Office of Management and Budget and the U. Census Bureau, the concepts of race and ethnicity are mutually independent, and respondents to the census and other Census Bureau surveys are asked to answer both questions. Hispanicity is independent and thus not the same as race, and constitutes an ethnicity category, as opposed to a racial category, the only one of which that is officially collated by the U. Census Bureau.

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    For the Census Bureau, ethnicity distinguishes between those who report ancestral origins in Spain or Hispanic America Hispanic and Latino Americans , and those who do not non-Hispanic Americans. Census B. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona; its other neighboring states are Oklahoma to the northeast, Texas to the east-southeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua to the south and Sonora to the southwest.

    With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico. By nationality Delineating notable nationals of nation-states, their significant dependent territories, or of historic and aspirant nations, e. Flag of the Hispanic People The Spanish expression la Raza[1] literally "the Race" refers to the Hispanophone populations primarily though not always exclusively in the Western Hemisphere[2] , considered as an ethnic or racial unit historically deriving from the Spanish Empire, and the process of racial miscegenation of the Spanish colonizers with the indigenous populations of the New World and sometimes Africans brought there by the Atlantic slave trade.

    The term was in wide use in Latin America in the early-to-mid 20th century but has gradually been replaced by Hispanidad in some countries. It remains in active use specifically in the context of Mexican-American identity politics in the United States. Translation: 'Illustrious, most fruitful races, fec. Flag of Spain. Flag of the Philippines. The Spanish influence on Filipino culture has been profound, having originated from the Spanish East Indies.

    A variety of aspects of the customs and traditions in the Philippines today can be traced back to this influence. The Philippine Islands are named after King Philip. The majority of the Filipinos of Spanish descent are of Spaniards, Mexican and Andalusian origin, while a minority are Latin American descents. Another term for them is Spanish Filipino. History before Hispanization Some of the societies scattered in the isla. Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue a primary color in the RGB color space , as well as to some variants of ultramarine. It is traditionally regarded as a color in the visible spectrum, as well as one of the seven colors of the rainbow: the color between violet and blue; however, sources differ as to its actual position in the electromagnetic spectrum.

    The color indigo is named after the indigo dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The first known recorded use of indigo as a color name in English was in The earliest direct evidence for the use of indigo dates to around BC and comes from Huaca Prieta, in contemporary Peru. Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness or lightness or value, tone, or brightness , or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black.

    Hispanophone

    Notable tints of red Pink At right is displayed the web color pink. Though many believe it is a light tint of red, pink is actually its own color. Pink is often considered to be a basic color term on its own. Light red At right is displayed the color light red. Salmon pink At right is displayed the pinkish tone of salmon that is called salmon in Crayola crayons. Nigiri salmon This color was introduced by Crayola in See the List of Crayola crayon colors. Coral pink Pink coral The color coral pink is displayed at right, a pinkish. The Western world based-on Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations.

    The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least parts of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas, with the status of Latin America disputed by some. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. Ancient Greece[a] and Ancient Rome[b] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization with Greece h. Carmine is the general term for some deep red colours that are very slightly purplish but are generally slightly closer to red than the colour crimson is.

    Some rubies are coloured the colour shown below as rich carmine. The deep dark red color shown at right as carmine is the colour of the raw unprocessed pigment, but lighter, richer, or brighter colours are produced when the raw pigment is processed, some of which are shown below. The first recorded use of carmine as a color name in English was in Ultra red is a color formulated by Crayola in In , the name of the color was changed to wild watermelon. With a hue code of , this color is within the range of carmine colors. This color is supposed to be fluorescent, but there is no mechanism for displaying fluorescence on a computer screen.

    Radical red The Crayola crayon color radical red is displayed at right. The color radical red was formulate. Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma also called saturation or intensity or lightness or value, tone, or brightness , or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black.

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