He ruled from January 2, , to May 3, He began his reign with the construction of the Esmeralda Structure in order to entomb the remains of Smoke Imix. A passage on the stairway commemorates its construction 15 years after the death of Smoke Imix. This period was characterized by a deep, florid relief, which represents the culmination of the sculptural tradition of Copan. The most impressive of these is Structure 10L, which represents a sacred man-made mountain. The inner chamber of 10L was likely central in the performance of auto-sacrificial bloodletting rituals.
The corners of the structure are decorated with stone masks, textually labeled as 'stone mountain'. It is one of the most imposing in Mesoamerica, surpassed only by that of Chichen Itza. It is remarkable for the sloping benches used by players of the game, and by six macaw markers, the function of which is not completely resolved.
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Many of the stone macaws associated with the ballcourt wear the sign for darkness, akbal , on their tails. The macaw is typically symbolic of the sun, so these akbal macaws may be symbolic of sun in the Underworld. This could make the players symbolic combatants in the battle between light and dark. The text of Stela A proclaims that Copan ranked with three other kingdoms, Calakmul , Palenque , and Tikal , as the four great polities of the Maya World.
It is unlikely that a polity only one-tenth the size of Copan could overthrow centuries of regional hegemony by acting alone.
Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil - Wikipedia
Calakmul's possible motives include control of important trade routes, but more importantly striking a blow against its rival polity Tikal, Copan's greatest ally. After an era of unprecedented architectural and sculptural achievement, no new structures or monuments were erected for 18 years after Copan's defeat. At the very least, the loss of the Quirigua trade routes would have meant a substantial economic and political setback.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Coe, Michael D.
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The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series 6th edition, fully revised and expanded ed. Once completed, like the odometer on your car, the calendar resets itself to 0 zero. The accepted start date of the current Great Cycle, as proposed by Sir J. Eric S.
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Thompson, is August 13, BCE. According to the Hopi Indians, as reported by White Feather — a Hopi of the ancient Bear Clan — to a minister named David Young in , these are the signs of the end times:. This the elders everywhere know. The Signs over many years have been fulfilled, and so few are left. And men who struck their enemies with thunder. In his youth, my father saw this prophecy come true with his eyes — the white men bringing their families in wagons across the prairies. It will appear as a blue star. Very soon after this, the ceremonies of my people will cease.
Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil
The world shall rock to and fro. The white man will battle against other people in other lands — with those who possessed the first light of wisdom.
There will be many columns of smoke and fire such as White Feather has seen the white man make in the deserts not far from here. Only those which come will cause disease and a great dying. Many of my people, understanding the prophecies, shall be safe. Those who stay and live in the places of my people also shall be safe.
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Then there will be much to rebuild. And soon — very soon afterward — Pahana will return. He shall bring with him the dawn of the Fifth World. He shall plant the seeds of his wisdom in their hearts. Even now the seeds are being planted. These shall smooth the way to the Emergence into the Fifth World. The signs, over the years, have been interpreted as follows: The First Sign is the arrival of the white man with his guns. The Third Sign is of longhorn cattle. The Fourth Sign describes the railroad tracks. The Fifth Sign is a clear image of our electric power and telephone lines.
The Sixth Sign describes concrete highways and their mirage-producing effects. The Seventh Sign foretells of oil spills in the ocean. The Ninth Sign was the U. Space Station Skylab, which fell to Earth in According to Australian eye-witnesses, it appeared to be burning blue. According to Hindu Tradition, the length of all life here on earth is described as one day in the life of Brahma, the god of THIS universe. When Brahma awakens, the universe appears.
When he sleeps, it disappears. It is said that one day in the life of Brahma lasts for 4,, years. Each day in the life of Brahma is broken down into ages, or yugas. Without going into a lot of detail regarding the math that supports these ages, it is believed that the Satya Yuga lasted for 1,, years, the Treta Yuga, for 1,, years and the Dwapar for , years.
It is also believed that we are now in the Kali Yuga. The Kali Yuga is to last for , years. At this time, Brahma will again slumber and our world what we know of as our universe will disappear from existence. Similar to the Long Count of the Maya, each Yuga has a particular characteristic. During this age, goodness and high ideals ruled supreme. Human intelligence and consciousness were at their peak. After 1,, years of enlightenment, we entered the Treta Yuga. Moral and ethical ideals began to decline. It was during the Dwapar Yuga that man began using what he knew for his own personal comfort, regardless of its impact on others.
According to the texts, during the final age, the Kali Yuga, man experiences a total loss of spiritual awareness. Trapped in spiritual darkness, we can only comprehend our physical bodies and the objects within our physical world. Evil and dishonesty has replaced the truth found in the Satya Yuga.
Here are a few excerpts from this document:. Women will follow their inclinations, and be ever fond of pleasure. Men will fix their desires upon riches, even though dishonestly acquired. Then property and wealth alone will confer rank; falsehood will be the only means of success.
Corruption will be the universal means of subsistence. Fuel to the fire Prophecies derived from the Book of Revelation in the Bible have also provided ammunition to the debate. Talk about Earth changes, the 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse and the Anti-Christ have added fuel to the fire of this already hot debate. A number of theories have emerged to explain what will happen at the end of the Mayan calendar. The outcome according to supporters falls into two major camps, which are as different from each other as day and night.
The most popular theories promoted are apocalyptic in nature. They foretell of dramatic events which will virtually wipe mankind off of the face of the earth. If I had to pick from these scenarios, the most likely outcome would be that we would blow ourselves up. Nuclear weapons, a troubled economy and the growing threat of terrorism all add to the stress and pressure governments face. It only requires one badly played card before we are all potentially toast. Other popular theories include the Rapture which is found in the Book of Revelation. In the movie Left Behind, these individuals just disappear, leaving the unworthy behind.
Once saved, Armageddon can begin in full force. A war between good and evil follows, and finally, Jesus, flying in on his cloud, will return to end the fighting. Associated with this theory although not supported by fundamentalist Christians is the belief that it is not Jesus who brings about the end of Armageddon, but aliens. It is these same aliens who transport the worthy off the planet and save them from Armageddon.
13 Baktun: The Beginning of the Aftermath
Additional end time theories include: the appearance of Planet-X sometimes referred to as Niberu , solar winds, giant asteroids and even a magnetic pole shift. Each of these potential events could end life on this planet. Calmer and more transcendental Switching theoretical sides, there are theories of a calmer and more transcendental nature. According to some, on December 21, our planet will enter into what is called the Galactic Alignment. This astronomical configuration is said to happen once every 26, years based upon the precession of the equinox.
Due to this astrological configuration, it has been said that our planet will be aligned with the center of the galaxy. This will cause our chakras the energy centers within the body to open, thus allowing the free flow of universal energy into our bodies. Similar to this theory is that the beginning of a new calendar cycle will usher in a new age.
This shift would not be instantaneous.