One favorite Klan tactic was for a white sheeted Klansman wearing a ghoulish mask to ride up to a black home at night and demand water. When the well bucket was offered, the Klansman would gulp it down and demand more, having actually poured the water through a rubber tube that flowed into a leather bottle concealed beneath his robe. After draining several buckets, the rider would exclaim that he had not had a drink since he died on the battlefield at Shiloh, and gallop into the night, leaving the impression that ghosts of Confederate dead were riding the countryside. In time, the malicious mischief turned to outright violence.
The presence of armed white men roving the countryside at night reminded many blacks of the pre-war slave patrols. The fact that Klansmen rode with their faces covered intensified blacks' suspicion and fear. Whippings were used first, but within months there were bloody clashes between Klansmen and blacks, Northerners who had come South, or Southern unionists.
By the time the six Klan founders met in December, , the opening phase of Reconstruction was nearly complete. All eleven of the former rebel states had been rebuilt on astonishingly lenient terms which allowed many of the ex-Confederate leaders to return to positions of power.
Southern state legislatures began enacting laws that made it clear that the aristocrats who ran them intended to yield none of their pre-war power over poor whites and especially over blacks. These laws became known as the Black Codes and in some cases they amounted to a virtual re-enslavement of blacks. In Louisiana the Democratic convention resolved that "we hold this to be a Government of White People, made and to be perpetuated for the exclusive benefit of the White Race, and These laws and the violence that erupted against blacks and union supporters in the South outraged Northern s who just a few months before had celebrated victory not only over the Confederacy, but its system of slavery as well.
In protest of the defiant Black Codes, Congress refused to seat the new Southern senators and representatives when it reconvened in December after a long recess. Thus at the moment the fledgling Klan was born in Pulaski, the stage was set for a showdown between Northerners determined not to be cheated out of the fruits of their victory and die-hard Southerners who refused to give up their supremacy over blacks. Ironically, the increasingly violent activities of the Klan throughout tended to help prove the argument of Radical Republicans in the North, who wanted harsher measures taken against Southern governments as part of their program to force equal treatment for blacks.
Partly as a result of news reports of Klan violence in the South, the Radicals won overwhelming victories in the Congressional elections of In early they made a fresh start at Reconstruction. Congress overrode President Johnson's veto and passed the Reconstruction Acts, which abolished the ex-Confederate state governments and divided 10 of the 11 former rebel states into military districts.
The military were charged with enrolling black voters and holding elections for new con- stitutional conventions in each of the 10 states, which led to the creation of the Radical Reconstruction Southern governments.
In April , a call went out for all known Ku Klux Klan chapters or dens to send representatives to Nashville, Tennessee, for a meeting that would plan the Klan response to the new federal Reconstruction policy. Throughout the summer and fall, the Klan steadily had become more violent. Thousands of the white citizens of Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi had by this time joined the Klan and many now viewed the escalating violence with growing alarm - not necessarily because they had sympathy for the victims but because the night riding was getting out of their control.
Anyone could put on a sheet and a mask and ride into the night to commit assault, robbery, rape, arson or murder. At the Nashville Klan meeting, leaders sought to grapple with these problems and decide just what sort of organization the Klan would be. They created a chain of command and sanctioned white supremacy as the fundamental creed of the Ku Klux Klan. Throughout the summer of the invisible empire changed, shedding the antics that had brought laughter and taking on the full nature of a secret and sinister force. All the now-familiar tactics of the Klan date from this period - the threats delivered to blacks, radicals and other enemies, the night raids on individuals they singled out for rougher treatment, and the mass demonstrations of masked and robed Klansmen designed to cast fear over a troubled community.
By early , stories about Klan activities were appearing in newspapers nationwide and Reconstruction governors realized they faced nothing less than an insurrection by a terrorist organization. Orders went out from state capitols and Union army headquarters to suppress the Klan. But it was too late. From middle Tennessee, the Klan quickly was established in nearby counties and then in North and South Carolina.
In some counties the Klan became the de facto law, an invisible government that state officials could not control. When Tennessee Governor William G. Brownlow attempted to plant spies within the Klan, he found the organization knew as much about his efforts as he did. One Brownlow spy who tried to join the Klan was found strung up in a tree. Later another spy was stripped and mutilated, and a third was stuffed in a barrel in Nashville and rolled into the Cumberland River where he drowned.
With the tacit sympathy and support of most white citizens often behind, the Klan worked behind a veil that was impossible for Brownlow and other Reconstruction governors to pierce. But even though a large majority of white Southerners opposed the Radical state governments, not all of them approved of the hooded order's brand of vigilante justice. During its first year, the Klan's public marches and parades were sometimes hooted and jeered at by townspeople who looked upon them as a joke. Later, when the Klan began to use guns and whips to make its point, some civic leaders spoke out against the violence.
But in the late 's white Southern voices against the Klan were in the minority. One of the Klan's greatest strengths during this period was the large number of editors, ministers, former Confederate officers and political leaders who hid behind its sheets and guided its actions.
Among them, none was more widely respected in the South than the Klan's reputed leader, Gen.
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Nathan Bedford Forrest, a legendary Confederate cavalry officer who settled in Tennessee and apparently joined the Klan fairly soon after it began to make a name for itself. Forrest became the Klan's first imperial wizard, and in and he was its chief missionary, traveling over the South establishing new chapters and quietly advising its new members. The ugly side of the Ku Klux Klan, the mutilations and floggings, lynching and shootings, began to spread across the South in , and any words of caution that may have been expressed at the Nashville meeting were submerged beneath a stream of bloody deeds.
As the violence escalated, it turned to general lawlessness and some Klan groups even began fighting each other. In Nashville, a gang of outlaws who adopted the Klan disguise came to be known as the Black Ku Klux Klan, and for several months middle Tennessee was plagued by a guerrilla war between the real and bogus Klans. The Klan was also coming under increased attack by Congress and the Reconstruction state governments. The leaders of the Klan realized that the order's end was at hand, at least as any sort of organized force.
It is widely believed that Forrest ordered the Klan disbanded in January , but the surviving document is rather ambiguous some historians think Forrest's "order" was just a trick so he could deny responsibility or knowledge of Klan atrocities. Whatever the actual date, it is clear that as an organized body across the South, the KKK had ceased to exist by the end of That did not end the violence, however, and as atrocities became more widespread, Radical legislatures throughout the region passed harsher laws, imposed martial law in some Klan-dominated counties, and actively hunted Klan leaders.
In Congress held hearings on the Klan and passed a tough anti-Klan law modeled after a North Carolina statute. Under the new federal law, Southerners lost their jurisdiction over the crimes of assault, robbery and murder and the president was authorized to declare martial law. Night riding and the wearing of masks were expressly prohibited. Hundreds of Klansmen were arrested but few actually went to prison. These laws probably dampened the enthusiasm for the Klan, but they can hardly be credited with destroying it. The fact was, by the mid- 's white Southerners had retaken control of most Southern state governments and didn't need the Klan as much as before.
Klan terror had proven very effective at keeping black voters away from the polls. Some black officeholders were hanged and many more were brutally beaten. White Southern Democrats won elections easily, and passed laws taking away many rights that blacks had won during Reconstruction. The result was a system of segregation which was the law of the land for more than 80 years.
This system was called "separate but equal," which was half true - everything was separate, but nothing was equal. During the last half of the nineteenth century, memories of the Klan's brief grip on the South faded, and its bloody deeds were forgotten by many whites who were once in sympathy with its cause. On the national scene, two events served to set the stage for the Ku Klux Klan to be reborn in the twentieth century.
The first was massive immigration, bringing some 23 million people from Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Russia and a great cry of opposition from some Americans. The American Protective Association, organized in , reflected the attitude of many Americans who believed that the nation was being swamped by alien people. This organization a secret, oath-bound group was especially strong in the mid-west where the Ku Klux Klan would later draw much of its strength.
The other major event which prepared the ground for the Klan's return was World War I. On the European battlefields, blacks served in the uniform of their country and saw a new world open up before them. Back at home, Americans learned suspicion of anything alien, and shunned President Wilson's League of Nations.
In the South, yet another series of events occurred which helped breathe life into the Klan several decades later. In the 's an agrarian Populist movement tried to build a coalition of blacks and poor whites against the mill owners, large landholders and conservative elite of the Old South. The answer of the aristocracy was the old cry of white supremacy combined with the manipulation of black votes, and the Populists were substantially turned back in every Deep South state except Georgia and North Carolina. The result was a feeling across the South shared by both aristocracy and many poor whites that blacks had to be frozen out of their society.
Thus the 's marked the beginning of the Deep South's most divisive attempts to keep blacks politically, socially and economically powerless.
Most segregation laws date from that period. It was also the beginning of a series of lynching of blacks by white mobs. The combination of legalized racism and the constant threat of violence eventually led to a major black migration to Northern cities. William J. I yelped like a pup. He pushed away from the gate, and his hand came forward. He had the birch whip in it. He tapped them with the whip handle to part the herd as he came towards me. What had last night been about then? And then he raised and snapped his own whip. A heifer to his right leapt in alarm, and the herd moved with her as she moved back out of his way.
He must have spent the whole evening outside doing nothing else. He passed the whip to his off hand and cracked on the other side. The cattle leapt in greater numbers.
He was pushing them forward alongside him. Another crack, closely followed by one more to the far side, and the cattle were jogging now, moving ahead of him rather than just apace. Skittish, ready to run. At me. And then, just as I had thrashed him in the face with the oak handle, Shaun swung his birch rod backhand with all his might, cracking it into the back of the closest cow. I had the trees behind me, and he knew if I ran that would only draw them on faster.
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He meant for them to plough me into the earth, to toss me into the gully with the rest of the rubbish. The cow dropped her head, planted her front hooves, pulled up the back ones, and kicked him. He only took the one hoof to the chest, but she smashed him like a china doll. I stood and watched him, bubbling like a crimson spring. Then he burst, like a head of steam — a red spray thrown high, as his neck and chest went into spasm.
Then he stopped.
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I willed myself to answer; willed my dry mouth to move and say yes, change the world again. Bring Shaun back to life. The cattle had closed around me, and I raised the oak whip to urge them aside and send them down the field. And as the cattle moved away, I could see my granny standing at the gate to the field, from where she had apparently observed it all. I never had anything to do with that. We came back again the following summer.
Granny, Leo, and I, and this time my parents stayed too. Old Laurie Swanton was dead, we heard. She was a nice woman. There was never any water in the house. Their gully springs ran dry the year Shaun died. It put pay to any plans of using them to bring water to the house, which in turn seemed to signal the end of granny going home to Three Trees. She took her first trip to Majorca with my uncle the following summer and died at Halloween.
But that final summer was glorious. They worked so hard to make different memories for me. My parents opened up the good sitting room and lit the fire there, which seemed to warm the whole upstairs and not just the smaller room where they slept. We played in the fields with our whips, and there was Subbuteo or a card school in the evenings, presuming there was no reception on the TV.
But at night I felt ashamed. The daylight joys were whips to scourge me in my dreams. Even the hiss of his breathing was like the whistle of a whip in the air, which only added to my frustration. In truth, it made me angry. Search for:. Dublin An Irish Worldcon. Nor a pack of cards? If I squeezed them hard, you could die.
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So I tried that. And soon.
And then old Laurie Swanton handed him the means. What pleasure is there in that? Or we did, but none that we would admit to. He just wanted to scare the hens. I just wanted to be his friend. Or— He likes to hurt things. And I could like it too. A bit. Laurie lifted the handle and extended it to Shaun. To keep? Somehow and soon, Pius.
I told you. A shaft of wood tapped my knee and was laid across my lap. It was the wooden tip of the handle that ripped through his cheek, not the leather knots. I had nowhere to run. But I ran. And ended up back down the stairs in front of Laurie. You run home.
Tell your granny that Billy is bringing the water.
Shaun and I can bring the water. Shaun had been waiting behind the door. With his whip. My guardian angel was waiting for me in the gully. There was no sense in being evasive anymore. Broken vessels marked the points where each knot had dug in; a necklace of bloody pearls. And…I believe that everyone deserves to be forgiven. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. The Terror —. Rate This. Season 1 Episode 4. All Episodes Watch Now With Prime Video. Director: Edward Berger.
TV Shows: Viewed. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Episode cast overview, first billed only: Jared Harris Francis Crozier Tobias Menzies James Fitzjames Paul Ready Henry Goodsir Adam Nagaitis Cornelius Hickey Ian Hart Thomas Blanky Nive Nielsen John Franklin credit only Greta Scacchi